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年中無休の家庭教師 毎日学習会

慶應義塾大学SFC 総合政策学部 英語 2010年 大問二 本文対訳


■ 第1段落
1:1 The idea of the museum as a public institution is primarily a creation of the Enlightenment.
1:2 The museum was construed to be fundamentally educational, a venue for the systematic organization and presentation of artistic, natural, and scientific phenomena.
1:3 その考えに内在するのは,博物館は公共の場所であり,知識の普及のためにあるという思想である。
1:3 [31] (1. Inherent in 2. Indifferent to 3. Insistent on) this is the idea of the museum as a public space, dedicated to the diffusion of knowledge.
1:4 The great museums of the Enlightenment―the British Museum or the Louvre, for instance―epitomize this effort to create a taxonomy of both the natural and artistic worlds in order to make them [32] (1. intelligible 2. irresistible 3. intangible) and accessible to a broad public.

■ 第2段落
2:1 19世紀末と20世紀初頭に設立された合衆国の大美術館,たとえば,メトロポリタン美術館,ボストン美術館,あるいはフィラデルフィア美術館は,啓蒙思想のお手本に基づいて創設されたが,大英博物館やルーブル美術館とは違って,それらは私有・私営の機関であった。
2:1 The great museums of the United States founded in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, or the Philadelphia Museum of Art, were founded on the Enlightenment model, but unlike the British Museum or the Louvre, they were privately owned and financed institutions.
2:2 They depended for support not only on the relatively few wealthy individuals who founded and subsequently supported them, but also on their ability to establish and nurture a relationship with the [33] (1. locations 2. tribes 3. communities) in which they exist.

■ 第3段落
3:1 アメリカ合衆国だけで,現在約3500の美術館があり,最新の統計によれば,年間6800万を超える成人がそこを訪れている。驚くべき数字であり,おおよそ住民中3人の男女ごとに1人という率になる。
3:1 In the United States alone there are currently some 3,500 art museums and according to the most recent statistics they are visited by over 68 million adults a year, an astonishing number that [34] (1. holds out 2. gives out . works out) to roughly one out of every three men and women in the population.
3:2 Supported by a booming economy, intense civic [35] ( 1. strife 2. pride 3. resentment) and the local and state governments’ growing awareness of the economic benefits of cultural tourism, museums across America have become the defining public institutions of their communities, often housed in spectacular new buildings or additions designed by internationally celebrated architects.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Given the success and popularity of art museums there is a certain irony that their credibility is now being questioned.
4:2 [36] (1. As long as 2. As far as 3. As) art museums dramatically increased their audiences, adopted marketing strategies from the business world, and began demonstrating that they could generate substantial economic returns for their communities, the public and the media started to take a much closer look at their operations.
4:3 そして,こうした注目が集まるにつれて,わかってきたのは美術館も,他の機関同様に,完全無欠ではないし,折に触れて怪しげな業務を行い,主催者がうまく展示品を購入することができたり,寄贈者や収集家が展示内容を思うままにできたり,展覧会を収益を生むためだけに構成したり,現実の,あるいはあると感じられている利害関係の対立に関わる協定を結んだりするということであった。
4:3 And with this attention came an [37] ( 1. awareness 2. attack 3. anticipation) that art museums, like other institutions, are not perfect, that they occasionally engage in questionable practices, whether allowing a sponsor to effectively buy an exhibition, or giving control of exhibition content to a donor or collector, or programming exhibitions solely to generate income, or entering into arrangements that involve real or perceived conflicts of interest.

■ 第5段落
5:1 このことの最も悪名高い事例が近年,ブルックリン美術館で起きた。その件では,「センセーション」展という,チャールズ=サーチ・コレクションによるイギリス若手画家たちの展覧会を行い,当初ニューヨーク市長によって,自分には冒涜的な絵画だと思えるものを展示しているとして,次には報道機関によって,多くの事実を伏せていて,サーチが展覧会の主要な金銭的支援者であるかどうかもまた隠しているとして,激しく非難されることになったのだった。
5:1 The most [38] (1. ambitious 2. notorious 3. prosperous) recent example of this occurred at the Brooklyn Museum of Art, when it presented Sensation, an exhibition of young British artists from Charles Saatchi’s collection, and found itself initially under attack by the mayor of New York [39] (1. by 2. in 3. for) displaying what he perceived to be blasphemous art, and then by the press for being less than forthright about a number of facts, including whether Saatchi was also a major financial donor to the exhibition.

■ 第6段落
6:1 The crisis was provoked by the mayor’s rash actions, and the museum had to fight to keep its doors open.
6:2 しかし,美術館を守ることには迷う余地などなく,広範な先在する判例法からも明らかであったし,また他の主要紙同様,ニューヨークタイムズ紙もブルックリン美術館の展覧会を開催する権利を擁護したのだった。
6:2 But the museum’s protection was never in doubt, as was clear from extensive pre-existing case law, and like every other major paper The New York Times defended Brooklyn’s right to present the exhibition.

■ 第7段落
7:1 ニューヨークタイムズその他の新聞が繰り返し非難したのは,展覧会の資金がどのように提供されたのかを巡って,ブルックリン美術館が一見意図的に公衆を欺こうとしたことだった。
7:1 What the Times and other papers criticized repeatedly was Brooklyn’s apparently intentional misleading of the public over the way in which the exhibition was financed.
7:2 「健康に関する警告:この展覧会の内容は衝撃的で嘔吐をまねくことがあります」というスローガンを中心としたきわめて扇動的な宣伝活動によって,「センセーション」展を売り込み,また大手映画会社の営業戦術を活用したので,美術館は今や,自分が生み出した関心それ自体の対象に自分がなっていることがわかったのだ。
7:2 Having promoted Sensation with a highly [40] (1. inflammatory 2. nostalgic 3. authoritative) advertising campaign that centered on the slogan, “Health Warning: the contents of this exhibition may cause shock and vomiting,” and deployed the marketing tactics of a major movie studio, the museum discovered that it was now the subject of the very attention it had generated.
7:3 The media, not to mention the public, did not like what it [41] (1. saw 2. promoted 3. constructed).
7:4 The museum’s programs and practices were scrutinized and its [42] (1. ethics 2. attendants 3. securities) were questioned, and even its most ardent supporters wearied of defending the institution against the constant barrage of accusations that came from the press and the public at large.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Indeed, this scrutiny was so intense, and its implications for other museums so potentially damaging, that the American Association of Museums took the unusual step in the aftermath of Sensation of adopting new guidelines concerning the financing of exhibitions and the avoidance of conflicts of interest in order to bolster public confidence in museums and demonstrate to lawmakers that museums are capable of policing themselves.
8:2 Whatever gains the museum may have had in attendance and profile were more than [43] (1. multiplied 2. repaid 3. offset) by the fact that this came at the cost of public trust in the institution.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Public trust is a term that implies both a set of responsibilities to preserve, protect, and enhance property held [44] (1. on top of 2. on behalf of 3. in addition to) the public and a code of conduct to ensure that this responsibility is discharged with the highest degree of skill and diligence.
9:2 As public institutions, museums are expected to act and behave in a way that is in keeping with the perceived [45] ( 1. thoughts 2. values 3. politics) they embody.
9:3 このことはその運営資金が私的か公的か,それが市営か国営かとは無関係に当てはまる。
9:3 This is true regardless of whether they are privately or publicly funded, civic or state institutions.

■ 第10段落
10:1 We want our art museums to be places of repose and contemplation―venues of discovery and learning, awe and wonder, where we can become [46] ( 1. disinterested in 2. absorbed in 3. alienated by) the power and beauty of art.
10:2 しかし,美術館は,とりわけ大都会の大型館は,はるか以前にミューズの神々(芸術,学問の女神)の静かな住処であるだけではなくなった。これまでにそんなことがあったとしての話だが。
10:2 But museums, especially large metropolitan ones, long ago ceased to be simply quiet abodes of the muses, if they ever were.
10:3 They have become highly complicated institutions with extensive collections, staffs, and publics that include annual visitors, members, individual and corporate supporters, artists, tourists, and scholars, as well as those who may never actually visit a museum but who believe in their mission.

■ 第11段落
11:1 ここでカギを握っているのは,道徳的な権威という言葉であり,それによって私たちは再び責任という問題へと,出発した地点へと戻ってくる。
11:1 The key term here is moral authority, which brings us back to the issue of responsibility and where we began.
11:2 If art museums are to continue [47l (1. thriving 2. sliding 3. revolving) they must recognize that their moral authority derives from the trust the public invests in them because the public believes they are acting responsibly and for the common good.
11:3 Lessening of trust is ultimately a loss of a museum’s authority and credibility, and once lost, that trust is very difficult to [48] ( 1. sustain 2. regain 3. refrain).
11:4 しかし問題は,美術館が商業文化を受容する手段を見出せるかどうかではなく,芸術と商業の間には,保持するに値する明瞭なくっきりとした区別があることを示すことができるかどうかなのだ。
11:4 The question, however, is not whether art museums can find a way to embrace commercial culture but whether they can demonstrate that there is a clear and discernible difference between art and commerce that is worth preserving.
11:5 This is not an easy task in a world where art and commerce can, and often do, merge seamlessly into each other, where museums can become part of vast entertainment complexes, and where museums are compelled to act more and more like commercial enterprises.

■ 第12段落
12:1 Art museums, in short, will be able to survive as mission-driven educational institutions only if they can continue to [49] (1. provoke 2. convince 3. question) the public that they discharge their responsibilities with integrity and diligence; that there is a discernible difference between the discomforting challenge of genuinely new art and ideas, whether created a thousand years ago or just last week, and the immediate pleasure of shopping at a designer store or going to a theme park; and that they [50] (1. manage 2. manipulate 3. merit) the public’s trust in them, and that because of this it is worth according them a special status in order to fulfill their public mission.

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