慶應義塾大学SFC 環境情報学部 英語 2010年 大問二 本文対訳

■ 第1段落
1:1 500年ほど昔,ルネサンス期の学者であるロッテルダムのエラスムスは自分の学生の礼儀作法を非常に気にかけていた。
1:1 About 500 years ago, the Renaissance scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam was deeply concerned with the manners of his students.
1:2 He was worried because all of his life he had believed in communication through letters and books, conversation and teaching, and now his world had become divided on issues such as religion, governance and even scholarship―so divided that any discourse seemed impossible.
1:3 At the beginning of his career, Erasmus had been a teacher at Cambridge and some of his most popular writings were textbooks concerned [31] (1. for 2. about 3. with) using classical knowledge to train students to act correctly―with modesty, kindness and wisdom towards all in society, high and low.
1:4 それゆえ,彼はもう一冊,「子供にシビリティを教えることについて」を書いたが,彼はこの本によって社会が直面している問題が解決されれば,と望んでいた。
1:4 Thus, he wrote one more book, On Teaching Civility for Children, which he hoped might solve the problems that his society faced.
■ 第2段落
2:1 この本の中でエラスムスは「civité(シビリテ)」という概念を広め始めた。
2:1 In this book, Erasmus set out to popularize the concept of “civilité.”
2:2 しばしばこの言葉は礼儀正しさと訳されるが,エラスムスはこの言葉を生活に対する一つのアプローチ,すなわち皆が仲良く一緒に暮らすことを可能にするためのふるまい方,話し方,他人との関わり方を表現するための言葉として使った。
2:2 Although often translated as politeness, Erasmus used the term to [32] ( 1. create 2. devise 3. represent) an approach to life, a way of carrying one’s self, of speaking and relating to others that would enable all to live together harmoniously.
2:3 エラスムスは,現代語の「シビリティ(civility)」の由来でもある「civité」を,文明の礎になるものととらえた。
2:3 Erasmus saw “civilité,” from which the modern word “civility” is descended, as the basis for civilization.
2:4他人に対する気遣いをせずに行動する人は,「文明化されていない」有害な未開人と考えられた。2:4 Those who acted without concern for others were considered “un-civilized,” destructive barbarians.
2:5 シビリティは単なる礼儀正しさ以上のものであるが人々がお互いに敬意を表すための,人間社会における大切な構成要素である。
2:5 Civility, which is [33] (1. far from 2. the Same as 3. more than) simple politeness, is an important component of human society by which we show respect for each other.
2:6 これは大昔から存する普遍的に近い倫理的規範である。
2:6 It is an old and nearly universal ethical imperative.
2:7 In the ancient world, both Aristotle in classical Greece and Confucius in pre-imperial China held that a good man had to have good manners.
2:8 しかし,公の場でのシビリティに対する関心は,単なる大昔からの伝統ではない。
2:8 However, concern with public civility is not simply an ancient tradition.
■ 第3段落
3:1 1997年に南カリフォルニア大学のアネンバーグ・コミュニケーション研究所がある調査を発表した。その調査で人々は,アメリカ社会の様々な集団がもつ,公の場でのシビリティを評価するように依頼された。
3:1 In 1997, the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Southern California published a study in which people were asked to [34] (1. evaluate 2. explain 3. upgrade) the public civility of different groups in American society.
3:2 The group that was rated the lowest on the scale of politeness was politicians.
3:3 A congressional commission concluded that civility in debate had reached the lowest level [35] (1. by 2. around 3. since) 1935.
3:4 Members of both parties, [36] (1. impressed by 2. repressed by 3. worried about) the effects of the report and their public image, held a retreat in Hershey, Pennsylvania.
3:5 その表向きの目的は,「活発な議論と相互尊重が共存する環境を育成するために,下院議員の間によりもっとシビリティを求めるため」というものであった。
3:5 The stated purpose of the retreat was: “To seek a greater degree of civility among members of the House of Representatives in order to foster an environment in which vigorous debate and mutual respect can coexist.”
3:6 このイベントはシビリティがかつては他人とつき合ううえでの大切な社会的「道具」で,その後もそうあり続けたし,再びそうなりうることを示している。
3:6 This event illustrates that civility was, has been, and can again become an important social “tool” for interacting with others.
■ 第4段落
4:1 しかし,すべての人がシビリティを受け入れる心構えがあるわけではない。
4:1 Yet, [37] (1. all 2. not all 3. no) people are ready to accept civility.
4:2 In fact, some members of Congress refused to participate in the civility retreat mentioned above.
4:3 From both Republicans and Democrats, the same objection was raised―there is no need to be civil with those whose ideas we oppose.
4:4 Indeed, honesty requires that we should not hide real disagreements under the [38] (1. cover 2. function 3. structure) of social manners.
4:5 これは,ベンジャミン=デモットが書いた「シビリティにたぶらかされて」という題の,非常に議論を巻き起こしたエッセーの主張だった。
4:5 This was the argument of a much discussed essay by Benjamin DeMott entitled “Seduced by Civility.”
4:6 1996年に『ネーション』誌に掲載されたこの記事は,過剰なシビリティは,根深い社会論争を覆い隠すかもしれない,と主張した。
4:6 Published in The Nation in 1996, the article proposed that too much civility might [39] ( 1. deepen 2. mask 3. minimize) deep social conflict.
4:7 デモットによれば,シビリティのルールに従うべきだという社会への要求は,権力の座にある人が批判から逃れるための方便である。
4:7 The demand for society to conform to the rules of civility, said DeMott, is how people [40] (1. in 2. Of 3. for) power avoid criticism.
4:8 In other words, civility and its related concepts are a gross hypocrisy meant to further oppress the disenfranchised in our society.
4:9 この主張のもつ力を「感じる」のはたやすい。なぜなら不公正に対して大声を上げたり,偏見の壁を打ち壊したりしたいと思わない人はいないからである。
4:9 It is easy to “feel” the strength of this argument; after all, who has not felt like yelling at injustice or tearing down the walls of prejudice?
4:10 しかし,この主張は歴史的には立証されない。
4:10 This argument is not, however, borne out historically.
4:11 それどころか,近年の社会闘争によって否定されてしまうのである。
4:11 It is, in fact, contradicted by recent social struggles.
■ 第5段落
5:1 1950年代と1960年代にあった,アメリカの公民権運動における集団抗議運動について考えよう。
5:1 Consider the mass protests of the American Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
5:2 この運動の成功は,一つには指導者の一人であったマルティン=ルーサー=キング=ジュニア博士のもつ非凡な才能のおかげである。
5:2 The success of this movement is due in part to the genius of one of its leaders, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
5:3 キング博士の才能とは,運動に加わった多様な人々を,異議を唱える中でも礼節を守り,愛情を示すように啓発した彼の能力にある。
5:3 Dr. King’s genius was in his ability to inspire the diverse people involved in the struggle to be civil and loving in their [41l ( 1. dissent 2. company 3. brotherhood).
5:4 この市民の不服従は,偽善とは正反対のものであり,高い倫理的な原則をもった行動としてのシビリティの一例であった。
5:4 This civil disobedience was the antithesis of hypocrisy; it was an example of civility as an act of high ethical principle.
5:5 The Civil Rights movement did not seek to destroy American democracy; rather it sought to engage with American society, and to have it [42] ( 1. fulfilling 2. fulfill 3. fulfilled) its founding promise that “all are created equal.”
5:6 キング博士は,礼儀を欠いた対話は民主主義的機能を果たさないことを理解していた。
5:6 Dr. King understood that uncivil dialog cannot serve a democratic function.
5:7 While it is true that democracy demands open dialog, and that dialog arises from [43] ( 1. disagreement 2. mutual understanding 3. respectful attitudes), it must be possible to be partisan without being actively uncivil.
5:8 It is this concept that gave the Civil Rights movement its moral strength―that the means of persuasion as well as the goal of an argument were equally important.
5:9 ソローやガンジーのような昔の思想家から受け継いで,公民権運動の推進者たちは,抑圧的でしばしば暴力的な人種差別の体制に対峙しても,礼儀をわきまえ,非暴力の姿勢をもち続けるよう教育されていた。
5:9 Deriving from earlier thinkers like Thoreau and Ghandi, the civil rights protesters were trained to remain civil and nonviolent in the face of a repressive, and often violent, system of segregation.
5:10 Again, Dr. King understood that the struggle for civil rights was not simply a movement to [44](1. benefit 2. fight with 3. flatter) African-Americans, but an opening for a national dialog on the issue of “justice for all.”
5:11 By behaving better, more civilly, than their opponents, protestors sought not to defeat their opposition, but to convert them to their point of view.
5:12 Uncivil and violent protest, [45] (1. when 2. however 3. since) “justified,” might have broken the connections that bind Americas heterogeneous population into a united community.
■ 第6段落
6:1 この経験から,我々はデモット氏の反シビリティの議論の誤りに気づくだけでなく,礼節をもった対話が礼儀正しい社会を生み出すという,シビリティのもつ重要な社会的影響を感じ取ることができる。
6:1 From this experience we can not only observe the fallacy of Mr. DeMott’s anti-civility argument, but we can also sense an important social implication of civility―that civil discourse makes for a civil society.
6:2 マナーについての常識がなければ,我々は共通のつながりをもたない。
6:2 Without a common sense of manners, we have no common [46] (1. property 2. link 3. factor).
6:3 シビリティは,大きな民主的対話の中で,我々皆を一つに結びつける絆の役割を果たす。
6:3 Civility acts as a tie that binds us all together in a great democratic dialog.
6:4 As the historian Arthur Schlesinger observed, civility acts as “a letter of introduction” to assure strangers that despite apparent differences of ethnicity, belief or socio-economic status, we are one community linked by shared practices of politeness and a belief in civility as a code of conduct.
■ 第7段落
7:1 We began this essay by looking at a 500-yearold call for a more civil society, for a world in which respect for one another [47] (1.. outweighs 2. effaces 3. contrasts) any differences in opinion or belief.
7:2 しかし今日の我々は,エラスムスの時代の暴力的な野蛮人よりもましなふるまいをしているのだろうか。
7:2 But do we behave any better today than the violent barbarians of Erasmus’ day ?
7:3 We squabble over our rights, and ignore our obligations.
7:4 We believe the function of government is to give us the things we desire, prosperity, peace and progress, but we fail to volunteer for those non-governmental organizations, from hospitals to museums, that make civil society function.
7:5 We rarely [48] (1. fail 2. wish 3. bother) to follow our own codes of civil behavior even when they are clearly posted on trains, buses or planes.
7:6 We seem to be indulging in a collective act of [49] (1. forgetting 2. forging 3. restructuring) all of our manners and becoming the very barbarians Erasmus worried about.
7:7 The problem lies in the process by which the values of the market, which are characterized by emphasis on getting what we want, have been [50] (1. allowed 2. conditioned 3. blocked) to move into the social life of our communities where we have traditionally engaged in a discourse to help us decide what we should want.
7:8 しかし,シビリティを再発見し,それゆえ我々の人間性と文明を守ることは手遅れではない。
7:8 However, it is not too late to rediscover civility, and thus preserve both our humanity and our civilization.
7:9 シビリティを再構築するための鍵は,我々が隣人に対して親切心と気遣いをもってふるまうことの大切さを学び直すことと,欲の目的を満たすことに加えて,達成の手段を重要視することにある。
7:9 The key to reconstructing civility lies in our learning anew the virtue of acting towards our neighbors with kindness and concern, and to value the means of our achievements as well as the ends of our desires.




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