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年中無休の家庭教師 毎日学習会

慶應義塾大学SFC 総合政策学部 英語 1997年 大問一 本文対訳

1:1 In a broad sense, human migration is a relatively permanent movement of an individual or a group over a significant distance.
1:2 Although the significance of a distance is usually measured geographically, it can also be determined by social criteria.
1:3 For example, a farmer who moves to a city apartment within the same County probably changes his life more [1](1. minimally 2. gradually 3. drastically) than does a person who moves from an apartment in New York to one in San Francisco.
1:3 たとえば、同じ郡内にある都会のアパートへ移る農民は、ニューヨークのアパートからサンフランシスコのアパートへ移る人に比べて、より徹底的に生活を変えるであろう。
1:4 Taking into account short moves that are socially significant, most analysts agree that a migration must include at least a relatively permanent change of community.
1:5 Movements that involve only a temporary change of residence are generally considered nonmigratory.
1:6 These include nomadism, for the nomad has no fixed home, and seasonal movements, [2](1. as in the case of 2. unlike 3. aside from) farm workers who follow the growing season.
1:6 これらには遊牧生活が含まれるが、それは、遊牧民には定まった住居がなく、収穫期を追って移動する農業労働者の場合のように季節に合わせて移動するからである。
1:7 Tourism and commuting also are nonmigratory.
2:1 People may move because of dissatisfaction with their community, or because of the attraction of a different community.
2:2 Examples of the first type of [3](1. effect 2. movement 3. incentive) to migrate are the loss of a job, causing the person to consider equivalent employment in another locality, or the exhaustion of natural resources, [4](1. including 2. inducing 3. providing) a group to move to a foreign land.
2:3 These are push factors of migration.
2:3 これらは移住の「押し出し要因」である。
2:4 On the other hand, a person may choose a new community because its housing or job opportunities are superior, or a relatively large group may suddenly migrate to a distant place when gold is discovered there.
2:4 他方、住宅事情や仕事を得る機会が勝っているという理由で新しい地域社会を選んだり、遠い場所で金が発見されると比較的大きな集団が突然そこへ移ったりすることもあるだろう。
2:5 These are pull factors.
2:5 これらは「引っぱり要因」である。
2:6 Either kind of motive may operate alone, but these factors generally [5](1. interact 2. predominate 3. function) in a migration.
3:1 Push factors are more likely to predominate in a less developed country, where families are large and land is scarce.
3:1 あまり発展していない国では、「押し出し要因」の方が顕著になりやすいが、そこでは家族が多人数で土地が少ないからである。
3:2 People who can find no means of support in rural areas migrate to the cities in desperate search of work.
3:3 In developed countries, where opportunities for better housing and employment are more available and where knowledge of other communities is both more abundant and more exact, push and pull factors tend to interact[6](1. contradictorily 2. more evenly 3.profoundly).
3:4 Potential migrants weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the region of origin and of the possible regions of destination.

4:1 Local migrations are usually motivated by housing and aspects of residential environment such as schools.
4:2 The chief factor in long-distance migrations is employment, [7](1. in that 2. thereby 3. although) differences in housing and climate are the main incentive for elderly people to migrate long distances.
4:3 The volume of migration tends to be [8](1. inversely 2. generally 3. positively) proportional to the distance traveled, because nearby communities are better known.
4:4 For the same reason the volume of internal migration is greater than that of international migration.

5:1 Reciprocal migration takes place when the differences between two regions are evaluated in opposite ways.
5:1 2つの地域の違いが正反対に評価される場合に、相互移住が起こる。
5:2 This [9](1. flow 2. difference 3. direction) includes return migration, which often makes statistics on population movements [10](1. easier to assess 2. more reliable 3. misleading).
5:2 この流れには「戻り移住」が含まれ、そのため人口移動に関する統計がしばしば誤解を招きやすくなるのである。
5:3 For example, up to 40% of the immigrants admitted to the United States between 1890 and 1910 returned home.
5:3 たとえば、1890年から1910年の間にアメリカ合衆国への入国を許可された移住者の40%近くが母国へ帰っている。
6:1 Although distance is the chief obstacle to migration, a gold rush, a famine, or religious persecution may produce a sudden large movement to a distant and unfamiliar place.
6:2 But when the Strong pul or push factor is[11](1. considered 2. removed 3. reinforced), the volume of subsequent migration in the same direction will depend on interregional evaluations by potential migrants, now better informed.
6:2 しかし、強力な「引っぱり要因」または「押し出し要因」が取り除かれれば、続いて同じ方向へ移住する総数は、移住を考えている人々が今や以前より知識をもって行なう地域間の評価次第である。
6:3 After the California gold rush of 1848-1852and the depletion of the gold, migration to California continued despite the long journey because the state’s basic natural wealth became known and transportation was improved.
6:3 1848年から1852年にかけてのカリフォルニア州のゴールドラッシュと金の枯渇の後も、カリフォルニア州への移住は長旅にもかかわらず続いたが、それはその州の基本的な天然資源が知られ輸送機関が改善されたことによるものである。

7:1 The national and linguistic boundaries that pose obstacles to international migration are factors of social distance.
7:2 Cultural boundaries may inhibit migration even with in a country, as in Belgium across its Flemish-French language frontier.
7:2 ベルギーのフラマン語―フランス語境界のように、一国内においてさえ文化的境界は移住を妨げる。
7:3 But if two countries have the same language and there is a tradition of migration between them, other social barriers are more easily[12](1. overcome 2. brought in 3. erected) as in Irish migration to England
7:3 しかし、二国が同じ言語をもち、その間に移住の伝統があるならば、他の社会的障壁は、アイルランド人のイングランドへの移住のように容易に垂り越えられる。
8:1 Another obstacle to migration is the unwillingness of people to consider moving because of commitments to family, friends, property, and community.
8:2 [13](1. Nonetheless 2. In addition 3. For this reason), the migration rate for older groups is lower than for young adults and their children.
8:2 このために、年老いた人たちが移住する割合は、壮年層やその子どもたちよりも低いのである。
8:3 Transportation costs are often a great obstacle, and some countries and private enterprises that have[14](1. restricted 2. promoted 3. rejected) immigration have offered financial incentives to desired new comers.

9:1 Current patterns of migration are linked with serious social and economic problems in many countries.
9:2 In the United States, the movement of millions of people from cities to suburbs and their [15](1. increase 2. replacement 3. involvement) in the Cities by people of lower average incomes are causal factors of the modern “urban crisis”
9:2 アメリカ合衆国では、何百万もの人々が都会から郊外へ移動し、そして都会では低所得者が彼らに取って代わっていることが現代の「都会危機」を引き起こす要因である。
9:3 The migration from the northern to the “Sunbelt” states has threatened to increase the population of the Southwest beyond the limits of some areas’ water resources.
9:4 In many third-world countries, rural-urban migration has caused over-urbanization and depopulation of rural areas.
9:5 The selective migration of highly intelligent, skilled individuals from less to more affluent countries has resulted in the problem of “brain-drain” for [16](1. receiving 2. Sending 3. both) countries.

10:1 The demographic effects of migration are sometimes difficult to evaluate.
10:2 The movement of x number of people from Country A to Country B would seem to have the effect of reducing A’s population and increasing B’s by the same amount.
10:2 A国からB国へX人が移動することは、同じ数でA国の人口を減らしB国の人口を増やす結果をもたらすと思われるだろう。
10:3 But in the long run, this is not necessarily true.
10:3 しかし、長期的にはこれは必ずしも事実ではない。
10:4 Since the migrants typically are young adults, the fertility rate in the sending country may go down, while that in the receiving country may go up.
10:5 On the other hand, emigration may result in a higher birthrate by [17](1. relieving 2. receiving 3. retracting) population pressures that delay marriage and conception.
10:6 Immigration may lower the birthrate by speeding industrialization and urbanization, thus promoting the upward social mobility of the established population with a consequent [18](1. reduction 2. increase 3.balance) in average family size.
11:1 When immigrants of diverse cultural backgrounds are assimilated into a new society, they may contribute to the dominant culture.
11:1 さまざまな文化的背景をもつ移住者が新しい社会に同化するとき、彼らは(その社会の)支配的文化に貢献することもある。
11:2 The degree to which assimilation occurs depends on the migrants’ ability and on the receiving society’s willingness to accept them.
11:3 Assimilation works best where mutual integration is desired, permitting the incoming individuals and groups to remain different[19](1. such that 2. so that 3. so long as) they do not be come dominant or cause disunity.
11:4 Where minorities have remained unintegrated or where an attempt has been made to achieve [20](1. social welfare 2. mutual independence 3. complete uniformity), cultural collisions have occurred.
11:5 In the United States the concept of the population as a “melting pot”or uniform blend of human ingredients, has changed since the mid-20th Century.
11:5 アメリカ合衆国では、「るつぼ」、つまり人間という成分を混ぜあわせて一様にしたものとしての住民という概念は、20世紀半ば以降変わってきた。
11:6 It is now generally recognized that immigration produced something more like a mosaic, in which each element has retained its own characteristics while contributing to a commonality.

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