慶應義塾大学SFC 環境情報学部 英語 2002年 大問一 本文対訳

1:1 Compared with misery, happiness is a relatively unexplored area for social scientists.
1:2 Between 1967 and 1994, 46,380 articles indexed in Psychological Abstracts mentioned depression, 36,851 mentioned anxiety and 5,099 mentioned anger.
1:2 1967年から1994年にかけて、『サイコロジカルアブストラクツ』に掲載された46,380の論説が憂うつについて、36,851が不安について、5,099が怒りについて述べていた。
1:3 Only 2,389 articles spoke of happiness, 2,340 of life satisfaction, and 405 of joy.
1:3 わずか2,389の論説だけが幸福について、また2,340が人生の満足について、405が喜びについて述べていた。
2:1 Recently, a number of researchers have begun a systematic study of happiness.
2:2 Dozens of investigators around the world have asked a cross-section of several hundred thousand people to reflect on their happiness and satisfaction with life — or what psychologists call “subjective well-being.”
2:3 In the U.S., the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago has surveyed a representative sample of roughly 1,500 people a year since 1957; the Institute of Social Research at the University of Michigan has carried out similar studies.
2:3 アメリカでは、シカゴ大学のナショナルオピニオンリサーチセンターが、1957年以来、毎年抽出標本として選ばれた約1,500人を調査している。またミシガン大学のインスティテュート・オブ・ソーシャルリサーチも同じような調査を行っている。
2:4 Government-funded efforts have also studied the moods of European citizens.
3:1 Using this data, researchers have uncovered some surprising findings.
3:1 これらのデータを用い、研究者たちはいくつかの驚くべき調査結果を明らかにした。
3:2 People are happier than one might expect, and happiness does not appear to depend significantly on external circumstances.
3:3 Although viewing life as a tragedy has a long and honorable history, the responses of random [1](1.samples 2. data 3. theories) of people around the world paint a rosier picture.
4:1 In the University of Chicago surveys, three in ten Americans say they are very happy, for example.
4:2 Only one in ten chooses the most negative description, “not too happy.”
4:2 もっとも否定的な表現である「あまり幸福でない」を選んだのは10人中1人だけであった。
4:3 The majority [2](1. choose 2. describe 3. Survey) themselves as “pretty happy.”
4:4 The few exceptions to global reports of reasonable happiness include hospitalized alcoholics, new psychotherapy clients and people living under conditions of economic and political oppression.
4:4 ほどよい幸福についての世界的な報告に対する数少ない例外としては、入院しているアルコール中毒患者、新しい精神療法を施されている患者、そして政治的・経済的な圧迫を受けた状況下で生きている人々が含まれている。
5:1 How can social scientists measure something as hard to pin down as happiness?
5:2 Most researchers simply ask people to report their feelings of happiness or unhappiness and to [3](1. count 2. assess 3. realize) how satisfying their lives are.
5:2 ほとんどの研究者は、人々に、自分の幸福感や不幸な気持ちを伝えたり、自分の生活がどれくらい満足のいくものかを評価することをただ、依頼するだけである。
5:3 Such self-reported well-being is moderately consistent over years of retesting.
5:3 そのような自ら告げる幸福というものは、何年間もの期間にわたる再調査でもだいたい一貫している。
5:4 Furthermore, those who say they are happy and satisfied seem happy to their close friends and family members and to a psychologist interviewer.
5:4 さらに、自分は幸福であり満足していると言う人は、親しい友人や家族からみても、また心理学者の面接官からみても、幸福にみえる。
5:5 Their daily mood ratings reveal more positive emotions, and they smile more than those who call themselves unhappy.
5:6 Self-reported happiness also links to other [4](1. indicators 2. futures 3. formations) of well-being.
5:6 また自ら告げる幸福は、幸福を示す他のものにもつながっている。
5:7 Compared with the depressed, happy people are less self-focused, less hostile and abusive and less susceptible to disease.
6:1 Researchers have found that the even distribution of happiness cuts across almost all demographic classifications of age, economic class, race and educational level.
6:2 In addition, almost all [5](1. research 2. study 3.real) strategies for assessing subjective well-being turn up similar findings.
6:2 さらに、主観的幸福を評価するほぼすべての研究方策で、同じような研究結果になることがわかっている。
7:1 Interviews with representative samples of people of all ages, for example, reveal that no time of life is especially happier or unhappier.
7:2 [6](1. Simultaneously 2. Similarly 3.Definitely), men and women are equally likely to declare themselves “very happy” and “satisfied” with life, according to a statistical digest of 146 studies compiled by researchers at Arizona State University.
7:3 Other researchers at the University of Northern British Columbia and the University of Michigan summarizing surveys of 18,000 university students in 39 countries and 170,000 adults in 16 countries have supported these findings.
7:3 ノーザンブリティッシュコロンビア大学とミシガン大学の他の研究者たちは、39カ国の大学生1万8千人と16カ国の成人17万人の調査をまとめ、これらの研究結果を立証している。
8:1 Ethnicity also gives little clue to subjective well-being.
8:2 African-Americans are only slightly less likely to feel “very happy” when compared to European-Americans.
8:2 アフリカ系アメリカ人は、ヨーロツパ系アメリカ人と比べて「とても幸福」と感じないことはほんのわずかだけである。
8:3 The National Institute of Mental Health found that the rates of depression and alcoholism among blacks and whites are roughly equal.
8:4 Social psychologists at the University of California have also found that people in [7](1. discovered 2. aristocrat 3.disadvantaged) groups maintain self-esteem by valuing things at which they excel, by making comparisons within their own groups and by blaming problems on external sources such as prejudice.
8:4 カリフォルニア大学の社会心理学者もまた、恵まれない境遇の集団にいる人は、自分がすぐれていることがらを評価することによって、また自分の集団の中で比較することによって、そして問題を差別のような外的要因のせいにすることによって、自尊心を保っているということを発見した。
9:1 Wealth is also a poor [8](1. predictor 2. fortune-teller 3. future) of happiness.
9:2 People have not become happier over time as their cultures have increased in wealth.
9:3 Even though Americans earn twice as much in today’s dollars as they did in 1957, the proportion of those telling interviewers from the National Opinion Research Center that they are “very happy” has declined from 35 to 29 percent.
9:3 アメリカ人は1957年当時よりも今日2倍のドルを稼いでいるが、ナショナルオピニオンリサーチセンターの面接官に自分は「とても幸福」だと答えた人の比率は、35パーセントから29パーセントに減少している。
10:1 Even very rich people — those surveyed among Forbes magazine’s 100 wealthiest Americans — are only slightly happier than the average American.
10:2 Those whose income has increased over a ten-year period are not happier than those whose income is stagnant.
10:2 10年聞にわたって収入が増えた人も、収入が停滞している人より幸福であるというわけではない。
10:3 Indeed in most nations the [9](1. collaboration 2. equation 3. correlation) between income and happiness is negligible — only in the poorest countries, such as Bangladesh, is income a good measure of emotional well-being.
11:1 Are people in rich countries happier, by and large, than the people in not so rich countries?
11:2 It appears in general that they are, but the margin may not be very large.
11:3 In Portugal, for example, only one in ten people reports being very happy, [10](1. whereas 2. whereby 3.wherefore) in the much more prosperous Netherlands the proportion of very happy people is four in ten.
11:4 Yet there are curious exceptions in this correlation between national wealth and well-being — the Irish during the 1980’s consistently reported greater life satisfaction than the wealthier West Germans.
11:4 しかし、この国家の豊かさと幸福の間の相関性には奇妙な例外がある。1980年代のアイルランド人は、より裕福な西ドイツ人よりも生活への大きな満足感を一貫して示していた。
11:5 Furthermore, other factors, such as civil rights, literacy and the duration of democratic government, all of which also [11](1. accept 2. promote 3.prove) a sense of life satisfaction, tend to go hand in hand with national wealth.
11:5 さらに、公民権や読み書き能力、民主政治期間のような他の要因は、そのすべてが生活への満足感を促すものであるが、国家の豊かさと密接な関連をもつ傾向がある。
11:6 As a result, it is impossible to tell whether the happiness of people in wealthier nations is based on money or is a byproduct of other important aspects of life.
11:6 その結果、裕福な国の人の幸福がお金に基づくものなのか、それとも生活上の他の重要な側面の副産物なのかを判断することはできない。
12:1 Although happiness is not easy to predict from material circumstances, it seems consistent for those who have it.
12:2 In a National Institute on Aging study of 5,000 adults, the happiest people in 1973 were still relatively happy a decade later, despite changes in work, residence and family status.
13:1 In a large number of studies, four traits [12](1.diminish 2. evaluate 3.characterize) happy people.
13:1 数多くの研究の中で、幸福な人を特徴づけている4つの特色がある。
13:2 First, especially in individualistic Western cultures, they like themselves.
13:2 第一に、特に個人主義の西洋文化において、幸福な人は自分自身が好きである。
12:3 They have high self-esteem and usually believe themselves to be more ethical, more intelligent, less prejudiced, better able to get along with others and healthier than the average person.
13:3 高い自尊心をもち、平均的な人に比べて自分はより道徳的で、頭がよく、差別されておらず、他人とのつき合いがうまく、健康であると信じていることが多い。
13:4 Second, happy people typically feel personal control.
13:4 第二に、概して幸福な人は自己支配権を感じている。
13:5 Those with little or no control over their lives — such as prisoners, nursing home patients, severely impoverished groups or individuals, and citizens of totalitarian regimes — suffer lower morale* and worse [13](1. happiness 2. health 3. success).
13:5 自分の生活に対する支配権がほとんど、あるいは一切もてない人、例えば囚人、老人ホームの入所者、非常に困窮した集団や何人、全体主義体制の国民のような人は、士気の低下や健康状態の悪化に悩む。
13:6 Third, happy people are usually optimistic.
13:6 第三に、幸福な人はたいてい楽観的である。
13:7 Fourth, most happy people are extroverted*.
13:7 第四に、幸福な人はほとんどが外向型である。
13:8 Although one might expect that introverts* would live more happily in the calmness of their less stressed, contemplative lives, extroverts are happier — whether alone or with others.
13:8 内向型の人はストレスが少ない静けさのなか、瞑想にふける生活の中でより幸福に暮らすだろうと思うかもしれないが、外向型の人の方が、一人であれ他の人と一緒であれ、幸福なのである。
14:1 The correlation between these apparent connections is uncertain.
14:1 この外見上の関係における相関性は確かなものではない。
14:2 Does happiness make people more outgoing, or are outgoing people more likely to be happy, perhaps explaining why they marry sooner, get better jobs and make more friends?
14:3 If extrovert traits do indeed [14] (1. excel 2. predict 3.infect) happiness, people might become happier by acting in certain ways.
14:3 もし外向型の特徴によって本当に幸福を予測できるのであれば、人はある方法で行動することによって、より幸福になるかもしれない。
14:4 In experiments people who pretend to have high self-esteem report feeling more positively about themselves, for example.
15:1 Whatever the reason, the close personal relationships that characterize happy lives are also correlated with health.
15:2 Compared with loners, those who can name several [15] (1.aged 2.intimate 3.social) friends are healthier and less likely to die prematurely.
15:3 For nine out of ten people, the most significant alternative to aloneness is marriage.
15:3 10人中9人の人にとって、孤独にとって代わるもっとも重要なものは結婚である。
15:4 Although a broken marriage can cause much misery, a good marriage apparently is a strong source of support.
15:5 During the 1970s and 1980s, 39 percent of married adults told the National Opinion Research Center they were “very happy,” as compared with 24 percent of those who had never married.
15:5 1970年代と1980年代には、ナショナルオピニオンリサーチセンターに対し、結婚した成人の39パーセントが、自分は「とても幸福」だと述べているが、それに比べて結婚したことがない人でそう答えたのは24パーセントであった。
15:5 In other surveys, only 12 percent of those who had divorced [16](1. perceived 2. correlated 3. persuaded) themselves to be “very happy.”
15:6 The happiness gap between the married and never married was similar for men and women.
16:1 Religiously active people also report greater happiness.
16:2 One survey found that highly religious people were twice as likely as those lowest in spiritual commitment to declare them very happy.
16:2 ある調査では、非常に信心深い人は、信仰への傾倒が低い人に比べ、自分をとても幸福だ、という人が2倍もいた。
16:3 Other surveys, including a collaborative study of 166,000 people in 16 nations, have found that reported happiness and life satisfaction [17] (1. rise 2. relate 3.register) with the strength of religious affiliation and frequency of attendance at worship services.
16:3 16カ国における16万6千人のある共同研究を合む他の調査でも、幸福や生活への満足は、宗教に加入することの度合いや礼拝の参加回数とともに増すことがわかっている。
16:4 Some researchers believe that religious affiliation [18] (1. equates 2. encourages 3. evolves) greater social support and hopefulness.
17:1 Researchers on happiness are now beginning to examine happy people’s exercise routines, worldviews and goals.
17:2 It is possible that some of the [19](1. traditions 2. customs 3. patterns) discovered in the research may offer clues for transforming circumstances and behaviors that work against well-being into ones that promote it.
17:2 その研究で発見される傾向のいくつかは、幸福とは逆の働きをする状況や行動を、幸福を促進するものへと変化させるための手がかりを提供してくれるかもしれない。
17:3 Ultimately, then, the scientific study of happiness could help us understand how to build a world that[20] (1. enhances 2. evaluates 3. examines) human well-being and to aid people in getting the most satisfaction from their circumstances.
17:3 そして最終的には、幸福に関する科学的研究は、人間の幸福を高めてくれる世界をどのように構築するか、また人が自分のおかれた境遇から最大の満足を得られるよう、いかに援助するかを理解する手助けとなりうるのである。
*morale 士気、意欲
*extroverted 外向型の
*introverts 内向型の人




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