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年中無休の家庭教師 毎日学習会

慶應義塾大学SFC 総合政策学部 英語 1998年 大問一 本文対訳

1:1 Consider three type of graduate students with whom I have been associated.
1:2 If you understand the similarities and differences among these students — we’ll call them Alice, Barbara, and Celia — and their strengths and weaknesses, you will have a better basis for understanding the tribrachic theory of human intelligence that I am proposing.
1:2 もしこれらの学生(彼女たちをアリス、バーバラ、セリアと呼ぶことにしよう)の間の類似点と相違点、長所と短所を理解するならば、私がこれから提唱しようとしている人間知能の三様性理論を理解するのに、かなりよい下地をつくったことになるであろう。

2:1 Alice was the admissions officer’s dream.
2:1 アリスは入学許可担当者の夢であった。
2:2 She was easily admitted to our graduate program.
2:3 She came with (1) (1. average 2. stellar 3. satisfactory) test scores, outstanding college grades, excellent letters of recommendation, and, overall, close to a perfect record.
2:4 Alice proved to be more or less what her record promised.
2:4 アリスはだいたいその履歴が約束したものになった。
2:5 She had excellent critical and analytical abilities, which earned her outstanding grades during her first two years at our school.
2:6 When it came to taking tests and writing papers, she (2) (1. had no peer 2. had no help 3. was popular) among her classmates.
2:7 But after the first two years, Alice no longer looked quite so outstanding.
2:7 しかし、最初の2年が終わると、アリスはもはやそれほど傑出しているようには見えなかった。
2:8 In our graduate program, as in most, emphasis shifts after the first couple of years.
2:8 ほとんどの大学院課程と同様に、われわれの大学院課程も最初の2年が終わると、重視する点が変わる。
2:9 It is not enough just to criticize other people’s ideas or to study concepts that other people have proposed.
2:10 You must (3) (1. not rely on 2. begin reviewing 3. start coming up with) your own ideas and figuring out ways of implementing them.
2:11 Alice’s synthetic abilities were far inferior to her analytic ones.
2:11 アリスの統合能力は分析能力よりはるかに劣っていた。
2:12 But there was no way of knowing this from the evidence available in the admissions folder, for (4) (1. although 2. however 3. whenever) conventional measures can give us a good reading on analytic abilities, they give virtually no assessment of synthetic abilities.
2:12 しかし、入試書類で入手できる証拠からこれがわかる術はまったくなかった。というのは、昔ながらの尺度では分析能力に関しては正確な値がわかるが、統合能力に関する評価は実際のところまったくわからないからである。
2:13 Thus, Alice was “IQ test” smart, but not equally (5)1. discreet 2. disciplined 3. distinguished) in the synthetic, or practical, areas of intelligence.
2:13 かくしてアリスは「知能指数テスト」的には利口だが、知能の統合的または実用的な分野では同じように、すぐれているというわけではなかった。

3:1 In sharp contrast to Alice, Barbara was the admissions officer’s nightmare.
3:1 アリスとはまったく対照的に、バーバラは入学許可担当者の悪夢であった。
3:2 When she applied to our graduate school, she had good grades but abysmal aptitude test scores.
3:3 Still, she had superlative letters of recommendation, which described her as an exceptionally creative young woman who had designed and implemented creative research with only minimal guidance.
3:3 それでも、彼女の推薦状は最高のもので、それによると彼女は最小の指導で創造的な研究を計画、実行してきた非常に創造的な若い女性ということであった。
3:4 Moreover, her resume showed her to have been actively involved in important research.
3:4 さらに、彼女の履歴書から彼女が重要な研究に積極的に関わってきたことがわかった。
3:5 Unfortunately, people like Barbara are rejected from many graduate programs.
3:6 As a result, they either have to enter a program that is much less competitive or change their field altogether.
3:6 その結果、そのような人ははるかに競争の楽な課程に入らざるをえなくなるか、その専攻をまったく変えてしまうのである。

4:1 Celia, on paper, appeared to be somewhere between Alice and Barbara in terms of suitability for admission to the graduate program.
4:1 セリアは、書類上では、大学院課程入学の適性の点から考えると、アリスとバーバラの間に位置するように見えた。
4:2 She was good on almost every measure of success but not truly outstanding on any.
4:3 We admitted her, (6) (1. expecting that she comes out 2. expecting her to come out 3. having expected to come out) near the middle of the class.
4:3 われわれは彼女がクラスの真ん中くらいにはなるだろうと思って、彼女の入学を認めた。
4:4 This did not happen.
4:4 このようにはならなかった。
4:5 Celia proved to be outstanding, though in a way that is quite different from Alice’s or Barbara’s.
4:5 セリアは傑出した学生とわかったが、それはアリスやバーバラとはまったく異なった面でだった。
4:6 Celia’s expertise lies in figuring out and adapting to the demands of the environ mint.
4:6 セリアの能力は周囲の要求を理解し、適応していく点にある。
4:7 Placed in a totally new setting, she loses no time identifying what is required of her and behaving (7) (1. agreeably 2. accordingly 3. selectively).
4:8 She knows exactly what to do to get ahead.
4:9 In conventional parlance, Celia is “street smart.”
4:10 She excels in practical intelligence.

5:1 Just how would you characterize the similarities and differences among Alice, Barbara, and Celia?
5:1 アリスとバーバラとセリアの間の類似点と相違点を、どのように特徴づけることができるだろうか。
5:2 Clearly, all are exceedingly intelligent, though in very different ways.
5:3 People like Alice excel in traditional academic, or analytic, intelligence.
5:3 アリスのような人は伝統的な学問的、つまり分析的能力にたけている。
5:4 To the extent that intelligence is measured by (8)1. conventional 2. genetic 3. creative) factors or information processing components, by its relationship to the internal world, Alice and individuals like her would be considered very, very smart.
5:5 Individuals like Barbara, on the other hand, do not appear nearly so intelligent by such ordinary standards.
5:6 Where they excel is in their synthetic ability, the ability to deal with novelty — to view new things in old ways or old things in new ways.
5:7 Hence Barbara’s intelligence, and that of others like her, becomes truly apparent (9) (1. unless 2. even though 3. only if) it is viewed in terms of the relationship of intelligence to experience, particularly novel experience.
5:7 したがって、バーバラの知能および彼女のような他の人たちの知能は、知能が経験、特に新しい経験とどのように関係しているかという点から見られる場合のみ、本当に明らかになるのである。
5:8 People like Celia have neither Alice’s nor Barbara’s pattern of strength.
5:8 セリアのような人は、アリスやバーバラのような型の長所をもっていない。
5:9 Instead, they excel in terms of the relationship between intelligence and the external world of the individual.
5:9 その代わりに、彼女たちは知能と個人の外的世界との間の関係という点においてすぐれている。
5:10 Their excellence resides in their practical intelligence — the ability to apply their mental abilities to (10) (1. novel 2. unusual 3. every day) situations.
5:11 Their street smarts are not measured by typical tests but quickly show up in their performance in real-world settings.
5:11 その世渡り能力は典型的なテストでは測定できないが、現実世界の状況の中で行動していくにつれて、すぐに現れる。

6:1 The actual ideas for my theory of intelligence were inspired by contact with people I have known.
6:2 In developing a (11) (1. consensus 2. purpose 3. rationale) for a theory of intelligence, however, it is necessary to have both a scientific and an observational basis for making theoretical claims.
6:2 しかしながら、知能に関する理論の調論的根拠を築き上げる際には、理論的主張のための科学的かつ観察に基づく根拠が必要である。
6:3 I therefore decided to look back at the major theories of intelligence that have been proposed during the twentieth century.
6:3 それゆえに、私は20世紀に提唱された知能に関する主な理論を振り返ろうと決めたのである。
6:4 All of these seemed to be doing one, or in rare cases, two, of three things.
6:4 これらはすべて、3つのうちの1つ、または(まれな場合だが)2つを扱っているように思われた。
6:5 The first kind of theory attempted to relate intelligence to the internal world of individuals: What goes on inside people’s heads when they think intelligently?
6:6 In the second kind of theory, psychologists sought to relate intelligence to the experience of individuals: How does experience affect people’s intelligence, and how does their intelligence affect the kinds of experiences they have?
6:7 The third kind of theory is concerned with the relationship of intelligence to the external world of individuals: How do their interactions with the world at large affect their intelligence, and how does their intelligence affect the world in which they live?
6:8 Furthermore, how does the world in which we live shape our very notions of what intelligence is?
6:8 さらに、われわれの住む世界が、知能とは何なのかに関するわれわれの概念そのものを、いかに形成してくれるかということでもある。

7:1 After conducting this extensive review of the literature on intelligence, I was impressed that my review led me to exactly the same place that my observations of Alice, Barbara, and Celia had taken me.
7:2 To understand intelligence completely, it seems that one needs to understand the relationship of intelligence to three things: the internal world of the individual, the external world of the individual, and the experience with the world that (12) (1. Separates 2. Intercepts 3. Mediates between) the internal and the external worlds.

8:1 The (13) (1. convergence 2. divergence 3. incompatibility) of my analysis of the research literature and my personal experience convinced me that what was needed was a “triarchic” theory of human intelligence — one that did justice to each of these three aspects of intelligence.
8:2 It is important to mention that my goal in constructing the tribrachic theory was quite (14) (1. contrary to 2. interchangeable with 3. compatible with) that of most psychologists who have developed theories of intelligence.
8:3 The field has been (15)1. Exceptionally focused 2. Notoriously contentious 3. Unusually harmonious), with every theorist setting out to prove that his theory is right and everyone else’s is wrong.
8:3 その分野は、悪名高いほど争い好きで、すべての理論家が、自分の理論が正しく他のみなの理論が間違いであると証明しようと努めている。
8:4 For example, Arthur Jensen argues for the predominance of a single, general factor in human intelligence, while Howard Gardner maintains that there are at least seven or eight multiple intelligences.
8:4 たとえば、アーサー=ジェンセンは、人間知能において単独の一般的な要素が支配していると主張しているが、ハワード=ガードナーは、少なくとも7つか8つの複合的な知能があると主張している。
8:5 For me, the most disturbing element of these and other opposing theorists has been that while they have done reasonably well in (16) (1. amassing 2. refuting 3. responding to) evidence to support their own point of view, they have generally failed to disprove the views of others.
8:5 これらの理論家や他の異なった意見の理論家に関する、私にとって最も頭を悩ます要素は、彼らは自分自身の観点を支持する証拠を集めるのにはかなり成功しているが、他人の観点の反証をあげることには、だいたい失敗しているということである。
8:6 How could this be?
8:6 どうしてこのようになるのであろうか。
8:7 After reviewing earlier theories, I came to the conclusion that the reason for this was that virtually all of them have been (17)(1. inaccurate 2. incomplete 3. inconsistent).
8:8 Though proposed as full theories of intelligence, each has dealt with only some limited aspects.
8:8 それぞれは知能に関する完全な理論として提唱されるが、ある限られた面しか扱っていないのである。
8:9 Often, too, these theories have proved to be complementary rather than contradictory, as might be expected.
8:9 またしばしば、これらの理論はお互いに矛盾したものではなくて、相補的なものであるともわかったが、そのことは予想のつくことだったかもしれない。
8:10 It is not difficult to show that a theory of general intelligence and the theory of multiple intelligences can be (18) (1. infused 2. installed 3. integrated) in a hierarchical framework, with general intelligence at the top of the hierarchy and multiple intelligences lower down.
8:11 More specific abilities would then be viewed as sub-abilities.
8:11 より特定的な能力は下位能力と見られるであろう。
8:12 The point to be made, then, is that often the competition among theorists has been (19) (1. fierce 2. spurious 3. accommodating).
8:12 したがって、言いたい点は、理論家間の論争はしばしば、まがいものであるということである。
8:13 Their theories are really theories of different aspects of intelligence.

9:1 The goal of the tribrachic theory is not to compete with other theories, but to (20) (1. subsume 2. submerge 3. sublet) them in a sense; that is, to view them as subdivisions of a more general theory.
9:2 The tribrachic theory is so named because it attempts to deal with each of the three aspects of intelligence described earlier.
9:3 It is not the only possible theory that might successfully account for the interplay of intelligence with the internal world of the individual, with experience, and with the external world of the individual.
9:3 それは、知能がいかに個人の内的世界や経験や個人の外的世界と相互に作用しているかをうまく説明する唯一の可能な理論ではない。
9:4 Indeed, I hope other theories will be proposed.
9:5 But for the present, it does seem to have somewhat fewer gaps than existing theories.
9:5 しかし、現在のところ、それは既存の理論に比べると多少とも欠陥は少ないように思われる。

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