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年中無休の家庭教師 毎日学習会

慶應義塾大学SFC 総合政策学部 英語 2008年 大問二 内容一致問題

1:1 In 1996, the World Food Summit set a goal of halving the number of hungry people worldwide by 2015.
1:1 1996年に、世界食糧サミットは世界中の飢餓人口を2015年までに半減させるという目標を立てた。
1:2 In 2000, the United Nations as a whole adopted a set of goals which included halving poverty and hunger by the year 2015.
1:2 2000年に国連全体は、2015年までに貧困と飢餓を半減させることもその一つとする一連の目標を採択した。

1:3 The world came together in order to tackle the hunger problem.
1:4 And yet, conditions have [31] (1.deteriorated 2. rebounded 3. developed) in many places.
1:4 しかし、状況は多くの地域で悪化してしまった。
1:5 Indeed, according to The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2003, the annual hunger report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the number of people suffering from hunger worldwide has begun to rise once more.
[51] According to the article, world hunger has been on the increase despite
1. the United Nations having set out to cut it in half within the next several years.
2. the efforts of First-World countries to pour economic aid into the least-developed countries.
3. the remarkable improvements in agriculture and public health throughout developing countries.
4. the World Food Summit having provided relief assistance to famine plagued areas.

・解答 [51]―1

2:1 With a view to identifying the causes of this failure, the report begins with an analysis of countries that have, [32] (1. deceptively 2. naturally 3. on the contrary), been successful in dealing with hunger.
2:1 この失敗の原因を確定するために、報告は、反対に飢餓に対処するのに成功した国々の分析から始める。
2:2 In Brazil and in China, rapid overall economic growth has led to significant growth of agriculture in particular.
2:2 ブラジルと中国では、急速な全体的経済発展によって、特に農業の大発展が生じた。
2:3 Both countries have made an [33] (1. obligation 2. illustration 3. effort) to control population growth and develop human resources, and have relatively low rates of HIV infection.

[52] According to the article, those countries that have lowered their rate of hunger have
1. increased the supply of jobs, educational opportunities, and health facilities.
2. halved the number of people who are forced to live on less than $1 per day.
3. halved the number of people who must depend on external sources for food.
4. increased agricultural production and controlled the rate of HIV infection.

・解答 [52]―4

3:1 Nevertheless, the number of hungry people has grown in many other regions.
3:1 とはいえ、飢餓人口は他の多くの地域で増大した。
3:2 Drought, civil war and growing numbers of AIDS patients have led to stagnation in agricultural food production.

3:3 HIV/AIDS has [34] (1. robbed 2. attacked 3. downgraded) many developing countries of valuable labor, leading to poverty and hunger.
3:3 HIVあるいはエイズのために、多くの途上国は貴重な労働力を奪われ、貧困と飢餓が生じた。
3:4 In some developing countries, on the other hand, agricultural production has been expanded to an [35] (1. unreasonable 2. appropriate 3.accumulated) level to support population growth, leading to environmental problems.
[53] According to the article, some causes of the growing rate of hunger in certain countries include
1. economic policies that control the prices of goods.
2. drought, civil war, and an increasing number of AIDS patients.
3. lack of anti­poverty measures along with unfair trade balances.
4. interventions by governments to stop new initiatives to provide food.

・解答 [53]―2

4:1 Subsequently, in September of 2006, there was a meeting at the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome to identify ways to achieve the U. N. goal of halving hunger by 2015.
4:2 At the meeting, all of the participants were asked how the pace of reducing hunger could be accelerated, [36] (1. even though 2. Since 3. While) a 2005 review showed that progress was poor in most developing countries.
4:3 Almost all the participants felt that the greatest threats to food security in the future come, first, from climate change (potential adverse changes in temperature, rainfall, and sea level) l, and, second, from the loss of biodiversity.

4:4 There was a great deal of consensus on this issue among the diverse groups of representatives, including a farmer from Senegal, leaders of Oxfam and other non-governmental organizations, agricultural scientists, and food security specialists.
4:4 この問題については、セネガルの農家、オックスファムその他のNGOの指導者、農業科学者、食糧安全保障問題の専門家を含めさまざまな代表者集団のあいだに広範な合意があった。
4:5 The suggested ways to go forward [37] (1. ranged 2. Sprang. Diverged) from faithful implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to acting on the provisions of biodiversity, climate, and the prevention of the spread of deserts.
[54] Which of the following were identified as the most dangerous threats to food security by those present at the 2006 meeting of the Food and Agriculture Organization?
1. Climate change and loss of biodiversity.
2. Continuing external and internal conflicts.
3. Lack of means to develop human resources.
4. The existence of barriers to free trade.

・解答 [54]―1

5:1 The growing awareness of the impact of climate change and biodiversity on food security and hunger has produced some interesting approaches to the issue.
5:2 M. S. Swami Nathan, the Chair for Eco technology in U.N.E.S.C.O., described what he considers to be a way to turn awareness into action.
5:2 ユネスコ環境技術の議長、M.S.スワミナサンは、意識しているだけの状態から行動に移すための方法だと彼が考えるものを説明した。
5:3 Speaking on Agriculture on Our Spaceship Earth” in 1973, he proposed a strategy called do ecology” to deal with problems in developing countries.
5:3 1973年に「宇宙船地球号の農業」について語りながら、彼は途上国の問題を処理するのに「する環境保護」と呼ばれる戦略を提案した。
5:4 The “do ecology” strategy revolves around activities which will 38] (1. generate 2. curtail 3. conceal) an awareness of the economic possibilities of conservation and will thus help to reduce poverty.
5:4 「する環境保護」戦略が展開する中心となるのは、保全が経済的でありうるという意識を生みだしそれによって貧困を減少させるのに役立つことになる活動である。

5:5 Two recent examples of “do ecology” below show its great potential.
[55] U.N.E.S.C.O. expert M.S. Swaminathan coined the term “Do ecology” to describe a set of activities that attempt to
1. improve productivity in the agricultural sector of developing countries.
2. improve our ability to predict and prevent natural disasters.
3. reconcile environmental conservation with practices that lead to economic advantage.
4. reduce unacceptable levels of emissions of pollutants and toxic wasters.

・解答 [55]―3
スワミナサン氏の唱えた「する環境保護」については、第5段第4文(The“do ecology” strategy…)に、「『する環境保護」戦略が展開する中心となるのは、保全が経済的でありうるという意識を生み出し、それによって貧困を減少させるのに役立つことになる活動である」と記述されている。「保全が経済的である」というのは、具体的には「環境保全する方が経済的に有利である」という意味なので、3が正解である。reconcile A with B「AとBを調和させる、AとBの折り合いをつける」

6:1 First, the tsunami of December 2004 resulted in a severe loss of life and property along coastal Tamil Nadu in southern India, which is where Mr. Swami Nathan lives.
6:2 For 15 years [39] (1. previously 2. Since then 3. Now, many residents of that district have been trying to persuade coastal communities not to destroy the mangrove forests along the coast.
6:2 これまで15年間、その地域の多くの住民は海岸沿いのマングローブ林を破壊しないように沿岸のコミュニティを説得してきた。
6:3 But the coastal people’s preoccupations with their livelihood did not allow them to heed that request.
6:3 しかし、沿岸住民は生計を立てるのに没頭していたので、そうした要請に耳を貸す余裕はなかった。
6:4 The tsunami miraculously changed their outlook.
6:5 Villages adjoining thick mangrove forests were saved from the fury of the tsunami because of the wave breaking [40] (1. impact 2. role 3. force) played by the mangroves.

6:6 But in nearby villages, where mangroves had been destroyed either for fuel wood or to create fishponds, several hundred fishermen died.
6:6 しかし、近隣の村落では燃料を得るためであれ養魚池を作るためであれ、マングローブ林が破壊されていたので数百人の漁師が亡くなった。
6:7 This area is near the temple town of Chidambaram, [41] (1which. 2. Where 3. When) centuries ago the temple builders had chosen a mangrove species as the temple tree.
6:7 この地域は門前町チダンバラム近隣であり、その地では何世紀も前に寺院建造者がマングローブの木を寺院の木に選んだのだった。

6:8 Following the tsunami there was a sudden awareness of the reason for this choice, and local people now refer to mangrove trees as “life­savers.”
6:9 What the residents could not achieve in 15 years by arguing that mangroves would serve as a natural, biological shield in the event of a flood was thus achieved in a day.
[56] According to Swaminathan, the main activities of “Don’t ecology” should be
1. reducing consumption and pollution by industrialized countries.
2. reducing the use of harmful agricultural pesticides and fertilizers.
3. increasing the use of natural products and ingredients in developing countries.
4. enhancing awareness of the benefits of natural, organic products in industrialized countries.

・解答 [56]―1

[57] Farmers in southern India who were impacted by the tsunami of 2004 realized that mangroves
1. would have disappeared entirely, had they not built a seawall to protect them.
2. could not survive unless humans used more environmentally sound techniques.
3. had been objects of religious veneration as well as sources of food for their ancestors.

4. had traditionally been appreciated for a very practical reason.
・解答 [57]―4
第6段第7文(This area is near…)などの記述からこの地域では昔からマングローブの木が大切に思われていたことがわかる。また、第5文(Villages adjoining thick…)に「樹林が波の威力をそぐ役割を果たしたため、津波の猛威から救われた」とあることから、マングローブ林が「防波堤」の役目を果たすという「実用」性を読み取れる。よって、正解は4に決まる。

7:1 The same tsunami [42] (1. dictated to 2. concealed from 3. demonstrated to) farmers living near the shoreline the importance of conserving local varieties of rice.
7:2 Several thousand hectares of rice fields along the coast became flooded with sea water.
7:3 Most varieties of rice [43] (1. survived 2. perished 3. mutated), but a few salt resistant ones withstood the flood.
7:3 ほとんどの米の品種は枯れてしまったが、洪水を堪え忍んだ耐塩性の品種もいくつかあった。
7:4 This disaster, however, greatly helped to promote the conservation of local biodiversity, and now every farmer wishes to maintain a “seed bank” for the preservation of seeds belonging to diverse varieties.
7:4 しかし、この大災害は地域の生物多様性保全の推進に大いに役立ち、そして今では、農民は誰もが多様な品種に属する種子を保存するため、「種子銀行」を支援したいと願っている。

7:5 The disaster became an opportunity to prepare both fishing and farming communities to meet the [44] (1. challenges 2. demands 3. diseases) that are directly linked to a rise in sea level.
7:6 The biodiversity conservation movements in this area have now become community driven.
7:6 この地域の生物多様性保全運動は今やコミュニテイ主導となった。
[58] As a result of the tsunami, many farmers in India now want to
1. conserve the remaining rice stocks to produce a surplus for the next disaster.
2. maintain a degree of diversity in their stocks of rice and rice seeds.
3. gradually expose the rice to seawater to increase its resistance to salt.
4. mix the old rice with new breeds that are brought in from outside.

・解答 [58]―2
津波がインドの農民に及ぼした影響については、第7段に記述されている。その第4文(This disaster, however,…)前半に「この大災害は地域の生物多様性保全の推進に大いに役立ち」とあり、さらに後半に「今では、農民は誰もが多様な品種に属する種子を保存するため、「種子銀行」を保持したいと願っている」とある。よって、「米の多様性保持」が、農民の願望であるとわかる。その主旨にもっとも近いのは、2である。

10:1 Indeed, the practice of “do ecology” can be [47] (1. triggered 2. followed 3. symbolized) by an ecological disaster.
10:2 Preaching does not help.
10:2 お説教は役に立たない。

10:3 We see this being demonstrated in areas of the Punjab too.
10:4 Thirty years ago, when it was pointed out to Punjab farmers that their livelihoods would be threatened by the [48] (1. modest 2. specified 3. excessive) use of chemical fertilizers and the overexploitation of ground water, they listened politely, but did not change course.
10:4 30年前、パンジャブの農民に対し、生活が化学肥料の過剰使用と、地下水の濫用によって脅かされることになるだろうと指摘されたとき、彼らは行儀よく聞いていたが、進路を変えなかった。
10:5 Now, in a despairing mood, they are ready to change.
10:6 The adverse economics of unsustainable farming has led to indebtedness and occasional suicides.

10:7 The timing has become [49] (1. inappropriate 2. tricky. opportune) for farmers to take to conservation farming.
[59] In the 10th paragraph, what is the example of the Punjab farmers mainly being used to illustrate ?
1. It is important to alert local people to the future consequences of their ecological choices.
2. Sometimes an ecological problem can motivate people to change their attitudes toward agricultural practices.
3. Chemical fertilizers and overexploitation of groundwater can lead to indebtedness.
4. Changing from unsustainable practices to conservation can take decades for some villages.

・解答 [59]―2

[60] Which of the following is closest to the idea of “adverse” economics mentioned in the article?
1. People will insist on their traditional ways of doing things even when those ways are unprofitable.
2. Misuse of the natural environment will eventually have negative consequences for the local economy.
3. Countries that do not safeguard their natural resources will be burdened with a “don’t ecology.”
4. Countries that do not have organic agriculture will not be able to participate in the green revolution.”

・解答 [60]―2
adverse economics「不経済」については、第10段最後から2番目の文(The adverse economics of…)に記述され、「不経済」とは「維持不可能な農法」によってもたらされることがわかる。つまり、資源などを維持できないほどに濫用すると、将来的には経済的な不利益につながってしまうということである。それにもっとも近い内容をもつ選択肢は、2である。adverse「反対するような、不利な」

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