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年中無休の家庭教師 毎日学習会

慶應義塾大学SFC 環境情報学部 英語 2009年 大問一 本文対訳

1:1 If Bangladesh were to count her blessings, they would number three: the Brahmaputra, the Meghan and the mighty Ganges.
1:1 もしバングラデシュが自分に与えられた恵みを数えるなら、以下の3つを挙げるだろう。すなわち、ブラマプトラ川、メグナ川、そして広大なガンジス川である。
1:2 These great rivers are practically Bangladesh’s only natural resources.
1:2 これらの大河はバングラデシュ唯一の天然資源と言ってもよい。
1:3 In a predominately rural country in which agriculture and freshwater fishing are the keys to the economy, the rivers are the people’s lifeblood.
2:1 But these blessings, allied with the regions summer monsoon climate, are also a curse.
2:1 しかしこれらの恵みはまた、その地域の夏のモンスーン気候と結びついて災いにもなる。
2:2 Although almost two meters of rain fall on Bangladesh each year, more than two thirds [1] (1. go in 2. get in 3. arrive in) just four months.
2:2 バングラデシュでは年間に2メートル近い降雨があるが、その3分の2以上はわずか4カ月の聞に降り注ぐ。
2:3 For much of the year, the vast delta formed by the three rivers is parched, but in many summers their banks burst, causing massive floods.
2:3 1年の大半の期間、3つの河川によって作られる巨大な三角州は干上がっているが、夏にはしばしば堤防が決壊し大規模な洪水を引き起こす。
2:4 Lacking proper sanitation and water storage facilities, Bangladesh is also [2] (1. prone to 2. immune to 3. adapted to) epidemics of waterborne disease.
2:5 Even during floods, the major problem is the availability of safe water.
3:1 Climate change will only make matters worse, with shifting patterns of rainfall and rising sea levels threatening to render large tracts of agricultural land [3] (1. infeasible 2. insignificant 3. useless).
3:2 Add a cruel and recently discovered twist the poisoning of many millions of people by well water contaminated with arsenic and it’s clear that Bangladesh represents a challenging case study for anyone who wants to solve the world’s water problems.
3:2 ヒ素で汚染された井戸水を飲んだ何百万という人が中毒症状を起こしたという、最近発見された痛ましい事態を加えると、世界の水問題を解決したいあらゆる人にとって、バングラデシュが、非常に難しい事例研究であるのは間違いないだろう。
4:1 “Nowhere is water more dominant in people’s lives,” says British geographer John Soussan.
4:1 「ここ以上に、人命に水が影響を及ぼす場所はない」とイギリス人の地理学者ジョン=スーザンは言う。
4:2 And nowhere better illustrates the complexity of producing [4] (1. visible 2. subjective 3.workable) solutions to water resource problems.
4:2 そして、水源問題の有効な解決策を作ることの複雑さを、ここ以上によく物語る場所もない。
4:3 The threats that face Bangladesh’s supplies are intimately interconnected:
4:3 バングラデシュの水の供給に立ちはだかる危険は、相互に深く関連している。
4:4 thwart one, [5] (1. and 2.or 3. for) you can create problems downstream―sometimes literally.
4:4 つまり、1つを解決するとその流れに従い時には文字通りに下流でいくつかの問題を作り出してしまうことになるのだ。
* * *
5:1 Worse still, the issues are overlaid by fractious regional politics.
5:1 さらに悪いことに、それらの問題には、手に余る地域的政治問題が覆いかぶさっている。
5:2 For decades, Bangladesh has been [6](1. in harmony with 2. in dispute with 3. in correspondence with) its neighbours ― particularly India― over their management of the rivers that drain into Bangladeshi territory.
5:3 For the country’s politicians, water is the defining issue, and the Ganges ― known in Bangladesh as the Padma ― whose basin is home to some 400 million people, is a perennial bone of contention.
5:3 バングラデシュの政治家にとって、水は決定的な問題で、流域に約4億人が住むガンジス川―バングラデシュではパドマ川として知られているが―は、絶えず繰り返される紛争の火種となっている。
5:4 Despite some progress in reaching agreement over the river’s management, Bangladesh still blames India for [7](1. holding back 2. taking back 3. giving back) too much water in the dry season, and letting the floodgates open each time the monsoon threatens.
6:1 The picture looks bleak, but experts point out that Bangladesh is, in some ways, a victim of its own success.
6:2 Given the hydrological hand they were dealt, the inhabitants of the Bengal Delta traditionally grew low-yielding but flood tolerant rice, and fished wetlands and pools that were recharged by annual floods.
6:3 This could support a modest population at [8](1. Flat 2. Similar 3. Subsistence) levels, but no more.
6:3 これはささやかな数の人が、何とか食べていくことを可能にしたが、それ以上は無理であった。
6:4 Since the late 1950s, however, aid­donor-backed irrigation schemes, later incorporating groundwater pumping, have opened up vast areas of fertile delta soil to the plough.
6:4 しかし1950年代の終わり頃から、援助国の支援による灌漑計画が、後に地下水の汲み上げと一緒になって肥沃な三角州の広大な土地を開発し耕作地へと変えた。
6:4 Now almost all of the land in Bangladesh that is suitable for agriculture is in use.
6:5 High-yielding rice varieties have boosted productivity hugely, while the development of coastal areas for shrimp farming has also provided further food and revenue.
7:1 As a result, the population has quadrupled since 1950.
7:2 Today, an average of 920 people crowd into each square kilometer of Bangladesh, making it one of the most [9](1. largely 2. densely 3. appropriately) populated countries in the world.
7:3 Therein lies the problem:
7:3 そこに問題が存在する。
7:4 population pressure has helped to make droughts more severe and floods potentially more [10](1. devastating 2. demanding 3. enriching).
7:4 つまり、人口により圧力がかけられたことで干ばつはより厳しくなり、洪水の潜在的な脅威はさらに大きくなった。
7:3 Also, with sanitation still inadequate, the rapid population growth of the past half century has exacerbated problems with waterborne disease.
7:3 また、下水設備がいまだ不十分なことと相まって、過去半世紀聞の急激な人口の増加は、水を媒介とする病気の問題を深刻化させた。
7:4 Environmental scientist Atiq Rahman [11](1. prefers 2. likens 3. ascribes) Bangladesh to a giant toilet flushed just once a year.
8:1 By the 1970s, it was clear that something had to be done, and aid agencies ― led by the World Bank and UNICEF ― [12] ( 1. caught up with 2. hit on 3. got away with) the idea of sinking tube wells into the underground water reservoirs that lie beneath the deltas surface.
8:1 1970年代までには何らかの対策が必要で、あることは明らかになり、世界銀行やユニセフに率いられた支援組織が、三角州表面の地下に存在する地下水の溜りに掘り抜き井戸を掘る計画を思いついた。
8:2 Local people, [13](1. dependent on 2. fearful of 3. indifferent to) this subterranean source, initially called it the Devils water.”
8:3 But when rates of diarrheal disease halved, the programmer was deemed an unqualified success.
8:3 しかし下痢を伴う疾患の発症率が半分になると、計画は大成功と考えられるようになった。
8:4 By the 1990s, as many as 10 million wells had been sunk, many of them by local companies.
8:4 1990年代までには1000万もの井戸が、多くは地元の会社によって掘られた。
9:1 If only things were that simple:
9:2 the tragedy that has subsequently unfolded reveals in stark terms how “solutions” to water resource problems can go astray if our knowledge of a region’s hydrology and geology is [14] (1. incomplete 2. sufficient 3. accumulated).
9:3 It was Dipankar Chakraborty, an epidemiologist, who first raised the alarm.
9:4 In 1988, on a visit to his Bengali parents’ rural village, Chakraborty noticed that many local people were suffering from skin lesions and cancers that seemed to be [15] (1. independent of 2. causing 3. consistent with) arsenic poisoning.
9:4 1988年に、ベンガル人の両親が住む田舎の村を訪ねたときに、チャクラボルテイは多くの地元民が、ヒ索中毒と見られる皮膚病やガンを患っているのに気がついた。
9:5 When he tested samples of well water in his laboratory at Jabalpur University in Calcutta, it became clear why:
9:5 カルカッタのジャダヴプル大学の自分の実験室で、井戸水のサンプルを調べると、その理由が明らかになった。
9:6 the villagers’ water supply was massively tainted with the metal.
* * *
10:1 Over the ensuing five years, Chakraborty and his colleagues at Dhaka Community Hospital showed that the problem extends across large areas of the Bengal Delta on both sides of the India-Bangladesh border.
10:1 その後の5年の問に、チャクラボルティとダッカ地域病院の同僚たちは、その問題がインド・バングラデシュ国境の両側にまたがる、ベンガル=デルタの広範な地域に拡大していることを証明した。
10:2 Some wells contain 400 times the World Health Organization (WHO) safe drinking water standard for arsenic.
10:3 Current estimates are that 80 million Bangladeshis are [16] ( 1. at large 2. at odds 3. at risk), with 30 million drinking water containing five times the WHO arsenic limit.
10:4 “The danger is very, very real,” says Chakraborty.
10:4 「その危険は、間違いのない現実である」とチャクラボルテイは言う。
11:1 The arsenic was washed from the sediments of the Himalayas, and is thought to have been accumulating beneath the Bengal Delta for at least 2 million years.
11:1 ヒ素はヒマラヤ山脈の堆積物から洗い出され、少なくとも200万年の間ベンガル=デルタの地下に堆積していたと考えられている。
11:2 The puzzle is why it is now being drawn to the surface in some wells, but not in others.
11:3 One leading theory is that the arsenic is released from the sediments into groundwater under oxygen-free, reducing conditions.
11:4 And some researchers suspect that rotting vegetation in the uppermost 30 meters or so of sediment creates just such an environment.
11:4 そして、堆積物最上層30メートルほどにある腐敗した植物層が、ちょうどそのような環境を作っているのだと考える研究者もいる。
11:5 That would help to explain why the problem seems worse in shallower wells, and adds to hopes that it may be possible to [17] (1. modify 2. identify. overcome) and selectively shut down those that are hazardous.
11:5 この説は、浅い井戸で問題がより深刻な理由を説明する助けになるであろうしまた危険な井戸を特定し慎重に選別して閉鎖できる可能性を大きくする。
12:1 But recent research from a team led by Shaniqua Islam, a Bangladeshi hydrologist, suggests that the pumping of groundwater for irrigation seems to be drawing arsenic into deeper wells.
12:1 しかしバングラデシュの水文学者シャフイクル=イスラムが中心となった最近の研究によると、灌漑目的の地下水の汲み上げが、ヒ素をより深い井戸へと導くようなのだ。
12:2 The mechanism remains [18] (1. unclear 2. transparent 3. simple, but Islam suspects that deep groundwater is being replaced by surface water that is rich in organic material, which then mobilizes previously insoluble arsenic.
12:2 その仕組みは明らかではないが、イスラムは、深層部の地下水が多量の有機物を含む表面の水に取って代わられ、その地下水がそれまで、は不溶性だったヒ素を移動させるのでは、と考えている。
12:3 Chakraborty has also found that wells that his group tested and marked as safe had become dangerous when surveyed again a few years later.
12:3 チャクラボルティもまた、自分たちのグループが検査をして安全を確認した井戸が、何年か後の再検査では危険になっていた事例を見つけた。
13:1 What’s more, drinking water may not be the only hazard:
13:1 その上、危険なのは飲料水だけではないらしい。
13:2 rice crops irrigated with arsenic contaminated groundwater have now been shown to accumulate the toxic element.
13:2 ヒ素で汚染された地下水を引かれた田の米が、有毒な物質を蓄積していることが証明されている。
13:3 Although its [19] (1. too easy 2. too late 3. too early) to tell whether this poses a serious threat, the finding has sown seeds of doubt about the use of groundwater for irrigation, which is the mainstay of Bangladesh’s agriculture.
13:2 この件が深刻な危機を引き起こすか否かを判断するのは時期尚早だが、その発見は、バングラデシュ農業の頼みの綱である、灌漑目的の地下水利用に対して疑いの種をまくことになった。
14:1 Research and new technology will be central to [20](1. undermining 2. tackling 3. indicating) the arsenic problem.
14:2 Surveying and screening wells is a top priority, yet arsenic testing kits for use in the field are still unreliable.
14:3 More work is also needed to confirm the conditions under which arsenic is mobilized from the sediments, and at what depths this occurs.
14:3 ヒ素が堆積物から移動する条件や、その現象が起こる深度を明らかにするために、さらに作業が必要とされる。

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