慶應義塾大学SFC 英語 内容一致テクニック 『特定段落の内容と合致する選択肢を選ぶ問題』

■ 第7段落
7:1In contrast, “partly free” and “not free” states have become the main proponents of third generation rights.
7:2 For most of them, of course, these commitments in practice mean very little, since countries that do not adhere to the rule of law at home [41](1.freely 2. strictly. rarely) take international legal obligations seriously.
7:3 But by presenting themselves as the champions of these new human rights, they seek to knock liberal states off the moral high ground and shore up their own political legitimacy.
[55] As stated in the 7th paragraph, non-free states support third-generation rights
1. not because the rights are important to abide by, but because they want to use them to secure stronger political positions.
2. not because the rights are based on the international consensus, but because international obligations override the rule of law at home.
3. not because the rights are what non-free states seek, but because free states hold higher moral standards.
4. not because non-free states can be the champions of new human rights, but because they want to increase their popularity at home.

■ 第4段落
4:1 What explains the proliferation of human rights?
4:2 The process has been driven partly by well-meaning lobbies for special interest groups that are looking for the trump card of having their cause recognized as a human rights issue.
4:3 International human rights advocates, some national governments, and technocrats in international organizations seeking larger bureaucratic domains have also played a role.
[53]According to the article, which of the following is a factor that triggered the proliferation of human rights?
1. Special interest groups wanted their causes recognized as human rights issues.
2. Some states made derogatory statements about religion, leading to religious hatred.
3. International human rights advocates stopped seeking to expand human rights law.
4. The international Covenant on Civil and Political rights prohibited hate speech.

■ 第10段落
10:1 But even if they could, that would not be enough.
10:2 “The growth rate is a heavy taskmaster,” Gordon says.
10:3 The math is [45](1. invigorating 2. encouraging 3. punishing).
10:4 The population is far larger than it was in 1870, and far wealthier to begin with, which means that the innovations will need to be more transformative to have the same economic effect.
10:5 “We need innovations that are eight times as important as those we had before,” he says.
[58] Why do “we need innovations that are eight times as important as we had before,” as is claimed in the 10th paragraph?
1. Growth is limited by the rules of mathematics.
2. People must work harder for the same gains their parents made with less.
3. The natural resource needs of today’s larger population outstrip what the planet can produce.
4. Given the high degree of development we enjoy today, increasing it further will require much more than it did before.

■ 第9段落
9:1 These are all consequences of the second industrial revolution, but it is hard to imagine how those improvements might be [43](1. extended 2. delayed 3. deteriorated): Women cannot be liberated from housework to join the labor force again, travel is not getting faster, and educational attainment has plateaued.
9:2 The classic example of the scale of these transformations is Nobel-laureate economist Paul Kurgan’s description of his kitchen: The modern kitchen, except for a few surface improvements, is the same one that existed half a century ago.
9:3 But go back half a century before that, and you are [44](1. speaking 2. talking. telling) about no refrigeration, just huge blocks of ice in a box, and no gas-fired stove, just piles of wood.
9:4 If you take this perspective, it is no wonder that the productivity gains have diminished since the early seventies.
9:5 The social transformations brought by computers and the Internet cannot match any of this.
[57] Which of the following can be inferred from the comparison between kitchens and computers at the end of the 9th paragraph?
1. If computers and the Internet had been developed 100 years earlier, the modern kitchen would not be so different from that of those days.
2. Despite the changes to lifestyle that computers and the Internet have brought about, they are smaller than those evidenced by improvements in kitchens seen even 50 years ago.
3. Without the rapid technological changes evidenced by the development of the modern kitchen, neither computers nor the Internet would have ever come to pass.
4. Although there was a great deal of advancement in productivity between 50 and 100 years ago, productivity gains stagnated until the more recent development of computers and the Internet.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Gordon’s [39](1. complaint 2. argument 3. rebuttal) is that the forces of the second industrial revolution were so powerful and so unique that they will not be repeated.
8:2 The consequences of that breakthrough took a century to be fully realized, and as the internal combustion engine gave [40](1. rise 2. lift 3. height) to the car and eventually the airplane, and electricity to radio and the telephone and then mass media, they came to [41](1. restrict 2. retrench 3. rearrange) social forces and transform everyday lives.
8:3 Mechanized farm equipment permitted people to stay in school longer and to leave rural areas and move to cities.
8:4 Electrical appliances allowed women of all social classes to leave behind housework for more productive jobs.
8:5 The introduction of public sewers and water sanitation reduced illness and infant mortality.
8:6 The car, mass media, and commercial aircraft led to a liberation from the [42](1. wide expanses
2. narrow confines 3. unbound spaces) of geography and an introduction to a far broader and richer world.
8:7 Education beyond high school was made accessible to the middle and working classes.

[56] Advancements in which of the following areas are cited in the 8th paragraph as having a positive effect on public health?
1. Transportation.
2. Communications.
3. Agriculture.
4. Infrastructure.

■ 第8段落
8:1 What explains these differences?
8:2 As it turns out, the Gnau tribe had customs of gift exchange, according to which receiving a gift [13](1. obligates 2. expects 3. persuades) the receiver to reciprocate at some point in the future.
8:3 Because there was no equivalent of the ultimatum game in the Gnau society, they simply “mapped” the unfamiliar interaction onto the most similar social exchange they could think of―which happened to be gift exchange―and responded [14](1. casually 2. belatedly 3 accordingly).
8:4 Thus what might have seemed like free money to a Western participant looked to a Gnau
participant very much like an [15](1. unearned 2. unwanted 3. unpredicted) obligation.
8:5 The Machiguenga, by contrast, live in a society in which the only relationship bonds that carry any expectation of loyalty are with immediate family members.
8:6 When playing the ultimatum game with a stranger, therefore, Machiguenga participants―again mapping the unfamiliar onto the familiar―saw little obligation to make fair offers, and experienced very little of the [16](1. resentment 2. contentment 3. euphemism) that would well up in a Western player upon being presented with a split that was patently unequal.
8:7 To them, even low offers were seen as a good deal.
[26] In the 8th paragraph, it is mentioned that the Gnau people “mapped” the unfamiliar interaction onto their most similar social exchange. From this we can assume that the Gnau people
1. learned to win the ultimatum game by offering gifts to the proposer.
2. learned to play the ultimatum game by drawing charts.
3. drew a map of some of the important features of the ultimatum game.
4. drew an analogy between the ultimatum game and their customs of gift exchange.

■ 第3段落
3:1 However, there are two defining features of common sense that seem to differentiate it from other kinds of human knowledge like science or mathematics.
3:2 The first of these features is that, unlike formal knowledge, common sense is overwhelmingly practical; it is more [2](1. indifferent to 2. concerned with 3. tolerant to) providing answers to questions than in worrying about how it came by the answers.
3:3 In contrast to formal knowledge, common sense does not reflect on the world,
[22] Which of the following best paraphrases the statement“Common sense does no reflect on the world”in the 3rd paragraph?
1. Common sense does not “think” deeply about why the world is the way it is.
2. Common sense has nothing to do with the way we interact with the world.
3. Common sense is not good at representing the real world.
4. Common sense often contradicts the way in which the world really operates.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Once you understand these features of Gnau and Machiguenga cultures, their puzzling behavior starts to seem entirely reasonable―commonsense, even.
9:2 And that’s exactly what it was.
9:3 Just as we regard fairness and reciprocity as commonsense principles in our world that should be respected in general, so the people of the preindustrial societies have their own [17](1. immature 2. explicit 3. implicit) set of understandings about how the world is supposed to work.
9:4 Those understandings might be different from ours.
9:5 But once they have been accepted, their commonsense logic works in exactly the same way as ours does.
[28] According to the article, which of the following is true about commonsense principles?
1. Commonsense principles such as fairness and reciprocity are universally accepted not only in industrial societies but also in preindustrial societies.
2. Commonsense principles of preindustrial societies will eventually be replaced by those of industrial societies.
3. Commonsense principles of preindustrial societies and those of industrial societies are both equally functional in their own societies.
4. Commonsense principles are deeply rooted in all kinds of human knowledge, including formal knowledge like science and mathematics.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Risen and Critter expanded their analysis to look at the effect of thirst on the belief in another environmental problem: drought and desertification.
8:2 They had some participants eat pretzels to become thirsty, while they showed other participants a [13](1. subversive 2. substandard 3. subliminal) message about thirst―they flashed the word“thirst” on a computer screen for 17 milliseconds, and had a third group of participants complete a neutral task that was unrelated to thirst.
8:3 They found that the students who physically experienced thirst were more likely to believe in the threat of desertification.
8:4 Feeling thirsty led people to think about thirst more (as did the quickly flashed presentation of the word), but the actual physical experience was necessary to affect people’s views.
8:5 “Jumping in the process midway, by activating the thought without having the physical experience, did not lead to a change in belief,” says Risen.
[27] What can be said to be a goal of Risen and Critcher’s research?
1. To teach people how to be more intuitive.
2. To create political policies that reduce global warming.
3. To understand how physical sensation affects belief.
4. To increase people’s awareness of their physical condition.

■ 第13段落
13:1 The fact that liberals and conservatives responded similarly in the experiments is in sharp contrast to the response people of ten have when presented with explicit claims about an issue.
13:2 Previous studies have shown that after people are given mixed evidence about a topic, those who are [19](1.inclined 2.declined 3.reclined) to favor a position will come to believe in it even more, while those who are skeptical will tend to become even more sceptical.
13:3 Risen claims that trying to convince people of something by simply delivering facts can sometimes be polarizing because it gives people something to react to.
13:4 The experience of heat seems to elicit a more [20](1. universal 2 dependent 3. accidental) intuitive response.
[30] According to the authors, what is one problem with relying on facts to convince people?
1. Facts are easily manipulated to support or refute any position.
2. People perceive that the “facts” in any given situation frequently change.
3. Most people lack the appropriate background to understand the science.

■ 第7段落
7:1 In another experiment, the authors found that exposing Students to sentences such as “the room is hot” or “the bacon is [12](1. sizzling 2. growling 3. banging)” successfully summoned the concept of heat but did not influence their beliefs in global warming.
[26] Why was bacon mentioned in the experiment described in the 7th paragraph?
1. To make the participants hungry.
2. To evoke images of heat in the participants’ minds.
3. To make an authentic atmosphere for the experiment.
4. To distract the participants from the topic.

■ 第6段落
6:1 But even when Risen and Critter took the experiment indoors, they found that students who were asked to complete a survey in a cubicle that had been heated were more likely to believe in global warming.
6:2 Furthermore, students were asked in another experiment [9](1.to what extent 2. on what grounds 3. on whose authority) they felt the room was warm or cold before responding to the global warming question.
6:3 Calling attention to the temperature in the room should have led students to “correct” their views if those had been unintentionally based on the room’s temperature.
6:4 But the feeling of heat continued to have a significant [10](1. collision 2 hit 3.impact) on belief.

6:5 These results Suggest that the experience of heat―rather than the information it conveyed―influenced how strongly the students felt about global warming.
6:6 The actual physical experience of heat was more powerful than the [11](1.solitary 2.mere 3. only) mention of it.
[25] The reason that the researchers called attention to the room’s temperature in the 6th paragraph is
1. to see if the participants could discount physical sensations when forming opinions.
2. to subliminally suggest that the world was getting hotter.
3. to make it difficult for the participants to focus on the activities in the experiment.
4. to create a situation where people felt irritable and negative.

■ 第1段落
1:1 After Hurricane Sandy devastated the US Atlantic coast the debate over climate change recaptured the public imagination.
1:2 The record heat wave and drought across the United States in 2012seems also to have convinced more people that global warming is a real phenomenon even though it makes little sense to[1](1. engage 2 attribute 3. instill) a single weather event―no matter how extreme―to an upward trend in temperature.
[21] Which of the following is true, according to the 1st paragraph?
1. After Hurricane Sandy, the term global warming was coined.
2. After Hurricane Sandy, the worst drought in American history hit the Atlantic coast.
3. Prior to Hurricane Sandy, Americans were unaware of global warming.
4. Prior to Hurricane Sandy, there was a period of lessened interest in global warming.

■ 第18段落
18:1 Such changes cannot happen too soon.
18:2 “When a plane falls out of the sky, people notice,” says Dr. Fu. “But when one or two people are hurt by a medical device, or even if hundreds are hurt in different parts of the country, nobody notices.”
18:3 With ever more complex devices, opening up the hidden heart of medical technology makes a great deal of sense.
[57]Which of the following is an implication of the article?
1 Open-source medical software is impractical because of the lack of organization of open-source programmers.
2 The FDA approval process has ruined any chance of future success for open-source in the field of medicine.
3. Open-source software has the potential to make medical devices safer.
4. A closed-source system is necessary to ensure patient safety.

■ 第13段落
13:1 The high cost of navigating the regulatory [46](1. regime 2. regiment 3. reproduction) has forced some not-for-profit, open-source projects to alter their business models.
13:2 “In the 1990s we developed an excellent radiation-therapy treatment planning system and tried to give it away to other clinics,” says Dr. Mackie.
13:3 “But when we were told by the FDA that we should get our software approved, the hospital wasn’t willing to fund it.”
13:4 He formed a spin-off firm specifically to get FDA approval.
13:5 It took four years and cost millions of dollars.
13:6 The software was subsequently sold as a traditional, closed source product.
[55] What ultimately happened to Dr. Mackie’s radiation-therapy treatment-planning system?
1. It could not successfully compete in the marketplace.
2. It was released as closed-source software.
3. It failed due to poor open-source coding.
4. It was too expensive to build.

■ 第8段落
8:1 The Generic Infusion Pump project, a joint effort between the University of Pennsylvania and the FDA, is taking these [40](1. meddlesome 2. quarrelsome 3. troublesome) devices back to basics.
8:2 The researchers began not by building a device or writing code but by imagining everything that could possibly go wrong with a drug-infusion pump.
[52]According to the 8th paragraph, the Generic Infusion Pump project developed their product by first
1. considering potential problems.
2. studying all of the competing products.
3. surveying medical professionals about their needs.
4. creating open-source equivalents from proprietary rivals.

■ 第4段落
4:1 When software in a medical device malfunctions, the consequences can be far more serious than just having to reboot your PC.
4:2 During the 1980s, a bug in the software of Therac-25 radiotherapy machines caused massive overdoses of radiation to be [33](1. delivered 2. dragged 3. driven) to several patients, killing at least five.
4:3 Americas Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has linked problems with drug-infusion pumps to nearly 20,000 serious injuries and over 700 deaths between 2005 and 2009.
4:4 Software errors were the most frequently cited problem.
[60]Which of the following is an argument made by the article with reference to the widespread use of open-source software in the medical industry?
1. The use of open software prevents cyber-security breaches.
2. The wider use of open-source would lessen the influence of closed-source companies.
3. Open-source allows for more error checking, which could prevent medical emergencies.
4. Closed-source software has superior design and safety to that of its open-source counterparts.

■ 第18段落
18:1 Such changes cannot happen too soon.
18:2 “When a plane falls out of the sky, people notice,” says Dr. Fu. “But when one or two people are hurt by a medical device, or even if hundreds are hurt in different parts of the country, nobody notices.”
18:3 With ever more complex devices, opening up the hidden heart of medical technology makes a great deal of sense.
[58] According to the article, what is currently true about ALL open-source medical devices?
1. They have been approved by the FDA.
2. They are restricted to non-human testing.
3. They are more costly than similar proprietary versions.
4. They are considerably more popular in the developing world.

■ 第11段落
11:1 The brain, like the rest of the body, derives energy from glucose, the simple sugar manufactured from all kinds of foods.
11:2 To establish whether this could cause an improvement in self-control, researchers at Baumeister’s lab tried refueling the brain in a series of experiments involving lemonade mixed either with sugar or with a diet sweetener.
11:3 The sugary lemonade provided a burst of glucose; the sugarless variety tasted quite similar without providing the same burst of glucose.
11:4 Again and again, the sugar restored willpower, but the artificial sweetener had no effect.
11:5 The glucose would at least [17] (1. mitigate 2. instigate. 3. eradicate) the decision fatigue and sometimes completely reverse it.
11:6 The restored willpower improved people’s self-control as well as the quality of their decisions; they resisted irrational bias when making choices, and when asked to make financial decisions, they were more likely to choose the better long-term strategy instead of going for a quick payoff.
[28] What was the purpose of the experiment described in the 11th paragraph ?
1. To determine if artificial sweeteners produce glucose.
2. To determine if lemonade helps people think.
3. To determine if sweet drinks make it hard to think.
4. To determine if glucose helps tired people think.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Decision fatigue is the newest discovery [4] (1. challenging 2. involving. intensifying) a 4:1 phenomenon called ego depletion, a term coined in honor of Sigmund Freud’s idea that the ego depended on the transfer of energy.
4:2 This idea was generally ignored until the end of the century, when an American researcher named Roy Baumeister began studying mental discipline with hisI graduate students.
[23]According to the article, who coined the term “decision fatigue?”
1. It is not stated.
2. Sigmund Freud.
3. Roy Baumeister.
4. Jean Twenge.

■ 第12段落
12:1 The benefits of glucose were [18] (1. unmistakable 2. inconsequential. unobservable) in the study of the Israeli parole board mentioned at the beginning of this article.
12:2 In midmorning, the parole board would take a break, and the judges would be served a sandwich and a piece of fruit.
12:3 The prisoners who appeared just before the break had only about a 20 percent chance of getting parole, but the ones appearing right after had around a 65 percent chance.
12:4 The odds dropped again as the morning wore on, and prisoners really didn’t want to appear just before lunch: the chance of getting parole at that time was only 10 percent.
12:5 After lunch it soared up to 60 percent, but only [19] (1. somewhat 2. briefly. nominally).
12:6 Remember that Jewish Israeli prisoner who appeared at 3:10 p.m. and was denied parole from his sentence for assault?
12:7 He had the misfortune of being the sixth case heard after lunch.
12:8 But another Jewish Israeli prisoner serving the same sentence for the same crime was lucky enough to appear at 1:27 p.m., the first case after lunch, and he was rewarded with parole.
12:9 It must have seemed to him like a fine example of the justice system at work, but [20](1. in addition 2. in actuality 3 . In sum,) it probably had more to do with the judge’s glucose levels than the details of his case.
[30]Which of the following is the best summary of the research presented in the article?
1. Ego depletion is an important new field of research, with applications to marketing, poverty relief, and criminal justice
2. Ego depletion is a serious problem that allows companies to take advantage of shoppers, causes the poor to make bad choices, and undermines court rulings.
3. Every time we make a decision, we lose willpower, hurting our ability to avoid trade-offs; this can, however, be helped by periodically eating when making decisions.
4. The more decisions we make, the more mental energy we lose, hurting our ability to make good decisions; this can, however, be helped by consuming sugar when making decisions

■ 第2段落
2:1 Google’s personalization system relies heavily on web history and what you click on to [1](1. infer 2. defer 3. prefer) what you like and dislike.
2:2 These clicks often happen in an entirely private context:
2:3 The assumption is that searches for “intestinal gas” and celebrity gossip are between you and your browser.
2:4 You might behave differently if you thought other people were going to see your searches.

2:5 But its that behavior that determines what content you see in Google News, what ads Google displays that determines, in other words, Googles theory of you.
[21]Which of the following is closest to the description of Google’s personalization system mentioned in the 2nd paragraph?
1. Providing users with information by filtering it through their self-reported data on likes and dislikes.
2. Letting users adjust their clicking history in case their families, fiends and other users gain access to it.
3. Keeping your online identity just between you and Google, beyond the reach of other users.
4. Adjusting the type of information they provide based on each user’s browsing record on the web.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Our personalities are fluid.
9:2 Someone who’s gregarious and outgoing when happy may be introverted when [13](1. stressed 2. excited 3.joyful).
9:3 We may think that our personalities are set, and our behaviors are predictable, but this is not necessarily the case.
9:4 Even people who think themselves to be gentle and mild-mannered may act brutally under certain conditions.
9:5 This was demonstrated by psychologist Stanley Milgram in his oft-cited experiment at Yale in the 1960s where he got decent ordinary people to apparently electrocute other subjects upon the instruction of a researcher in a white lab coat, a symbol of authority.
[26] The purpose of the experiment conducted by Stanley Milgram as mentioned in the 9th paragraph was to show that
1. humans hide a natural inborn drive to harm others though it is rarely put into action.
2. people’s willingness to harm others is affected by what type of context they are in.
3. people’s cruelty is typically the result of overbearing authority figures.
4. people’s personality traits have a strong effect on how they act in a given situation.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Both ways of thinking have their benefits and drawbacks.
4:2 With Google’s click-based self, the gay teenager who hasn’t [5](1. run up 2. come out .3 looked up) to his parents can still get a personalized Google News feed with pieces from the broader gay community that affirm that he’s not alone.
4:3 But at the same time, a self built on clicks will tend to draw us even more toward the items we’re [6]1, predisposed 2. entitled 3. embarrassed) to look at already.
4:4 Your perusal of an article on a celebrity gossip site is [7]1.filed 2. thrown 3. given) away and the next time you’re looking at the news, you are more likely to find salacious details about an actor’s infidelity on the screen.
[22] In the 4th paragraph, the author mentions the case of a gay teenager in order to illustrate
1. how seriously Google is committed to basic human rights and liberalism.
2. what a narrow range of personal interests can be maintained by using Google.
3. how you can get information you want without revealing yourself to the public.
4. how your information environment can be jeopardized by Google’s click-based self.

■ 第12段落
12:1 Precise knowledge is needed for the type of network-based public-health interventions they envision.
12:2 In addition to knowing what works―in the case of obesity, perhaps distributing healthy recipes, or posting on Facebook or Twitter that you “feel so great after going for a run” to encourage friends to exercise―such interventions require knowing who is most influential, and this may vary from purpose to purpose.
12:3 Christakis and Fowler write that a network-based vaccination campaign, [48](1. consulting 2. excluding 3. targeting) people with the most social contacts, could be three times more cost- effective than a campaign that aims for universal vaccination.
12:4 Campaigns of the latter type over-vaccinate; immunizing only people who are hubs in social networks would enable administering a minimum of doses for maximum effect.
12:5 For instance, recommendations that healthcare workers receive more vaccinations than average citizens follow a similar model, assuming that such workers will have more [49](1. sympathy for 2. contact with 3. knowledge about) sick people and thus are more likely to spread infections.
12:6 A network-based disease prevention campaign, prioritizing well-connected people when monitoring infection’s spread, could be 700 times more efficient than random monitoring.
[58] According to the article, which of the following is the weakness of vaccination campaigns that aim to vaccinate everybody?
1. They waste time and money by giving too many vaccinations.
2. They are ineffective at stopping the spread of disease.
3. Some people refuse vaccinations because of Internet rumors.
4. They neglect to adequately protect healthcare workers.

■ 第9段落
9:1 The two men started publishing their findings with a splash: a 2007 article in the New England Journal of Medicine reporting that obesity spreads through social networks, as people are apparently influenced by friends’ weight gain to become fat themselves.
9:2 More [45](1. irrelevant 2. perplexing 3. obvious) is their finding that obesity spreads through up to three degrees of separation.
9:3 If a subject named a friend who was also in the study, and that friend’s friend became obese, the first subjects chances of becoming obese were roughly 20 percent greater.
9:4 Across one more degree of influence (for instance, husband’s friend’s friend―i.e, three degrees away), the risk was 10 percent greater.
9:5 Weight gain appears to move through friend groups [46](1. versus 2. via 3. without) some unseen mechanism such as changed eating or exercise behavior, or adjustment of social norms regarding weight.
[57] According to Christakis & Fowlers study on obesity, which of the following is true?
1. If your cousin’s mother is fat, you have a 30% greater risk of becoming fat.
2. If your friend’s brother is fat, you have a 10% greater risk of becoming fat.
3. If your friend’s fathers coworker is fat, you have a 10% greater risk of becoming fat.
4. If your mother’s friend has a fat daughter, you have a 20% greater risk of becoming fat.

■ 第9段落
9:1 The two men started publishing their findings with a splash: a 2007 article in the New England Journal of Medicine reporting that obesity spreads through social networks, as people are apparently influenced by friends’ weight gain to become fat themselves.
9:2 More [45](1. irrelevant 2. perplexing 3. obvious) is their finding that obesity spreads through up to three degrees of separation.
9:3 If a subject named a friend who was also in the study, and that friend’s friend became obese, the first subjects chances of becoming obese were roughly 20 percent greater.
9:4 Across one more degree of influence (for instance, husband’s friend’s friend―i.e, three degrees away), the risk was 10 percent greater.
9:5 Weight gain appears to move through friend groups [46](1. versus 2. via 3. without) some unseen mechanism such as changed eating or exercise behavior, or adjustment of social norms regarding weight.
[57] According to Christakis & Fowlers study on obesity, which of the following is true?
1. If your cousin’s mother is fat, you have a 30% greater risk of becoming fat.
2. If your friend’s brother is fat, you have a 10% greater risk of becoming fat.
3. If your friend’s fathers coworker is fat, you have a 10% greater risk of becoming fat.
4. If your mother’s friend has a fat daughter, you have a 20% greater risk of becoming fat.

[57] Which of the following applies to all three of the people mentioned in the 6th paragraph―Justin Bieber, Lady Gaga and Anthony Weiner?
1. Their professional careers got started by using social networking services.
2. Their popularity made their personal information available on the web.
3. The new openness on the Internet brought them more attention from the public.
4. Their online self-promotion was fundamentally against the idea of freedom of speech.

■ 第8段落
8:1 According to Albrechtslund, to participate in online social networking is a way to voluntarily engage with other people and construct identities.
8:2 It is also the act of sharing yourself―or your constructed identity―with others.
8:3 Accordingly, the role of sharing should not be underestimated, as the personal information people share―profiles, activities, beliefs, whereabouts, status, preferences, etc.―represents a level of communication that is not asked for.
8:4 It is just “out there”, unasked for, but something that is part of the socializing in certain groups of people.
8:5 Actually, it has been found that a great majority of teens use online social networking to keep in touch with friends they rarely see in real life.
8:6 In this case, participatory surveillance is a way of maintaining friendships by [47](1. hanging on to 2. checking up on 3. getting away with) information that other people share.
8:7 Such a friendship might seem shallow, but it is a convenient way of keeping in touch with a large circle of friends.
8:8 Thus, modern participatory surveillance [48](1. gives out 2. takes to . allows for) individual growth and identity creation, and the possibility of developing rewarding and diverse extended social relationships.
[59] According to Albrechtslund, “participatory surveillance” allows social networking users to
1. construct identities through sharing personal information with other users.
2. gain opportunities to deepen friendships with a small group of people.
3. take advantage of all sorts of personal information at low cost.
4. watch over others without exposing themselves to strangers.

■ 第7段落
7:1 In his writings on communication, privacy, and web ethics, Anders Albrechtslund of Aarhus University in Denmark refers to this new type of interaction found in online social networking as “participatory surveillance.
7:2 “He argues that the concept of a hierarchical power relation is [45](1. absent from 2. crucial to
3. opposed to) a classical interpretation of the term “surveillance.”
7:3 From this perspective, the watcher occupies a position metaphorically above the watched.
7:4 In the new form of surveillance, however, the relation is characterized by a “flat” power structure wherein the watcher and watched are of equal standing.
7:5 He extends this notion as far as including modern online social media, arguing that we are all surveilling each other as well as being surveilled ourselves.
7:6 [46](1. Moreover 2. On the contrary . For instance), he argues that this development is largely a positive one.
[58] According to Albrechtslund, which of the following is not true of “participatory surveillance”?
1. It can be extended to users of modern online social media.
2. It is characterized by a lack of hierarchical power relation.
3. It may lead to complete loss of privacy, as exemplified by Orwell’s fiction.
4. It is characterized by flat power relation between the watcher and watched.

■ 第6段落
6:1 However, we should recognize that at least some of the new openness of information on the Internet is [40](1. self-employed 2. self-important 3. self-selected) and that people still have a good amount of control over what they reveal to others, through privacy settings, comment moderation, or opting out of certain services.
6:2 We should not forget that some people are glad to be able to put their personal opinions, talents, oddities, or interests online.
6:3 They are happy for the whole world to see and judge them, as it gives them [41](1. an outlet for
2. an exhaustion of 3. a retreat from) their creativity, a stage upon which they can perform, a venue and an audience which in previous times would have been unavailable.
6:4 In some rare cases, such Internet [42](1. humanism 2. conservatism 3. exhibitionism) has even led to careers.
6:5 Justin Bieber, for example, went from being an average suburban kid to being an international music superstar with the help of YouTube.
6:6 Similarly, Lady Gaga’s fame spread through her incredibly successful Facebook page and other forms of online self-promotion.
6:7 [43](1. Simply put 2. As a matter of fact 3.On the other hand), such online activities can sometimes have negative consequences, as in the case of American politician Anthony Weiner, whose career was ruined when he accidentally sent embarrassing private photos and messages to all of his followers on Twitter.
6:8 As we can see, this new type of voluntary surveillance is a [44](1. one-dimensional design 2. double-edged sword 3. half-finished tool).
[56] Which of the following best represents the authors opinion about “the new openness of information on the Internet” as mentioned in the 6th paragraph?
1. It makes it impossible to control the amount of personal information available on the Internet.
2. Though it is largely positive, Internet users need to be well-aware of pitfalls at the same time.
3. It prevents Internet users from expanding their potential by sharing their talents and creativity with others.
4. It should be kept to a minimum because people tend to run the risk of ruining their career without being aware of it.

■ 第3段落
3:1 The word “surveillance” comes from the French word surveiller, which translates simply as to “watch over.”
3:2 This translation suggests the image of a person looking carefully at someone or something from above.
3:3 But both in ordinary language and academic debate, the word “surveillance” has become the conventional way of describing the activity of monitoring in general.
3:4 When people use the word “surveillance” in English, it almost always has a negative [34] (1. campaign 2. assumption 3. connotation).
3:5 One may hear, for example, “the police have a criminal under surveillance” or “the government used a high-tech surveillance system to follow a suspected terrorist.”
3:6 The image is often that of secretly viewing someone’s activities, suspecting that they are up to something harmful to society.
3:7 This negative image [35](1. holds true 2. fades away 3. goes off) in the context of online social networking.
3:8 Online surveillance is frequently associated with spying and privacy invasion, and it has become a [36](1. preliminary 2. prevalent 3. privileged) view that everything related to it should be avoided if at all possible.
[53] According to the article, which of the following is not true of the word “surveillance”?
1. It is etymologically associated with the French word for “watching over.”
2. It is now used in reference to monitoring activities in general.
3. It is likely to evoke negative reactions from people rather than positive ones.
4. It is mainly used in the literal sense of looking at someone or something from above.

■ 第5段落
5:1 If you think of the problem of terrorism, terrorists have very little military power, but they have a lot of “soft power”―the ability to attract and persuade people.
5:2 [12](1. So 2. Nonetheless 3. However), Bin Laden did not point a gun at the head of the people who flew into the World Trade Center.
5:3 He did not pay them.
5:4 He attracted them by his narrative of “Islam under threat” and the need to purify Islam.
5:5 That is interesting because it means that as we then try to [13(1. come up 2. get away 3. cope) with this, we may make the mistake of thinking that we can solve this by military or economic power alone.
5:6 If power means the ability to get the outcomes you want, you could do this through coercion, threats, so-called “sticks.”
5:7 You could do it with payments you might call [14](1. “lemons.” 2. “whips.” 3. “carrots”.)
5:8 Or you could do it with attraction and persuasion.
5:9 And in an information age, the role of soft power is increasing in its importance.
5:10 Now that means that what we need is a new way of thinking about power.
5:11 The famous British historian A.J.P. Taylor, who wrote a book about the struggle for mastery of Europe in the 19th century, defined a great power as a country that was able to prevail in war.
5:12 But we have to [15](1. put up with 2. go beyond 3. cling to) that limited way of thinking about what power means in the 21st century, and see it as much more three-dimensional, as including not only military power but also economic power and also soft power.
[25] The author of the article defines “soft power” as the ability to
1. win others’ hearts and minds.
2. threaten others to make them act in a certain way.
3. provide funds to change others’ minds.
4. effectively combine military and economic power.

■ 第3段落
3:1 Let me say a word about what I mean by power diffusion.
3:2 That is best understood in terms of the way technologies, and particularly information technologies, are [4](1. increasing 2. sustaining 3. affecting) the costs of participating in international affairs.
3:3 The price of computing power declined a thousand-fold from 1970 to 2000.
3:4 That is an extraordinary number, so big that it is hard to know what it means.
3:5 The best way to think of this would be that if the price of an automobile had declined as rapidly as the price of computing power, you should be able to buy an automobile today, for, lets say, 10,000 yen.
3:6 It is [5](1. just 2. hardly 3. nonetheless) an extraordinary change.
3:7 When the price of something declines that much, it removes the barriers to entry.
3:8 Now others can do what previously was [6](1. prepared 2. reserved 3. preserved) for governments or big corporations.
3:9 If you wanted to communicate instantaneously from Tokyo to New York to London to Johannesburg in 1970, you could do that.
3:10Technologically you could do it, but it was very, very expensive.
3:11 [7](1. Still 2. Now 3. However), anybody can do it and it is virtually free.
3:12 If you have Skype, it is free.
[23] The author of the article refers to information technologies in the 3rd paragraph in order to
1. demonstrate how their development has been influenced by power diffusion.
2. illustrate how their development has facilitated power diffusion.
3. criticize the close ties with governments or big corporations.
4. celebrate the changes of everyday life brought by their development.

■ 第8段落
8:1 The American president Franklin Roosevelt at the time of the Great Depression said, “We have nothing to fear but fear itself.”
8:2 Perhaps as we turn to the 21st century, we should say one of the most worrisome things is fear itself.
8:3 If we can keep a balanced [19](1. assembly 2. assortment 3. assessment) of the overall distribution of power, and figure out ways to deal with these common challenges that we face―we,
meaning the United States, Japan, China, Europe and others we can indeed have a [20](1. win-win
2. win-lose 3. lose-lose) situation.
[29] Which of the following best reflects the argument of the article?
1. More military power is needed in order to speed up power transition.
2. More soft power is needed in order to slow down power diffusion.
3. Politicians are well-aware of the possible dangers that fear creates in world politics.
4. Fear will make both power transition and power diffusion more difficult.

■ 第10段落
10:1 MS: What worries me are not the genetic technologies by themselves but the availability of new genetic technologies together with social and cultural attitudes in an increasingly competitive society.
10:2 It is this combination that is so troubling.
10:3 I should emphasize that I consider breakthroughs in genetics a great blessing for medicine and for the relief of [14](1. debt 2. suffering 3. oppression).
10:4 My concern is with non-medical uses of genetic technologies.
10:5 I would not want to restrain research and breakthroughs in genetics.
10:6 [15](1. Likewise 2. In the meantime 3. On the contrary), they are crucially important for health.
10:7 My concern is when technologies that were designed for promoting health are used for non- medical purposes, and are turned into instruments of competition in a consumer-driven society.
10:8 These moral concerns go back to the history of eugenics in Nazi Germany.
10:9 Eugenics was then associated with coercion and state control of reproduction.
10:10 Today it is making a comeback, but without state coercion.
10:11 It’s now in the form of privatized, free-market eugenics.
10:12 I think that eugenics is morally troubling even without the state coercion because now the eugenic [16](1. completion 2. prohibition 3. ambition) is connected to consumerism in a competitive society.
10:13 So, parents will feel increasing pressures to resort to genetic engineering in order to give their children a leg up in a
competitive society.
10:14 It’s this combination that worries me.
[26] The term “a leg up” in the 10th paragraph can be taken to mean
1. a competition.
2. an advantage.
3. a higher purpose.
4. a medical condition.

[27] According to the article, which of the following best represents Sandel’s position?
1. Competition among parents is morally wrong, whereas competition among young people is to be highly encouraged.
2. Competition is part of modern life, and therefore parents should be allowed to use genetic technologies to create perfect children.
3. In a competitive society, parents may want to genetically enhance their children, but it is morally questionable.
4. Parents are encouraged to use genetic technologies for their children so that they may become winners in a competitive society.

[30] Which of the following is in accordance with Sandel’s opinion regarding genetic technologies?
1. Though useful to humankind, when misused, genetic technologies can cause problems.
2. Genetic technologies are extremely dangerous and should be suspended immediately.
3. Genetic technologies may help humanity, but they can also cause serious illnesses.
4. The use of genetic technologies should create perfect children, but it is expensive.

■ 第10段落
10:1 MS: What worries me are not the genetic technologies by themselves but the availability of new genetic technologies together with social and cultural attitudes in an increasingly competitive society.
10:2 It is this combination that is so troubling.
10:3 I should emphasize that I consider breakthroughs in genetics a great blessing for medicine and for the relief of [14](1. debt 2. suffering 3. oppression).
10:4 My concern is with non-medical uses of genetic technologies.
10:5 I would not want to restrain research and breakthroughs in genetics.
10:6 [15](1. Likewise 2. In the meantime 3. On the contrary), they are crucially important for health.
10:7 My concern is when technologies that were designed for promoting health are used for non- medical purposes, and are turned into instruments of competition in a consumer-driven society.
10:8 These moral concerns go back to the history of eugenics in Nazi Germany.
10:9 Eugenics was then associated with coercion and state control of reproduction.
10:10 Today it is making a comeback, but without state coercion.
10:11 It’s now in the form of privatized, free-market eugenics.
10:12 I think that eugenics is morally troubling even without the state coercion because now the eugenic [16](1. completion 2. prohibition 3. ambition) is connected to consumerism in a competitive society.
10:13 So, parents will feel increasing pressures to resort to genetic engineering in order to give their children a leg up in a
competitive society.
10:14 It’s this combination that worries me.
[25] Which of the following best represents Sandel’s thoughts on modern eugenics?
1. It should be promoted only under the guidance by the government.
2. It can be of some use in a consumer-driven, free-market society.
3. It is problematic on ethical grounds especially in a consumer-driven society.
4. It should be promoted without state coercion in order to create designer children.

9:1 The second factor at work in explaining male-female wage differences is occupational selection.
9:2 Compared to women, men tend to be concentrated in paid employment that is dangerous or unpleasant.
9:3 Commercial fishing, construction, law enforcement, firefighting, truck driving, and mining, to name but a few, are occupations that are much more dangerous than average and are dominated by men.
9:4 As a result, men represent 92 percent of all occupational deaths.
9:5 Hazardous jobs offer what is known as a compensating differential, extra pay for [46] (1. avoiding 2. assuming 3. allowing) the differential risk of death or injury on the job.
9:6 In equilibrium, these extra wages do no more than offset the extra hazards.
9:7 So even though measured earnings look high relative to the educational and other requirements of the jobs, appearances are deceiving.
9:8 After [47] (1. adjusting for 2. minimizing 3. dealing with) risk, the value of that pay is really no greater than for less hazardous employment―but the appearance of higher pay contributes to the measured gender gap.
[58] Which of the following accords with the authors claim about male-female wage differences with respect to occupational selection ?
1. Men take dangerous jobs more often than women, and as a result, men receive more money than women, thus yielding an obvious advantage for men.
2. Men receive extra wages for dangerous jobs, and the appearance of higher pay gives us a false impression that their wages are higher than women’s.
3. If women select dangerous and unpleasant jobs, they will receive the same pay as men receive for such jobs.
4. We will take it for granted that there exist gender differences in wages as long as men tend to work in hazardous situations.

■ 第6段落
6:1 A hint of what might be going on begins to emerge when economists study the payroll records of individual firms, using actual employee information that is specific and detailed regarding location of the firm, type of work, employee responsibilities, and other factors.
6:2 These analyses reveal that the so-called wage gap between men and women is much smaller―typically [38] (1. as much as 2. no more than 3. no less than) 5 percent―and often there is no gap at all.
6:3 The sharp contrast between firm-level data and nationwide data suggests that something may be at work here besides outright gender discrimination.
[56] What does the comparison between the nationwide data and the payroll records of individual firms show in relation to the wage difference between men and women?
1. Both data confirm that women receive 20 percent less wages than men.
2. The gender difference alone does not account for the wage difference between men and women.
3. The firm-level data are too specific to generalize about gender discrimination in terms of wages.
4. Different interpretations of the data are possible according to the location of the firm, the type of work, employee responsibilities and other factors.

■ 第7段落
7:1 That something is actually three things.
7:2 First, women’s pay is extremely sensitive to whether or not they have children.
7:3 In Britain, for example, where this issue has been studied intensively, the average pay earned by a woman begins to fall shortly before the birth of her first child and continues to drop until the child becomes a teenager.
7:4 Although earnings begin to [39] (1. revive 2. accumulate 3. level off) once the first child passes the age of twenty or so, they never fully recover.
7:5 The earnings drop associated with motherhood is close to one-third, and only one-third of that drop is regained after [40] (1.. the bottle 2. the container 3. the nest) is empty.
7:6 American data suggest that the same pattern is present on [41] (1. the coverage 2. this side 3. the region) of the Atlantic.

■ 第8段落
8:1 The parenthood pay declines suffered by women stem from a variety of sources.
8:2 Some are [42] ( 1. put on 2. put out . put off) the “mommy track,” with reduced responsibilities and hours of work; others move to different employers around the time their first child is born, taking jobs that offer more flexible work schedules but offer [43] (1. characteristically 2. unduly 3. correspondingly) lower pay as well.
8:3 Overall, a woman with average skills who has a child at age twenty-four can expect to receive nearly $1 million less compensation over her career, [44] (1. as 2. compared to 3. over) one who remains childless.
8:4 It is worth emphasizing that no similar effect is observed with men.
8:5 In fact, there is some evidence that men with children are actually paid more than men without children.
8:6 These findings strongly suggest a fact that will [45] (1. consider 2. show 3. come) as no surprise to most people: Despite the widespread entry of women into the labor force, they retain the primary responsibility for child care at home, and their careers suffer as a result.
[57] According to the 7th and 8th paragraphs, which of the following is correct about the relationship between motherhood and women’s pay ?
1. In Britain, having a child is a major cause for the drop of women’s pay, while in America, the situation is less obvious.
2. Women’s earnings start to drop after the birth of a child and go up gradually until they reach the original level.
3. Women with children are paid less than women without children because the former prefer more flexible work schedules.
4. With the entry of more women in the labor force, the wages of women with children will naturally increase.

■ 第10段落
10:1 These axons are already essentially [48] (1. in place 2. in touch 3. in shape).
10:2 Universal protocols for information transfer such as HTML and TCP/IP are the neurotransmitters of the emerging global brain.
10:3 Soon a few dominant languages like English, Chinese and Spanish will provide for universal information exchange.
10:4 Well-connected collective entities like Google and Wikipedia will play the role of brainstem nuclei to which all other information nexuses must [49] (1. apply 2. adapt 3. distribute).
[59] With regard to universal protocols as mentioned in the 10th paragraph, which of the following is true?
1. Diplomatic protocols help make political treaties more universal.
2. Universal protocols make it possible to translate any message into English, Chinese or Spanish.
3. Without a common language and agreed-upon way to transfer information, data cannot be shared.
4. Without universal protocols, only a few languages dominate over the others.

■ 第5段落
5:1 Our bodies have essentially two ways of solving the organizational problems raised by coordinating billions of semi-independent cells.
5:2 In hormonal systems, master control cells broadcast potent signals all other cells must obey.
5:3 Hormones enter the body’s cells, penetrating their nuclei and directly controlling gene expression.
5:4 The hormonal system is like an [38] (1. intimately 2. immensely 3. intricately) powerful dictatorship, issuing sweeping orders that all must obey.
[56] Which of the following is in agreement with the authors argument?
1. All cells in one body receive all hormonal signals.
2. Hormonal communication works similarly to neuronal communication.
3. Neuronal signals support broadcast communication.
4. Neurons and hormones work together.

■ 第6段落
6:1 When they are away from their families―in different contexts―older siblings are no more likely to be domineering and younger siblings no more likely to be rebellious than anyone else.
6:2 The birth order myth is an example of the FAE in [13](1. suspicion 2. doubt 3. action).
6:3 But you can see why we are so drawn [14] (1. to 2. by 3. in) it.
6:4 It is rather easy to define people just in terms of their family personality.
6:5 It’s a kind of short-hand.
6:6 If we constantly had to qualify every assessment of those around us, how would we [15](1. remain loyal to 2. run away with 3. make sense of) the world?
6:7 How much harder would it be to make the thousands of decisions we are required to make about whether we like someone, love someone, trust someone, or want to give someone advice?
[25] In the 5th and 6th paragraphs, what does the author say about the birth order theory ?
1. It does not hold outside the context of the family.
2. It generally holds across different social situations.
3. It works differently even within a family, depending on the occasion.
4. It works equally well in the social context and in the family context.

■ 第2段落
2:1 In one experiment, for example, a group of people are told to watch two similarly talented sets of basketball players, the first of whom are shooting baskets in a well-lighted gym and the second of whom are shooting baskets in a badly lighted gym, and obviously missing a lot of shots.
2:2 Then they are asked to judge how good the players were.
2:3 The players in the well-lighted gym were considered superior.

■ 第3段落
3:1 In another example, a group of people are brought in for an experiment and told they are going to play a quiz game.
3:2 They are [5](1. carried away 2. paired off 3. handed of) and they draw lots.
3:3 One person gets a card that says he or she is going to be the “Contestant.”
3:4 The other is told he or she is going to be the “Questioner.”
3:5 The Questioner is then asked to draw up a list of ten “challenging but not impossible” questions based on his or her own areas of particular interest or expertise, so someone who is into Ukrainian folk music might [6](1. come up with 2. go together with 3. come down with) a series of questions based on Ukrainian folk music.
3:6 The questions are posed to the Contestant, and after the quiz is over, both parties are asked to estimate the level of general knowledge of the other.
3:7 [7](1. Indiscreetly 2. Unexpectedly . Invariably), the Contestants rated the Questioners as being a lot Smarter than they themselves are.
[22] In the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs, the author gives the examples of the basketball players and the Contestant/Questioner in order to illustrate that
1. it is human nature to rely on context and hunch in determining people’s traits.
2. it is humane to think positively of others irrespective of context.
3. it is unreasonable for people to judge players under different conditions.
4. we have a propensity to overlook context in assessing people’s capability.

■ 第7段落
7:1 We began this essay by looking at a 500-yearold call for a more civil society, for a world in which respect for one another [47] (1.. outweighs 2. effaces 3. contrasts) any differences in opinion or belief.
7:2 But do we behave any better today than the violent barbarians of Erasmus’ day ?
7:3 We squabble over our rights, and ignore our obligations.
7:4 We believe the function of government is to give us the things we desire, prosperity, peace and progress, but we fail to volunteer for those non-governmental organizations, from hospitals to museums, that make civil society function.
7:5 We rarely [48] (1. fail 2. wish 3. bother) to follow our own codes of civil behavior even when they are clearly posted on trains, buses or planes.
7:6 We seem to be indulging in a collective act of [49] (1. forgetting 2. forging 3. restructuring) all of our manners and becoming the very barbarians Erasmus worried about.
7:7 The problem lies in the process by which the values of the market, which are characterized by emphasis on getting what we want, have been [50] (1. allowed 2. conditioned 3. blocked) to move into the social life of our communities where we have traditionally engaged in a discourse to help us decide what we should want.
7:8 However, it is not too late to rediscover civility, and thus preserve both our humanity and our civilization.
7:9 The key to reconstructing civility lies in our learning anew the virtue of acting towards our neighbors with kindness and concern, and to value the means of our achievements as well as the ends of our desires.
[55] Which of the following statements best represents the main theme of this article ?
1. Civility depends on courtesy which has been destroyed by partisan politics.
2. Civility is a key concept for the maintenance of civilized society.
3. Civility, etiquette and courtesy are the same―lose one, lose all.
4. Civility is useful because it offers an effective political strategy.

■ 第5段落
5:1 Consider the mass protests of the American Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s.

5:2 The success of this movement is due in part to the genius of one of its leaders, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
5:3 Dr. King’s genius was in his ability to inspire the diverse people involved in the struggle to be civil and loving in their [41l ( 1. dissent 2. company 3. brotherhood).
5:4 This civil disobedience was the antithesis of hypocrisy; it was an example of civility as an act of high ethical principle.
5:5 The Civil Rights movement did not seek to destroy American democracy; rather it sought to engage with American society, and to have it [42] ( 1. fulfilling 2. fulfill 3. fulfilled) its founding promise that “all are created equal.”
5:6 Dr. King understood that uncivil dialog cannot serve a democratic function.
5:7 While it is true that democracy demands open dialog, and that dialog arises from [43] ( 1. disagreement 2. mutual understanding 3. respectful attitudes), it must be possible to be partisan without being actively uncivil.
5:8 It is this concept that gave the Civil Rights movement its moral strength―that the means of persuasion as well as the goal of an argument were equally important.
5:9 Deriving from earlier thinkers like Thoreau and Ghandi, the civil rights protesters were trained to remain civil and nonviolent in the face of a repressive, and often violent, system of segregation.
5:10 Again, Dr. King understood that the struggle for civil rights was not simply a movement to [44] (1. benefit 2. fight with 3. flatter) African-Americans, but an opening for a national dialog on the issue of “justice for all.”

5:11 By behaving better, more civilly, than their opponents, protestors sought not to defeat their opposition, but to convert them to their point of view.
5:12 Uncivil and violent protest, [45] (1. when 2. however 3. since) “justified,” might have broken the connections that bind Americas heterogeneous population into a united community.
[54] According to this article, which of the following was not one of Dr. King’s goals in his civil disobedience campaign?
1. To secure a special place in society for African-Americans through the use of better manners.
2. To secure that the founding promise of America, that all are created equal, is the birthright of all citizens.
3. To use civility as a “public relations” strategy, and convert a nation to his views on civil rights.
4. To use civility as a means of holding an ethical advantage over the opponents of desegregation.

■ 第6段落
6:1 Sandman offered a comparison between mad-cow disease, a super-scary but exceedingly rare threat, and the spread of food-borne pathogens in the average home kitchen, exceedingly common but somehow not very scary.
6:2 “Risks that you control are much less a source of outrage than risks that are out of your control,” Sandman said.
6:3 “In the case of mad-cow, it feels like its beyond my control.
6:4 I can’t tell if my meat has prions in it or not.
6:5 I can’t see it, I can’t smell it.
6:6 On the other hand, dirt in my own kitchen is very much in my own control.
6:7 I can clean the floor.”
[26] According to Peter Sandman, the threat of mad-cow disease
1. drives people to clean their kitchens to remove food-borne pathogens.
2. Scares people primarily because they are not familiar with the disease.
3. frightens people because they cannot control the possible dangers.
4. Outrages people because it is not only exceedingly widespread but also deadly.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Consider the parents of an eight-year-old girl named, say, Molly.
4:2 Her two best friends, Amy and Imani, live nearby.
4:3 Molly’s parents know that Amy’s parents keep a gun in their house, so they have forbidden Molly to play there.
4:4 Instead, Molly spends a lot of time at Imani’s house, which has a swimming pool in the backyard.
4:5 Molly’s parents feel good about having made such a smart choice to protect their daughter.
4:6 But according to the data, their choice isn’t smart at all.
4:7 [8] (1. In any given 2. In a certain 3. In one particular) year, there is one drowning of a child for every 11,000 residential pools in the United States.
4:8 In a country with 6 million pools, this means that roughly 550 children under the age of ten drown each year.
4:9 Meanwhile, there is 1 child killed by a gun for every 1 million-plus guns.
4:10 In a country with an estimated 200 million guns, this means that roughly 175 children under ten die each year from guns.
4:11 The likelihood of death by pool (1 in 11,000) versus death by gun (1 in 1 million-plus) isn’t even close: Molly is roughly 100 times more likely to die in a swimming accident at Imani’s house than in gunplay at Amy’s.
[23] According to the hypothetical case of Molly’s parents mentioned in the 4th paragraph, which of the following is true?
1. They thought a house with a gun was not remotely as dangerous as a house with a swimming pool.
2. They told her to play at Imani’s house to teach her to be afraid of guns.
3. They thought Amy’s parents might accidentally pull the trigger of their gun.
4. They did not make a very sensible choice from a statistical point of view.

■ 第14段落
14:1 This is the essence of environmentalism.
14:2 It is the guiding principle of [18](2. confined 3. devoted) to the health of the planet, but it is not yet a general worldview.
14:3 The relative indifference to the environment springs from deep within human nature.
14:4 The human brain evidently evolved to commit itself emotionally only to a small piece of geography, a limited band of kinsmen, and two or three generations into the future.
14:5 Why do we think in this short-sighted way?
14:6 The reason is simple: it is a hard-wired part of our heritage.
14:7 For hundreds of millennia those who worked for short-term gain within a small circle of relatives and friends lived longer and left more offspring―even when their collective striving caused their chiefdoms and empires to [19] ( 1. crumble 2. grumble 3. trample) around them.

14:8 The long view that might have saved their distant descendants required a vision and an extended altruism instinctively difficult to marshal.
[29] According to the author, we tend to be rather indifferent to the environment because
1. economists have misled us into believing that environmental problems do not exist.
2. environmentalists have not put enough effort into raising our awareness about it.
3. the human brain has evolved in such a way that we tend to think in the short term.
4. we are egocentric by nature, which prevents us from thinking about the environment.

■ 第13段落
13:1 The environmentalist view, or environmentalism, is fortunately spreading.
13:2 The essence of this view has been defined in the following way.
13:3 Earth, unlike the other solar planets, is not in physical equilibrium.
13:4 It depends on its living shell to create the special conditions under which life is sustainable.
13:5 The soil, water, and atmosphere of its surface have evolved over hundreds of millions of years to their present condition by activity of the biosphere, an extremely complex layer of living creatures.
13:6 The biosphere creates our world anew every day and holds it in a unique physical disequilibrium.
13:7 When we destroy ecosystems and extinguish species, we degrade the greatest heritage this planet has to offer and [17]( 1. hardly 2. conversely 3. thereby) threaten our own existence.
[28] According to the environmentalist’s point of view, which of the following is true about the biosphere?
1. It is possible for us to keep Earth in physical equilibrium by preserving the biosphere.
3. The biosphere plays a relatively minor role in creating the special conditions of Earth.
4. The geographical conditions of Earth accelerate the activity of the biosphere.

■ 第6段落
6:1 In spite of two centuries of doomsaying, humanity is enjoying [6] ( 1. unperturbed 2. unperceived 3. unprecedented) prosperity.
6:2There are environmental problems, but they can be solved.
6:3 Think of them as the detritus of progress, to be cleared away.
6:4 The global economic picture is favorable.
6:5 The GNPs of the industrial countries continue to rise.
6:6 Since 1950 percapita income has risen continuously.
6:7 Even though the world population has increased at an explosive 1.8 percent each year during the same period, cereal production, the source of more than half the food calories of the poorer nations, has more than kept [7] ( 1. pace 2. face 3. race), rising from 275 kilograms per head in the early 1950s to 370 kilograms by the 1980s.
[25] According to this article, which of the following best represents the economists position with regard to environmental problems?
1. Environmental problems can be solved if the GNPs of industrial countries continue to rise.
2. Economic prosperity should be taken into consideration first before talking about environmental problems.
3. Some of the environmental problems are so serious that we may not be able to find solutions in the immediate future.
4. There are indeed environmental problems, but that does not mean that we cannot cope with them.

■ 第7段落
7:1 For two centuries the specter of Malthus* troubled the dreams of futurists.
7:2 By rising exponentially, the doomsayers claimed, population must outstrip the limited resources of the world and bring about famine, chaos, and war.
7:3 On occasion this scenario did [8]( 1. unfold 2. display 3. appeal) locally.
7:4 But that has been more the result of political mismanagement than Malthusian theory.
7:5 Human ingenuity has always found a way to [9]( 1. accelerate 2. accommodate 3. encourage) rising populations and allow most to prosper.
[26] The economist in this article seems to believe that Malthusian theory
1. has not been proven by sufficient evidence.
2. has been proven beyond reasonable doubt.
3. has been applied both locally and globally.
4. has occasionally caused famine, chaos, and war.

■ 第10段落
10:1 Yes, it’s true that the human condition has improved dramatically in many ways.
10:2 But you’re painted only half the [12] ( 1. picture 2. view 3. perspective).
10:4 Yes again―but only on an infinitely large and malleable planet.
10:5 It should be obvious to you that Earth is finite and its environment increasingly brittle.
10:6 No one should look to GNPs and corporate annual reports for a competent [13] ( 1. project 2. projection 3. provider) of the world’s long-term economic future.
10:7 To the information there, if we are to understand the real world, must be added the research reports of natural-resource specialists.
[27] According to the environmentalist, the bright outlook for the future as depicted by the economist is an illusion because
1. it is not based upon GNPs and corporate annual reports.
2. no one knows for sure about the long-term economic future of the world.
3. the economist is just looking at wealthy industrial nations.
4. it is based upon a wrong assumption about Earth.

■ 第6段落
6:1 In spite of two centuries of doomsaying, humanity is enjoying [6] ( 1. unperturbed 2.
unperceived 3. unprecedented) prosperity.
6:2There are environmental problems, but they can be solved.
6:3 Think of them as the detritus of progress, to be cleared away.
6:4 The global economic picture is favorable.

6:5 The GNPs of the industrial countries continue to rise.
6:6 Since 1950 percapita income has risen continuously.

6:7 Even though the world population has increased at an explosive 1.8 percent each year during
the same period, cereal production, the source of more than half the food calories of the poorer nations, has more than kept [7] ( 1. pace 2. face 3. race), rising from 275 kilograms per head in the
early 1950s to 370 kilograms by the 1980s.
[25] According to this article, which of the following best represents the economists position with regard to environmental problems?
1. Environmental problems can be solved if the GNPs of industrial countries continue to rise.
2. Economic prosperity should be taken into consideration first before talking about environmental problems.
3. Some of the environmental problems are so serious that we may not be able to find solutions in the immediate future.
4. There are indeed environmental problems, but that does not mean
that we cannot cope with them.

■第2段落
2:1 One of the critical stages occurs at about the age of two years and can be very [31] (1. trying 2. satisfying 3. obliging) to a parent, tempting him to resolve the situation in a decisive manner which is not conducive to the growth of competence in the child.
2:2 Most children go through a stage of experimentation and exploration of feeding, for example, in which the child [32] (1. frowns upon 2. insists upon 3. attempts to avoid) doing it himself and brooks no interference or suggestion from parents.
2:3 Often the child’s activity seems inefficient and time-consuming to the parent, who in exasperation finally intervenes or [33](1. takes over 2. holds in 3. gives out, wrests the spoon from the child and shovels the mashed and scattered food in his mouth.
2:4 Ideally, the parent would allow the child to gain coordination and competency through manipulating his utensils and feeding himself.
2:5 Similarly, the teacher may later discourage the autonomy strivings of the young child who is fumbling with words, trying to make a circuit with the batteries upside down, or [34] (1. technically
2. also 3. otherwise) engaged in awkward or inefficient behavior, by taking over and doing for the youngster what he wishes and should be allowed to do for himself.
[51] According to this article, which o the following descriptions is true regarding the critical stage of competence growth at the age of two?
1. Many children are adept at acquiring the skills of using utensils properly, and do not need any parental support in feeding.
2. Most children gain competence in feeding themselves through parental help and suggestion when their activity is inefficient.
3. Children go through a natural order of competence growth although the speed of skill development may vary individually.
4. The development of a child’s competence can be hindered by the parents’ intervention in the child’s process of trial and error.

■第7段落
7:1 As a result, the population has quadrupled since 1950.
7:2 Today, an average of 920 people crowd into each square kilometer of Bangladesh, making it one of the most [9](1. largely 2. densely 3. appropriately) populated countries in the world.
7:3 Therein lies the problem:
7:4 population pressure has helped to make droughts more severe and floods potentially more [10] (1. devastating 2. demanding 3. enriching).
7:3 Also, with sanitation still inadequate, the rapid population growth of the past half century has exacerbated problems with waterborne disease.
7:4 Environmental scientist Atiq Rahman [11](1. prefers 2. likens 3. ascribes) Bangladesh to a giant toilet flushed just once a year.
[23] Which of the following best fits the interpretation of the phrase “a victim of its own success” in the 6th paragraph?
1. Initial success creates serious problems later.
2. Success and failure are opposite sides of the same coin.
3. One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
4. Failure is the basis for success.

■第5段落
5:1 Worse still, the issues are overlaid by fractious regional politics.
5:2 For decades, Bangladesh has been [6](1. in harmony with 2. in dispute with 3. in correspondence with) its neighbours ― particularly India― over their management of the rivers that drain into Bangladeshi territory.
5:3 For the country’s politicians, water is the defining issue, and the Ganges ― known in Bangladesh as the Padma ― whose basin is home to some 400 million people, is a perennial bone of contention.
5:4 Despite some progress in reaching agreement over the river’s management, Bangladesh still blames India for [7](1. holding back 2. taking back 3. giving back) too much water in the dry season, and letting the floodgates open each time the monsoon threatens.
[22] How does the political relationship between Bangladesh and India relate to the problem of obtaining safe water?
1. Bangladesh and India have been working together to construct wells in order to use underground water.
2. Bangladesh and India have somehow managed to solve the problem together.
3. Bangladesh and India have seen some progress in the rivers management, but serious disputes still remain.
4. After years of serious discussion, each country now respects the others position with regard to the use of water.

■第1段落
1:1 If Bangladesh were to count her blessings, they would number three: the Brahmaputra, the Meghan and the mighty Ganges.
1:2 These great rivers are practically Bangladesh’s only natural resources.
1:3 In a predominately rural country in which agriculture and freshwater fishing are the keys to the economy, the rivers are the people’s lifeblood.

■第2段落
2:1 But these blessings, allied with the regions summer monsoon climate, are also a curse.
2:2 Although almost two meters of rain fall on Bangladesh each year, more than two thirds [1] (1. go in 2. get in 3. arrive in) just four months.
2:3 For much of the year, the vast delta formed by the three rivers is parched, but in many summers their banks burst, causing massive floods.
2:4 Lacking proper sanitation and water storage facilities, Bangladesh is also [2] (1. prone to 2. immune to 3. adapted to) epidemics of waterborne disease.
2:5 Even during floods, the major problem is the availability of safe water.
[21] Which of the following agrees with the description of Bangladesh’s natural environment in the 1st and 2nd paragraphs?
1. The three major rivers in Bangladesh are the country’s only means for supplying safe, sanitary water throughout the year.
2. The cycle of dry and rainy seasons causes flood and drought, changing the features of the rivers.
3. The combination of the rivers and summer monsoon climate creates a good natural environment for supplying safe water.
4. Bangladeshs abundant rainfall keeps the country green all the year round.

■第9段落
9:1 In the end, Shackleton took five men and sailed eight hundred miles in a lifeboat over stormy seas to reach the inhabited island of South Georgia in the remote South Atlantic.
9:2 When [17] (1. in 2. by. for) some miracle they made their destination, they found they had to cross a nearly impassable frozen mountain range to reach civilization: a whaling station.
9:3 The whalers, who had seen so much in their own hard lives, were in awe of the invincibility of the men.
9:4 Immediately, Shackleton [18] (1. gave up 2. turned around 3. backed out) and led an effort to rescue the rest of the crew on Elephant Island.
9:5 Amazingly, every single one had survived.
[21] Which of the following statements about Shackleton’s expedition best matches the meaning of the expression “he succeeded at the unimaginable” in the 2nd paragraph?
1. Shackleton did not have a good imagination.
2. The survival of the expedition defies the imagination.
3. Shackleton’s expedition was so successful that it’s hard to believe.
4. The Endurance expedition discovered things that no one had imagined before.

■第9段落
9:1 In the end, Shackleton took five men and sailed eight hundred miles in a lifeboat over stormy seas to reach the inhabited island of South Georgia in the remote South Atlantic.
9:2 When [17] (1. in 2. by. for) some miracle they made their destination, they found they had to cross a nearly impassable frozen mountain range to reach civilization: a whaling station.
9:3 The whalers, who had seen so much in their own hard lives, were in awe of the invincibility of the men.
9:4 Immediately, Shackleton [18] (1. gave up 2. turned around 3. backed out) and led an effort to rescue the rest of the crew on Elephant Island.
9:5 Amazingly, every single one had survived.
[29] According to this article, which of the following is a true statement about the Endurance?
1. The Endurance stood firm against the brutal weather.
2. The Endurance moved north to a whaling station.
3. The Endurance carried penguins, seals, and dogs.
4. The Endurance tragically sank to the bottom.

■第8段落
8:1 Eventually, when the ice began shattering beneath them, the men took to their three small lifeboats.
8:2 After more than four months of mind-numbing boredom, they suddenly were [16] (1. pitched into 2. thrown beyond 3. empowered by) an intense battle for survival that brought them to the limits of human capabilities.
8:3 They fought the sea for nearly a week before landing.
8:4 They were cold, hungry, exhausted, and so thirsty their tongues swelled in their mouths.
8:5 When they finally reached Elephant Island, they found it a stinking, guano covered place ravaged by storms.
8:6 Most of the crew spent the last months of their ordeal huddled under two overturned lifeboats.

[26] What happened to Shackleton and his men when the Antarctic summer came?
1. Warmer temperatures finally made their survival battle less intense.
2. The shattering ice forced them onto small lifeboats.
3. They floated on the sea in their lifeboats, going nowhere.
4. Animals such as penguins, seals, and dogs came back to the camp.

■第4段落
4:1 It is a tale so amazing you’ll wonder why the Endurance saga hasn’t become a part of every school age child’s reading.
4:2 If Shackleton’s expeditions ultimately were all disappointments to him for [6] (1. coming close to
2. keeping up with 3. falling short of) their goals, he made plenty of grand achievements to his credit along the way.
4:3 As a member of the Discovery team, Shackleton was among the first to attempt to reach the South Pole, or even to venture inland from the Antarctic Coast.
4:4 He was the first to discover vegetation on a remote Antarctic island.
4:5 His Nimrod expedition located the Magnetic South Pole, invaluable for navigational charts.
4:6 He was the first to find coal in the Antarctic, altering how scientists saw the makeup and the origins of the continent.
4:7 He pioneered innovations in exploration packing, clothing, diet, transport, and equipment.
[23] Which of the following is not a true statement about Shackleton’s great achievements? 1 . He was one of the first to venture into the Antarctic interior.
2. He discovered that there were plants on an Antarctic island.
3. He found that the Antarctic had coal, as anticipated by scientists.
4. He was a pioneer of innovating what was necessary for expeditions.

■第10段落
10:1 On the other hand, less individualism is [47](1. not always 2. far from 3. anything but) a good thing.
10:2 In Malaysia, Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Bidaai recently warned that religious and ethnic tensions could cause the country “to fail as a multiracial and multireligious nation.”
10:3 His comments followed recent clashes between Malay Muslims and ethnic Chinese.
10:4 [48](1. At 2. By 3. On) Internet bulletin boards in Japan, South Korea and China, young nationalists trade insults over everything from Japan’s 20th-century imperialism to North Koreas recent nuclear test ― suggesting that economic integration does not necessarily lead to warm diplomatic relations.
[57] The article cautions that
1. among todays youth, nationalism and individualism have combined to incite violence.
2. diplomatic relations throughout the Asian region have led to newly emerging conflicts.
3. differing ideas about religion are causing tensions between older and younger generations.
4. too much of a sense of belonging to one group can cause hatred or distrust of others.

[58] Economic integration in Asia has
1. led to a cooling of relations with non Asian countries such as the United States.
2. supported the development of pan―Asian NGO networks.
3. caused bad governance and political unrest in some countries.
4. not removed all of the tensions that exist among Asian countries.

■第8段落
8:1 “We have a lot of young people who are extremely intelligent and earn big salaries,” says 27 year old Mishap Bhatt, who heads the group’s Mumbai operation.
8:2 “They meet others, brainstorm solutions to problems.
8:3 The feel-good factor is extremely high.”
8:4 iVolunteers, which is expanding its services through links with companies also looking to do [45](1. business 2. good 3. better), reflects a change in India:
8:5 The tradition of village level charitable giving is being replaced by corporate and individual giving, coming from cities and the new rich.
[56] According to the article, the new organization called “iVolunteers” is beginning to
1. substitute charity in the village with charity from wealthy urban professionals.
2. encourage urban youth to meet and discuss their problems with each other.
3. form new companies that wish to expand and operate within villages.
4. offer high salaries in order to attract the most intelligent young workers in India.

■第6段落
6:1 Disorienting change can inspire what looks like selfish behavior, to be sure, as rapid economic growth destroys traditional social structures faster than new ones can be built.
6:2 One example is the magnetic pull that boomtowns like Shanghai, Ho Chi Minh City or Bangalore exert on the best and brightest young talent in their [42] ( 1. respective 2. competitive . developing) countries.
6:3 Often, the rural migrants who make good in the city find themselves disconnected and alone.
6:4 “Initially, a lot of their riches go to satisfying selfish demands,” says Shelagh Sanai, a 30-year- old resident of Mumbai, India, who received his M.B.A from the Indian Institute of Rural Development.
[55] During the initial stages of their lives in cities, young Asian jobseekers from rural areas tend to
1. become socially isolated, lacking bonds with friends and neighbors.
2. seek ways to help their parents and relatives back home in rural areas.
3. join with other youth and participate in NGOs and volunteer activities.
4. find employment related to new development initiatives in large companies.

■第1段落
1:1 The humanitarian response to the 2004 Asian tsunami was swift and global.
1:2 But compared to the tasks that outside relief agencies and foreign soldiers undertook, those assigned to local Indonesian volunteers in Banda Aceh were far more grim.
1:3 Their mission: to clear the provincial capital of corpses, both in order to preserve the dignity of the tens of thousands of victims and also to prevent epidemics among survivors.
1:4 For weeks, they gradually went district by district through the wrecked city, freeing decomposing remains from the rubble for burial in mass graves.
1:5 “It was very, very surprising,” says Hezbollah M. Saad, an Indonesian human rights commissioner.
1:6 “We never imagined that people would come [31] (1. reluctantly 2. Spontaneously 3. Finally).”
[51] An Indonesian rights commissioner was surprised by the humanitarian response to the 2004 Asian tsunami because
1. there were so many corpses to clear.
2. it took weeks to go district by district through the wrecked city. 3. many people came because of a natural impulse to help.
4. an unexpected number of people were unwilling to join the relief effort.

■第5段落
5:1 When Edison reached the age of forty in February 1887, he had achieved more than many men do in their [8](1. Scopes 2. Areas 3. Lifetimes).
5:2 The development of commercial electric lighting had brought him worldwide fame and a considerable fortune.
5:3 The famous invention of his incandescent lamp had taken place in 1879 at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, the “invention factory” where groups of [9](1. investors 2. experimenters
3. executives) had developed a stream of new products that included electric lighting.
5:4 In the years that [10](1. made 2. continued 3. followed) the invention of the electric lamp, Edison and his men built the first complete supply system based on a central power station.
5:5 New York’s Pearl Street station was completed in 1882.
5:6 It distributed electricity to a few blocks of the business district in lower Manhattan.
5:7 This was not the first electric light in New York City.
5:8 [11](1.when 2. for 3. although) Charles Brush and Edward Weston had already installed arc lights in public places, but it was the prototype of the commercial distribution of electricity.
5:9 The plain, shop front facade of the Pearl Street station did not do justice to this historic installation, which proved that large-scale electricity supply was technologically feasible.
5:10 It was a triumph for Edison and the small beginning of a great new industry.
5:11 [12] (1. The structures 2. The features 3. Copies) of the station soon appeared on both sides of the Atlantic, as affluent city dwellers clamored for the new light and entrepreneurs rushed to form local Edison lighting companies.
5:12 To his contemporaries, Edison, now known as the “Wizard of Menlo Park,” stood astride a mighty business empire.
[24] As regards electricity and electric light, which of the following is Edison’s contribution?
1. The scientific discovery of electricity.
2. The supply of electric power to new industries.
3. The first electric light in use in New York City.
4. The first electric power supply system for the public.

■第7段落
7:1 A more traditional economic approach measured the value of leisure time based on one’s hourly wage, and it was made famous by the American economist Gary Becker in 1965.
7:2 The idea was that any time that went toward leisure could be reinvested in work.

7:3 But income based formulas have [46](1. negligible 2. contrasting. obvious) limitations.
7:4 For instance, many people on a fixed salary do not have the choice of getting extra pay if they work overtime.
7:5 In addition, some people’s work is keeping house, which usually does not [47](1. come 2. advance 3. decrease) with a salary.
7:6 Yet in figuring out how to maximize your time, salary is a logical starting point.
7:7 Economists suggest that you begin by calculating what an hour of your time is worth, based on your salary.
7:8 Using that figure, you can then compare the cost of doing a task yourself versus outsourcing it.
7:9 If you do it yourself, you have to add the price of materials or supplies.

7:10 If you hire someone else, of course, you have to calculate the time it takes to find and manage that person.
7:11 Then you are [48](1. ready 2. opposed 3. ineligible) to tackle the other half of the calculation.

7:12 This looks at the non financial costs and benefits.
7:13 Among the factors to consider are how much you enjoy doing the job yourself, and what you are willing to give up in order to do it.
[58] According to the article, which of the following do income-based formulas ignore?
1. Some uses of time or some tasks are not paid or do not earn income.
2. You Will receive overtime pay when you stay late at work.
3. Ones income can vary throughout the year or throughout life.
4. Income-based formulas do not calculate how much we spend.

[59] According to the article, where should you start in order to calculate the worth of your time?
1. The value of your feeling of enjoyment or feeling of sacrifice.
2. The value of materials and supplies you need to do tasks at home.
3. The value of your salary divided by the number of hours you work.
4. The value of the salary of the person you hire to do tasks for you.

■第8段落
8:1 Many do-it-yourself veterans are grappling with these same issues.

8:2 We tried two tasks:
8:3 one, filling in our tax forms by ourselves versus hiring a tax accountant;

8:4 two, buying a jar of pre-chopped garlic versus buying a garlic press device and
doing it ourselves.
8:5 The tax accountant finished his work only two minutes faster than we did ourselves when we used a software program, if we include the time it took to travel to his office.
8:6 However, employing him cost $100 more.
8:7 Buying the jar of garlic saved us 22 minutes of chopping and slicing by ourselves, making it worthwhile, but the garlic in the jar does not taste as good as fresh garlic.
8:7 We then hired a professional to organize our desk.
8:8 She did half of it, but [49](1. charged 2. paid 3. saved) nearly $100 per hour, during which we had to stay with her to help her understand the piles of papers, making it not worthwhile.
[55] According to the article, time-value calculations can show us how much money
1. we spend outsourcing a task, compared to our income during the time that task takes.
2. we spend going to the places that provide services for us.
3. we should try to eliminate from expenditures by cooking for ourselves.
4. we would save if every household had one parent who stayed home to raise children.

■第6段落
6:1 But economists recognize that for many families, you must adjust these calculations using what they call “psychological variables.”
6:2 Some divide household [43](1. expenditures 2. management 3. activities) into two categories:

6:3“consumption,” which should be something you enjoy, and “production,” which is anything that feels like work.
6:4 If you love gardening, it is consumption, but if you hate gardening, it is production and you will be more [44](1. reluctant 2. inclined 3. able) to hire someone else to do it.
6:5 As one economist says, “it’s not just about the money.”
6:6 That was how Sarah Kallie [45] (1. justified 2. uncovered 3. undermined) her long battle with the telephone company.
6:7 It was worth it for the satisfaction, says Ms. Kalliney.

57] According to the 6th paragraph, which of the following can we determine by distinguishing between “consumption” and “production”?
1. Gardening is less time-consuming when we hire a gardener to help us.
2. The cost basis of outsourcing a task, measured against our hourly income.
3. Whether hiring an accountant saves time but will cost the same as doing it yourself.
4. How enjoyment or the feeling of “work” helps us in measuring the value of our time.

■第4段落
4:1 It the past, economists looked [37](1. liberally 2. unwillingly. strictly) at your income in order to calculate the value of your leisure hours.
4:2 Now, the study of the “household economy” is getting fresh encouragement.

4:3 It is even beginning to take into account intangible factors such as satisfaction and pleasure.

4:4 Many governments have conducted surveys on the use of time within the household, in an effort to provide reliable data.
4:5 Some use a monthly survey, [38](1. if 2. where 3. which) they ask people to report how much
time they spend doing such things as exercising or driving their kids to various places.
academic essays on this topic are also circulating.
4:7 Some of them address issues such as the impact of timesaving technology, including microwave ovens and washing machines.
4:8 This kind of scholarship is gaining new relevance now that lower household budgets are [39] (1. forcing 2. requesting 3. helping) some people to work longer hours, which emphasizes the importance of the cost-effective use of free time.
[53] In the 4th paragraph, the notion of the “household economy” is introduced in order to emphasize
1. the economic value of the earnings of all family members.
2. the time used for various activities of the entire household as a unit.
3. the psychological value of the time spent by all family members.
4. the value placed on shrinking household budgets.

■第1段落
1:1 Sarah Kallie is a Manhattan executive who is so busy at her job that she does not have time to do her laundry, visit her parents, or clean the cats sand box.
1:2 She eats out six nights a week and gets her groceries delivered to her doorstep.
1:3 But she recently spent nearly 10 hours battling her mobile phone company because they charged her 9 in late fees.
[51] According to the article, some people save time by
1. visiting their parents to get help with household tasks.
2. relaxing with a variety of leisure-time activities.
3. buying a garlic press device in order to taste fresh garlic.
4. eating out and having daily necessities delivered to their homes.

■第10段落
10:1 But if an intelligent designer indeed created the human eye, that designer made some big mistakes.
10:2 The eye has a blind spot in the middle that [16] (1. enhances 2. induces 3. reduces) its capacity to see.
10:3 Other creatures, more dependent on sharp eyesight than we are, do not have this blind spot.
10:4 Some people are colorblind and others must start wearing glasses when they are small children.
10:5 All of these variations and shortcomings are consistent with evolution.
10:6 None is consistent with the view that the eye was designed by an intelligent being.
[26] In the 10th paragraph, the example of the blind spot is used to support the argument that
1. other creatures depend more on sharp eyesight than we do.
2. the human eye is not perfect.
3. the theory of evolution does not tell the full story.
4. the theory of evolution is acceptable.

■第6段落
6:1 What existed before the Big Bang created the universe?
6:2 Is there an afterlife of heaven (or hell) that awaits us after we die?
6:3 Can a faith in God change our lives?
6:4 There are religious scientists who believe that God exists and affects our lives, and there are scientists who reject the idea of God and his actions.
6:5 For example, Isaac Newton was a deeply religious man, and what we today call the Newtonian laws, he [10] (1. attached 2. attributed 3. contributed) to Gods handiwork.
6:6 On the other hand, Charles Darwin, though he started his adult life as a sincere believer intending to become a priest, abandoned his insistence that God created animal species and replaced that view with his extraordinary, and now widely accepted, theory of evolution.
[22] According to the article, which of the following is in accordance with Isaac Newton’s thinking
1. God was the designer of the Big Bang that created the universe.
2. The speed with which an object falls toward the ground depends on its weight.
3. The theory of evolution has not been proven as fully as the theory of gravity.
4. The theory of gravity prevails because God exists.

■第5段落
5:1 Perhaps the most serious concern about virtual schools is whether they can teach students to work cooperatively, and to [4](1. acquire 2. interrupt 3. reject) the humanistic and egalitarian values that are the foundations of democratic society.
5:2 Many who oppose on demand virtual schools claim that, because such schools do not [5](1. prevent 2. provide 3. propose) live interaction, they are destined to diminish civic engagement and deepen the social isolation that can be seen among so many of today’s young people.
[25] According to the article, opponents of virtual schooling think that increasing numbers of young people
1. do not like to speak up in class.
2. will not have Internet access in the future.
3. lack a significant connection to anyone.
4. have a great deal of civic awareness.

■第6段落
6:1 Arguments [6](1.related 2. responsible. resistant) to direct experience are not new.

6:2 The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued in The Rhetoric that temporal distancing [7](1. compares with 2.contrasts with 3. contributes to) a lack of sympathy, because it is difficult for people to feel close to events of the past or future.
6:3 The English philosopher David Hume made similar comments about spatial distancing in A Treatise on Human Nature (1740), maintaining that it is difficult for people to feel any relation to objects from which they are [8](1. logically derived 2. far removed 3. separated by time).
[27] The author cites Aristotle and Hume in order to emphasize that spatial and temporal distancing can
1. remove barriers to communication among a wide variety of participants.
2. hinder the development of sympathy.
3. help people to develop the skills they need in democratic society.
4. bring people closer to the events of the past or future.

■第9段落
9:1 However, the compact city policies proposed so far have been based more in theory than in practice, and the arguments are contentious.
9:2 The theory is to an extent based on the assumption that restrictions on land use will help to concentrate development and lessen the need to travel, thus [48](1. generating 2. increasing 3. reducing) vehicle emissions.
9:3 The promotion of the use of public transport, walking and cycling is often cited as a solution.
9:4 Further reductions of harmful emissions might also result from more energy efficient land use planning, combined power and heating schemes, and energy efficient buildings.
9:5 It is also argued that higher densities may help to make the provision of amenities and facilities economically viable, [49](1.blocking 2. enhancing 3. reducing) social sustainability.

■第10段落
10:1 But on the down side, the compact city may become overcrowded and suffer a loss of urban quality, with less open space, more congestion and pollution, and may simply not represent the sort of environment in which the majority of people would wish to live if they had the [50](1.choice 2. interest 3. right).
[59] Which of the following statements is inconsistent with the article?
1. Compact city policies have been proposed more on the basis of theory than practice.
2. Energy efficient land use planning may reduce vehicle emissions.
3. The overcrowding of a compact city will make social sustainability impossible.
4. People may not wish to live in compact cities unless their amenities are guaranteed.

■第8段落
8:1 The vision of the compact city has been dominated by the model of the densely developed core of many historic European cities.
8:2 These are a great attraction not just to architects, planners and urban designers, [46](1. and 2. but 3. or) to countless tourists who flock to see them.
8:3 They are seen, often by those from outside, as ideal places to live and experience the vitality and variety of urban life.
8:4 The danger is that it is a romantic vision, one which assumes a golden age that can be recaptured through urban form, leading to a sustainable and benign civility.
8:5 Perhaps it is not [47](1. believable 2. interesting 3. Surprising) that the strongest advocate for the compact city has been the European Community.
[58] Which of the following statements is consistent with the argument of the 8th paragraph?
1. Compact city policies are a great attraction to countless tourists.
2. The golden age can be recaptured through urban form.
3. A compact city is an ideal place to live and experience the vitality and variety of urban life.
4. The current vision of the compact city may be dangerous because it has been dominated by the model of historic European cities.

■第1段落
1:1 The issue of sustainable urban development has concentrated the minds of governments and research organizations around the world.
1:2 Cities have been seen as the cause of environmental degradation and resource depletion, casting an ecological footprint across the globe, far beyond their immediate regions.
1:3 More often than not, cities are seen as problematic with congestion, pollution, poor housing, collapsing infrastructure, crime and poverty.
1:4 Yet it is cities that drive economies, and it is within them that innovation occurs and the majority of global output is produced.
[51] In the 1st paragraph, the term “ecological footprint” means
1. expansion of urban areas to undeveloped land.
2. road or railway construction across undeveloped land.
3. forest conservation activities.
4. planting trees on barren land.

[27] Which of the following items can be included in the list, “the spear, the bow, the gun, and the guided missile” in the 12th paragraph?
1. Armor.
2. The cannon.
3. The helmet.
4. The sword.

■第12段落
12:1 As their bodies became more and more defenseless, so their means of offense became steadily more frightful.
12:2 With stone, bronze, and iron, they [19] (1. got 2. made 3. ran) the gamut of everything that could pierce and slash, and quite early in time they learned how to strike down their victims from a long distance.
12:3 The spear, the bow, the gun, and finally the guided missile gave them weapons of infinite range and [20](1. all 2. more. none) but infinite power.
[26] Why was it that “their means of offense became steadily more frightful” as stated in the 12th paragraph?
1. Humans learned the art of aggressive diplomacy.
2. Humans adapted to harsh environmental changes.
3. Humans learned how to fight in groups.
4. Humans transformed simple tools into weapons.

■第9段落
9:1 Minority languages, like Maori and Romansh, are today doing very much the same thing as Cicero did for Latin, constructing vocabulary out of existing resources within the languages, precisely so that they can be used to talk about areas like computers, law, science, and so on, for which they have not been used so much in the past.
9:2 These two languages are [20] (1. likely 2. unlikely 3. inclined) ever to become international languages of science or diplomacy, but if history had been different, they could have, and then we might have been wondering whether perhaps English was ‘just not good enough’.
[27] According to this article, in what way is Maori similar to Romansh? 1. Neither of them is an official language.
2. Neither of them is suitable for discussing technical subjects.
3. Both of them make extensive use of compounds.
4. Both of them are considered minority languages.

■第8段落
8:1 The research results by Gyllensten and colleagues have indicated that the field of mitochondrial population genomics will provide a rich [16] (1. evidence 2. solution 3. resource) of genetic information for evolutionary studies.
8:2 Nevertheless, mtDNA is only one aspect of the analysis of human evolution and only reflects the genetic history of females.
8:3 For a [17] (1. neutral view 2. ambiguous view 3. detailed view), a combination of genetic systems is required.
8:4 With the human genome project reaching completion, the ease by which such data may be generated will increase, providing us with an ever more detailed understanding of our genetic history.
[28] According to the eighth paragraph, which of the following statements is most correct?
1. mtDNA analysis is the only way to provide us with a detailed understanding of our genetic history.
2. More than one genetic system should be used in combination to analyze human evolution.
3. mtDNA analysis will not be significant in future evolutionary studies because it only reflects the genetic history of females.
4. The human genome project will support genetic systems for understanding our genetic history.

■第7段落
7:1 Another question is when H. sapiens arose in the first place.
7:2 Molecular clocks would be well suited to address that question if our closest relative were living.
7:3 [14] (1. Also 2. Not only 3. But) the closest relative to modern humans, whether H. erectus or some other species, is unfortunately extinct.
7:4 The earliest fossils of modern H. sapiens are 130,000 years old, so that is the most recent time boundary for the origin of our species.
7:5 Studies of ancient DNA provide hints to the older time boundary.
7:6 The split between H. neanderthalensis (a species which is not necessarily our closest relative) and H. sapiens has been indicated by a DNA clock at 465,000 years ago.
7:7 So our species probably arose somewhere between 130,000 and 465,000 years ago.
7:8 An estimate of 200,000 years ago is not [15] (1. possible 2. appropriate 3. unreasonable) given the transition seen in the African fossil record between ancient and modern humans around that time.
[27] According to the seventh paragraph, which of the following statements is most correct?
1. The molecular clocks show precisely when H. sapiens first arose.
2. It is not difficult to estimate when H. sapiens first arose because the molecular clocks of our closest relative show the timing of the origin of our species.
3. The time boundaries for the origin of our species are estimated by the studies of fossils and DNA evidence respectively.
4. The estimate about the origin of our species should include the transition seen in the African fossil record.

■第6段落
6:1 Gyllensten and colleagues estimate that the divergence of Africans and non Africans occurred 52,000 plus or minus 28,000 years ago, shortly followed by a population expansion in non- Africans.
6:2 This date may even be a bit too recent.
6:3 Other genetic markers indicate an exodus from Africa around 100,000 years ago, which would be more consistent with fossil and archaeological evidence of modern humans outside Africa.
6:4 But, no single genetic marker can indicate that event precisely, and the mitochondrion date is approximately [12](1.scope 2. range 3. term).
6:5 Some nuclear DNA markers have suggested earlier dates for the exodus from Africa, so more data is needed to provide a fuller picture.
6:6 Nonetheless, most of the genetic evidence indicates that there were only about 10,000 breeding individuals for a long time before the recent expansion of modern humans outside Africa.
6:7 Such a small population size is [13](1. incompatible 2. compatible 3. comparable) with the multiregional model, which would require many more individuals to maintain genetic movement among continents.
[25] According to the sixth paragraph, which of the following statements is incorrect?
1. Gyllensten and colleagues’ research shows that the divergence between Africans and non- Africans occurred within the past 100,000 years.
2. The fossil and archaeological evidence of modern humans outside of Africa appears to agree with the genetic analysis that the exodus from Africa occurred around 100,000 years ago.
3. The analysis for mitochondrial genomes gives new evidence in terms of the exodus from Africa.
4. All the genetic markers show a common time for the divergence of Africans and non Africans.

[26] According to the scientific information in the sixth paragraph, which of the following statements is most correct?
1. The multiregional model seems to be correct because it assumes that more than 10,000 breeding individuals existed for a long time before the recent expansion of modern humans outside Africa.
2. Only one piece of evidence suggests that there were only about 10,000 breeding individuals for a long time before the recent expansion of modern humans outside Africa.
3. The multiregional model provides similar analytical evidence to the genetic evidence that there were only 10,000 breeding individuals for a long time before the recent expansion of modern humans outside Africa.
4. It seems true that there were only 10,000 breeding individuals for a long time before the recent expansion of modern humans outside Africa because most of the genetic analyses show the same result.

■第10段落
10:1 Another opinion was offered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
10:2 In 1996, [17](1. anonymously 2. unanimously 3.necessarily) held that “A threat or use of force by means of nuclear weapons that is contrary to Article 2, paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter* and that fails to meet all the requirements of Article 51 [relating to self-defense], is unlawful.”
10:3 Nevertheless, it went [18](1. toward 2. again 3. on) to hold that in the current state of international law, the Court cannot conclude definitively whether the threat or use of nuclear weapons would be lawful or unlawful in an extreme circumstance of self-defense, in which the very survival of a State would be at stake.
[27] Based on the tenth paragraph, which of the following statements is most correct?
1. The ICJ categorically condemned the use of nuclear weapons as illegal.
2. 1’he ICJ said that nuclear weapons might possibly be used for the sake of self-defense.
3. The ICJ did not say anything about nuclear weapons; instead, it prohibited the use or threat of use of biological weapons.
4. The ICJ supported the ban of weapons of mass destruction, for they threaten the global environment.

■第2段落
2:1 By the seventh century some of these principles had spread to the Islamic world.
2:2 The leading Islamic statement on the law of nations written in the ninth century to some extent
reflects principles laid [2](1. upon 2. down 3. by) in the Old Testament, with its ban on the killing of women, children, the old and [3](1. the helpless 2. the help 3. helpful).
2:3 Moreover, a prisoner of war should not be killed, but he may be ransomed* or set free.
2:4 But, prisoners might be killed if it were considered advantageous in conducting a war [4](1. therefore 2. however 3. despite), this would not be so if the prisoners converted to Islam.
[22] Based on the discussion of Islamic law in the second paragraph, which of the following statements is most correct?
1. In fact, the prisoners of war tended to be treated badly in the Islamic world.
2. The prisoners of war were killed unless they were ransomed.
3. Some restrictions were observed during armed conflict in the Islamic world by the seventh century.
4. Even if prisoners of war became Muslims, they were killed unless they were ransomed.

■第1段落
1:1 It has been recognized since earliest times that some restraints should be observed during armed conflict.
1:2 Already in the Old Testament* there are instances of limitations set by God.
1:3 Sun Tzu* maintained that in war one should attack the enemy armies, and that “the worst policy is to attack cities.
1:4 Attack cities only when there is no alternative.”
1:5 In ancient India it was considered that war should be conducted on a basis of equality between the opponents:

1:6 “A car warrior should fight a car warrior.
1:7 One on horse should fight one on horse.
1:8 Elephant riders must fight with elephant riders, as one on foot fights a foot soldier.”
1:9 According to Homer*, the ancient Greeks considered that the use of poison on weapons was forbidden by the gods;
1:10 and among the city states, temples and priests and embassies could not be attacked.
1:11 The Romans were more regular and disciplined soldiers than those of any other ancient nation.
1:12 They did not, as a rule, lower themselves to indiscriminate massacre and [1](1. unrestrained
2. unavailable 3. spotted) destruction.
[21] Based on the entire reading, which of the following statements is most correct?
1. The Old Testament was used to effectively control the war.
2. In the Middle Ages, the rules of war were more systematically explained in military documents than today.
3. The Geneva Conventions provide that nuclear weapons have to be used according to the opinions of the ICJ.
4. Even in ancient times, there existed the concept of having to observe some restraints during armed conflict.

■第5段落
5:1 Peace Works, founded in 1994, also believes that peace may be reached through joint enterprise, but it is (1. by no means 2. not only 3. perhaps) unique because it was established expressly for the purpose of encouraging the development of cooperative business ventures between different groups of people.
5:2 To qualify for PeaceWorks’ aid, companies must be crowned by persons of different nationalities or ethnicities that have habitually been in conflict.
5:3 Peace Works serves as a consultant for marketing these companies’ products and [10](1. exchanging 2. facilitating 3. profiting) distribution and sales.
5:4 Peace Works is now a multinational corporation with more than 3,000 sales outlets in the United States alone.
5:5 Peace Works Specialty Foods, a subsidiary of Peace Works, supports ventures between Israeli manufacturers who buy their raw materials from Palestinian farmers; it also directs a project involving a Texan manufacturer and farmers in the strife filled Mexican state of Chiapas.
5:6 Peace Works provides similar services to the textile and clothing industries.
5:7 The Arab co-owner of a company with which PeaceWorks [11](1. promotes 2. disputes 3. collaborates) commented, “Companies like this are good for the Arab people, better than making war.”
5:8 Peace Works’ local partners are not the only ones acknowledging its work so far.
5:9 Global leaders have also acknowledged the success of Peace Works.
[24] According to this article, which of the following statements about Peace Works is most correct?
1. Peace Works is not directly involved in producing particular products.
2. Peace Works has sales outlets only in the United States so far.
3. Peace Works operates solely in the Middle East.
4. Peace Works is more highly regarded by local partners than by global leaders.

■第2段落
2:1 The need for socially conscious enterprise was initially recognized in the 1980s, when organizations like the Social Venture Network [2](1. founded 2. sought 3. found) to create a network of entrepreneurs who would design and implement innovative ways in which business could be used to benefit society.
2:2 Until recently, this agenda meant that companies gave away a certain percentage of their pre tax earnings to a worthy cause or Organization and supported projects for social change, which benefited children, families, disadvantaged groups, and the environment.
2:3 Since the 1990s, [3](1. nonetheless 2. nevertheless 3. However), this original philosophy has evolved further.
2:4 Businesses have realized that creating a highly profitable venture does not require a sole focus on increasing profitability: businesses can simultaneously create profit and foster long-term economic stability and peace in their countries of operation.
in the second paragraph means to
1. foster peace between groups in conflict.
2. create a network of entrepreneurs.
3. benefit society through business.
4. create a highly profitable venture.

■第1段落
1:1 The idea of using trade to create political stability is not a new one.
1:2 It took the form of imperialism in the late 19th century, when colonies were used to help the industrialization of the colonial powers.
1:3 After centuries of change, the fundamental principle remains the same, though with a shift in focus.
1:4 Now, private companies rather than governments are attempting to foster peace between groups in conflict by involving them in cooperative business ventures.
1:5 David Lubetsky, CEO of one such company, Peace Works, says, “The more companies operate and profit together, the more they will gain a common interest in preserving and cementing those bonds… and hopefully someday, prosperity will make stability prevail.”
1:6 This movement takes the socially conscious business practices of the last quarter century one step [1](1. more 2. further 3. far) ; rather than just promoting donations, this new theory gives businesses an incentive to become involved in creating peace by establishing commercial and personal links between groups in conflict.
[21] The “fundamental principle” in the first paragraph is one in which
1. trade is used to create political stability.
2. imperial colonies help the governments of industrializing countries.
3. the governments of industrial countries handle social unrest at home.
4. private companies rather than governments are attempting to faster peace.

■第5段落
5:1 The new losses in biodiversity are sometimes called the “second Silent Spring.”
5:2 However, although they are [6](1. comparable 2. concerned 3. associated) with the intensification and industrialization of agriculture, they involve more subtle and indirect effects than the poisoning of wildlife by insecticides.
5:3 In general terms, intensification refers to making the greatest possible proportion of primary production available for human consumption.
5:4 To the [7](1. area 2. amount 3. extent) that this is achieved, the rest of nature is bound to suffer.
[29] In this article, what does the term “second Silent Spring” mean?
1. There are more subtle and indirect effects than the insecticide traces in the decline in the number of bird species.
2. A traditional environment is protected in the farmland to avoid a decline in bird numbers.
3. The side effects of insecticides damaged the intensification and industrialization of agriculture.
4. The decline in insect and plant populations in primary production farmland caused the decline of bird numbers.

■第3段落
3:1 [2](1. Opposite 2. Particular 3. Parallel) changes have taken place in many other European countries, although these have not been documented in as much detail as in Britain, where censuses are carried out by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO).
3:2 In all, 116 species of farmland birds — one fifth of European birds — are now of conservation concern.
[28] Which of the following is true about farmland birds according to the information given in this article?
1. All European countries have detailed documentation concerning the changes in farmland birds.
2. Only Britain has any documentation on the decline in bird numbers.
3. Similar changes in farmland birds have been documented in many European countries.
4. Similar schemes for increasing farmland birds have been documented in many European countries.

■第10段落
10:1 On a larger scale, there are unresolved questions for conservation ecology about the [15](1. moral values 2. policy decisions 3. relative merits) of a less intensive, more environmentally friendly agriculture throughout the countryside on the Eastern European model versus a highly intensive agriculture in bread basket regions with separate, large nature reserves on the North American model.
10:2 The United Kingdom is probably too small for the North American model, but one could imagine some form of it on a Europe wide basis, especially if reduced subsidies were to make agricultural production [16](1. unresponsive 2. unrealized 3.uneconomic) in some areas, and instead conservation were to be subsidized.
[27] In the 10th paragraph, the Eastern European model of agriculture is compared with the North American model, in order to illustrate
1. a State planned economy versus a free market economy.
2. an agriculture for import versus an agriculture for export.
3. an uneconomic local agribusiness versus a government-subsidized agriculture.
4. an environmentally friendly agriculture versus an intensive agriculture.

■第7段落
7:1 The changes in British agriculture over the past 30 years, which have many parallels with other parts of the world, have sought to increase production and productivity.
7:2 The success of the green revolution in achieving this is undeniable.
7:3 In spite of rapid population growth, about 25% more food per person is produced now than 30 years ago.
7:4 However, the need to conserve wildlife [9](1. in comparison with 2. in opposition to 3. in harmony with) agriculture is beginning to be recognized.
7:5 Reforms have been proposed that will reduce the incentive for production and allow other important considerations, such as environmental benefits, to come into play.
7:6 But the proposals as they stand are [10](1. totally clear 2. virtually silent 3. completely sound) about what environmental benefits are expected and how they will be achieved.
[24] In the 7th paragraph, the term “green revolution” refers to
1. the technological changes in agriculture over the past 30 years.
2. the peaceful change of power in former Eastern European countries.
3. the victory of the Green Party in EU elections.
4. the increasing world awareness of environmental issues.

■第6段落
6:1 Can we be sure that the bird declines in the United Kingdom are caused by agricultural intensification?
6:2 Although the cause of these declines has not been proven, there are some suggestive figures.
6:3 For example, annual BTO censuses of 42 species of breeding birds show that 13 species living [8](1. exclusively 2. prevalently 3. geographically) in farmland declined by an average of 30% between 1968 and 1995, while 29 species of birds that can live anywhere have increased by an average of 23%.
[23] According to the figures in the 6th paragraph, which of the following is correct?
1. A total of 42 species of birds declined over the last 27 years.
2. In 1995, farmland species declined by a total of 53%.
3. A total of 29 species of birds decreased by 23%.
4. The birds increased or decreased in number depending on their habitats.

■第10段落
10:1 Supporters of the “language organ” theory still try to [14](1. reject 2. Support 3. reconcile) Chomsky’s theory with Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.
10:2 They argue that complex organs — the eye, for example — arise through an evolutionary process of natural selection.
10:3 This is true, but organs such as the eye emerge over tens of millions of years not over a mere six million years.
10:4 When it comes to closely related species that have recently descended from a common ancestor, one of them can’t possibly have enough time to develop an entirely new biological system.
10:5 For example, if the African elephant has a trunk, you expect to find a trunk on its relative, the Indian elephant.
10:6 The human and the chimpanzee descended from a common ancestor even more recently than the two elephant species.
10:7 Finding a language organ in humans but not in chimps would be like finding a trunk on only one of the elephants.
[28] The author discusses the case of the African elephant and the Indian elephant in order to show that
1. it is against the theory of evolution for the two elephant species to develop a trunk.
2. it is theoretically possible for closely related species to have totally different biological systems.
3. an evolutionary process of natural selection enables new organs to emerge within a short period of time.
4. it is inconceivable for humans to have developed a new organ that apes don’t have within a relatively short period of time.

■第2段落
2:1 Today linguists agree that King James was wrong: a child is not born with knowledge of a specific language.
2:2 We know that language develops as a child interacts with adults.
2:3 However, exactly what happens in the process of language acquisition [1](1. regains 2. retains 3. remains) a matter of debate.
2:4 Somehow, virtually all children acquire a means of communication so complex that no one has ever fully described the grammatical rules for even a single language.

■第4段落
4:1 What does this have to do with the mystery of child language acquisition?
4:2 If we knew that our ancestors developed language through cognition and learning, then it [4] (1. denies 2. follows 3. proves) that modern human children probably do the same thing.
4:3 Children must use the same [5] (1. applications 2. rules 3. strategies) to learn language — observation, imitation, and play — that they use to learn other skills, like tying their shoes or playing the piano.
4:4 Language, of course, is more complicated than shoe tying and more universal than piano playing, so somewhere along the [6] (1. avenue 2. way 3. street) humans must have developed a specialized way of learning in order to acquire language.

■第8段落
8:1 [10](1.Unexpectedly 2. Fortunately 3. Obviously), if a universal grammar did exist, no human two year-old would be able to learn such a complex system.
8:2 So Chomsky suggested that every child is born with a “language acquisition device” that already has the universal grammar built in.
8:3 According to Chomsky, the universal grammar was part of a child’s genetic makeup, making language unique to humans.
[22] According to the author, child language acquisition is a mystery because
1. children can acquire language in spite of the fact that it is an extremely complex system.
2. children can learn language without imitating adults’ speech.
3. children can learn the rules of grammar without interacting with adults.
4. children can acquire a universal grammar within a short period of time.

■第8段落
8:1 Another effect of the world’s political and economic appropria tion of images of such serious forms of suffering at a distance is that it has desensitized the viewer.
8:2 Viewers are overwhelmed by the sheer number of brutal massacres.
8:3 There is too much to see, and there appears to be too much to do anything about.
8:4 Thus, our epoch’s dominating sense that complex problems can be neither understood nor fixed [19] (1. strikes 2. works 3. conflicts) with the massive globalization of images of suffering to produce moral fatigue, exhaustion of empathy, and political despair.

■第3段落
3:1 The photograph has been [7] (1. taken 2. kept back 3. reprinted) many times, and it has been duplicated in advertisements for a number of nongovernmental aid agencies that are raising funds to provide food to refugees.
3:2 This is a classic instance of the use of moral sentiment to mobilize support for social action.
3:3 One [8] (1. should appreciate 2. cannot look at 3. will evaluate) this picture without wanting to do something to protect the child and drive the vulture away, or, as one aid agency puts it, to prevent other children from succumbing in the same heartlessly inhuman way by giving a donation.

■第9段落
9:1 The photograph is a professional transformation of social life, a politically relevant rhetoric, a constructed form that ironically naturalizes experience.
9:2 As Michael Shapiro puts it,
… representation is the absence of presence, but because the real is never wholly present to us — how it is real for us is always [20](1. cut 2. gone 3. mediated) through some representational practice — we lose something when we think of representation as mimetic (or the exact copy of reality) …

■第5段落
5:1 Those moral questions particular to Carter’s relationship (or nonrelations hip) to the dying child were only intensified when, on July 29, 1994, a few months after the Pulitzer Prize was given, The New York Times ran a death announcement for Kevin Carter, who had committed suicide at age thirty-three.
[29] Which one of the following is true according to the passage?
1. Carter’s photograph has been effective enough to make people donate.
2. Carter won the Pulitzer Prize solely due to the misery of a poor child, who was dying.
3. Carter’s photograph correctly represents human misery in the age of globalization.
4. Carter’s death is obviously related to the moral questions his photograph evoked.

■第9段落
9:1 The photograph is a professional transformation of social life, a politically relevant rhetoric, a constructed form that ironically naturalizes experience.
9:2 As Michael Shapiro puts it,
… representation is the absence of presence, but because the real is never wholly present to us — how it is real for us is always [20](1. cut 2. gone 3. mediated) through some representational practice — we lose something when we think of representation as mimetic (or the exact copy of reality) …
[28] This passage suggests that consumption of suffering in Western society today results in
1. accelerating the process of professional and political transformation.
2. producing moral fatigue, exhaustion of empathy, and political despair.
3. promoting so-called “disordered capitalism.”
4. increasing the number of people who are sympathetic about the deprived people.

■第6段落
6:1 Watching and reading about suffering, especially suffering that exists [11] ( 1. in the past 2.
nowhere 3. somewhere else), has become a form of entertainment.
6:2 Images of trauma are part of our political economy.
6:3 Papers are sold, television pro grams gain [12] (1. audience share 2. no program 3. less time), careers are advanced, jobs are created, and prizes are awarded through the consumption and appropriation of images of suffering.
6:4 Kevin Carter won the Pulitzer Prize, but his victory, substantial [13] (1. for 2. as 3. like) it was, was won because of the misery (and probably death) of a nameless little girl.
6:5 That [14] (1. least 2. more 3. less) dubious side of the appropriation of human misery in the globalization of cultural processes is what must be addressed.
[22] According to the article, serious forms of suffering
1. tend to unite people together to overcome it.
2. can be a source of profitmaking and personal advancement.
3. cause political and economic problems to emerge.
4. can be best captured by photographers.

■第4段落
4:1 The general mechanisms underlying ENSO involve large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions and equatorial ocean dynamics.
4:2 But each El Niño and La Niña is unique in the [8](1. combination 2. division 3. category) of its strength, duration and pattern of development.
4:3 Irregularity in the ENSO cycle can be seen both in the record dating back to the middle of the last century, and in other supporting data, such as lake sediments*, coral growth rings and tree rings, going back hundreds or [9](1. less 2. more 3. even) thousands of years.
4:4 So, in principle, it should not be surprising that an unusually strong El Niño occurs every so often.
[24] Which of the following statements about the ENSO cycle is true according to the information given in this article?
1. The strength, duration and pattern of development of each El Niño and La Niña are independent of the ENSO cycle.
2. Many computer forecast models can accurately predict the irregularity in the recent ENSO cycle.
3. It does not seem that a strong El Niño occurred hundreds or thousands of years ago.
4. Irregularity in the ENSO cycle makes each El Niño and La Niña unique.

■第5段落
5:1 Nonetheless, the 1997-98 El Niño was an unusual one.
5:2 It developed so rapidly that every month between June and December 1997 set a new [10] (1. annually 2. monthly 3. weekly) record high for sea-surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific.
5:3 Anomalies (that is, deviations from normal) in December 1997 were the highest ever recorded along the Equator in the eastern Pacific.
5:4 Moreover, before 1997-98, the previous record setting El Niño occurred in 1982-83.
5:5 These two ‘super El Niños’ were [11] (1. similar 2. different 3. separated) by only 15 years, compared with a typical 30-40 year gap between such events earlier this century.

■第6段落
6:1 Several factors may have contributed to the [12] (1. strength 2. Weakness 3. Calmness) of the 1997-98 El Niño.
6:2 One is chaos, which some theories invoke to account for the irregularity of the ENSO cycle.
6:3 Nonlinear resonances involving ENSO and the seasonal cycle have received special attention, but other chaotic interactions may affect ENSO as well.
6:4 In 1997-98, events possibly acted together to produce an extraordinarily strong El Niño simply due to the underlying tendency towards chaos in the climate system.
6:5 A related issue is [13] (1. another 2. that 3. in case) of weather ‘noise.’
6:6 Weather phenomena, inherently unpredictable more than about two weeks [14] (1. in advance
2. ago 3. later), are a source of random forcing in the climate system.
6:7 In the tropical Pacific, weather events occurring at the right time, and on time and space scales [15] (1. for 2. in 3. to) which the ocean is sensitive, can markedly alter the evolution of the ENSO cycle.
[25] Which of the following statements about El Niño is true according to the information given in this article?
1. The records for sea-surface temperatures between June and December 1997 in the 1997-98 El Niño were higher than the record in the 1982-83 El Niño.
2. The El Niño occurred in 1982-83 was relatively weak in comparison with the usual El Niño.
3. After the 1982-83 El Niño occurred]d, 10 years have to pass before the next super El Niño.
4. The irregularity between El Niño and La Niña is not related to weather noise.

■第2段落
2:1 Identifying why it was so strong challenges our [1] (1. interest 2. objective 3. understanding) of the physical mechanisms responsible for El Niño.
2:2 This is more than simply an academic question: the 1997-98 El Niño severely disrupted global weather patterns and Pacific marine ecosystems, and by one estimate caused $33 billion in damage and cost 23,000 lives [2](1. locally 2. worldwide 3. in the space).
2:3 There were warnings of a coming El Niño before it occurred.
2:4 But although many computer forecast models predicted that 1997 would be warm in the
tropical Pacific up to three seasons in advance, none predicted the rapid development or ultimate intensity of the event before it began.
2:5 Clearly we have much to learn from this experience.
[26] What motivated the author to say at the end of the second paragraph, “Clearly we have much to learn from this experience”?
1. The fact that the 1997-98 El Niño was unpredictable because there were no warning signs.
2. The fact that Pacific Rim governments needed to give more funding to study El Niño.
3. The fact that computer forecast models alone were not able to predict the nature of the 1997-98 El Niño.
4. The fact that scientists went through a series of bad experiences.

■第3段落
3:1 El Niño, Spanish for ‘the child’ (and specifically the Christ child), is the name Peruvian fishermen gave to coastal sea temperature [3](1. silence 2. coldness 3. warmings) that first appeared around Christmas time.
3:2 Now El Niño more generally refers to a warming of the tropical Pacific basin that occurs roughly [4] (1. every 2. any 3. some) three to seven years in association with a weakening of the trade winds.
3:3 The opposite side of El Niño, La Niña, is characterized by stronger-than-normal trade winds and unusually cold sea-surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific.
3:4 Both El Niño and La Niña are [5] (1. disrupted 2. exchanged 3. accompanied) by swings in atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western Pacific.
3:5 These swings are known as the Southern Oscillation.
3:6 These phenomena are collectively [6] (1. preferred 2. referred to 3. gathered) as ENSO or El Niño/Southern Oscillation.
3:7 At the moment, a strong La Niña is evident in the tropical Pacific, with several (but not all) forecast models predicting a return to [7] (1. abnormal 2. formal 3. normal) by the end of 1999.
[23] Which of the following statements about La Niña is true according to the information given in this article?
1. La Niña, as well as El Niño, is related to the trade winds.
2. The phenomenon for La Niña makes sea-surface temperatures higher in the tropical Pacific.
3. The ENSO cycle is not related to the atmospheric pressure in La Niña.
4. Several forecast models predict that a strong La Niña will occur by the end of 2000.

■第4段落
4:1 The general mechanisms underlying ENSO involve large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions and equatorial ocean dynamics.
4:2 But each El Niño and La Niña is unique in the [8](1. combination 2. division 3. category) of its strength, duration and pattern of development.
4:3 Irregularity in the ENSO cycle can be seen both in the record dating back to the middle of the last century, and in other supporting data, such as lake sediments*, coral growth rings and tree rings, going back hundreds or [9](1. less 2. more 3. even) thousands of years.
4:4 So, in principle, it should not be surprising that an unusually strong El Niño occurs every so often.

■第2段落
2:1 Identifying why it was so strong challenges our [1] (1. interest 2. objective 3. understanding) of the physical mechanisms responsible for El Niño.
2:2 This is more than simply an academic question: the 1997-98 El Niño severely disrupted global weather patterns and Pacific marine ecosystems, and by one estimate caused $33 billion in damage and cost 23,000 lives [2](1. locally 2. worldwide 3. in the space).
2:3 There were warnings of a coming El Niño before it occurred.
2:4 But although many computer forecast models predicted that 1997 would be warm in the
tropical Pacific up to three seasons in advance, none predicted the rapid development or ultimate intensity of the event before it began.
2:5 Clearly we have much to learn from this experience.
[22] Which of the following statements about El Niño is true according to the information given in this article?
1. The unusual nature of the 1997-98 El Niño had been predicted before it occurred.
2. Many computer forecast models were very effective in predicting the rapid development of the 1997-98 El Niño.
3. The exact physical mechanisms of El Niño have not been discovered yet.
4. The end of a strong El Niño can be predicted by using several forecast models.

■第9段落
9:1 Do we find similar pronouncements in favor of individual freedom in non-Western traditions, particularly in Asia?
9:2 The answer is emphatically yes.
9:3 Confucius is not the only philosopher in Asia, not even in China.
9:4 There is much variety in Asian intellectual traditions, and many writers did emphasize the importance of freedom and tolerance, and some even saw this as the entitlement of every human being.
9:5 The language of freedom is very important, for example, in Buddhism, which originated and first flourished in South Asia and then spread to Southeast Asia and East Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, and Thailand.
9:6 Even the [14](1. outline 2. layout 3.portrayal) of Confucius as a strict authoritarian is far from accurate.
9:7 Confucius did believe in order, [15](1. and 2. so 3. but) he did not recommend blind loyalty to the ruler.
[27] The expression “Confucius is not the only philosopher in Asia” in the ninth paragraph means that
1. Confucius is deeply respected in Asia as being more than a philosopher.
2. Confucius is not regarded as a philosopher in Asia.
3. Confucius does not necessarily represent all Asian philosophers.
4. Confucius is more known as a political figure in Asia.

■第8段落
8:1 There are, however, other ideas, [12](1. either 2. such as 3. of) the value of toleration or the importance of individual freedom, which have been advocated and defended for a long time, often for the selected few.
8:2 For example, Aristotle’s writings on freedom and human flourishing provide good background material for the contemporary ideas of human rights.
8:3 But there are other Western philosophers (Plato and St. Augustine, for example) whose preference for order and discipline over freedom was no less pronounced than Confucius’.
8:4 [13](1. Also 2. Therefore 3. On the contrary), even those in the West who did emphasize the value of freedom did not, typically, see this as a right of all human beings.
8:5 Aristotle’s exclusion of women and slaves is a good illustration of this no universality.

8:6 The defenses of individual freedom in Western tradition did exist but took a limited form.

■第8段落
8:1 There are, however, other ideas, [12](1. either 2. such as 3. of) the value of toleration or the importance of individual freedom, which have been advocated and defended for a long time, often for the selected few.
8:2 For example, Aristotle’s writings on freedom and human flourishing provide good background material for the contemporary ideas of human rights.
8:3 But there are other Western philosophers (Plato and St. Augustine, for example) whose preference for order and discipline over freedom was no less pronounced than Confucius’.
8:4 [13](1. Also 2. Therefore 3. On the contrary), even those in the West who did emphasize the value of freedom did not, typically, see this as a right of all human beings.
8:5 Aristotle’s exclusion of women and slaves is a good illustration of this no universality.

8:6 The defenses of individual freedom in Western tradition did exist but took a limited form.

■第9段落
9:1 Do we find similar pronouncements in favor of individual freedom in non-Western traditions, particularly in Asia?
9:2 The answer is emphatically yes.
9:3 Confucius is not the only philosopher in Asia, not even in China.
9:4 There is much variety in Asian intellectual traditions, and many writers did emphasize the importance of freedom and tolerance, and some even saw this as the entitlement of every human being.
9:5 The language of freedom is very important, for example, in Buddhism, which originated and first flourished in South Asia and then spread to Southeast Asia and East Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, and Thailand.
9:6 Even the [14](1. outline 2. layout 3.portrayal) of Confucius as a strict authoritarian is far from accurate.
9:7 Confucius did believe in order, [15](1. and 2. so 3. but) he did not recommend blind loyalty to the ruler.

■第10段落
10:1 The so-called “Western values of freedom and liberty,” sometimes seen as an ancient Western inheritance, are not particularly [16](1.but uniquely 2. but proudly 3. nor exclusively) Western in their origins.
10:2 Many of these values have taken their full form only over the [17](1. last 2. earlier 3. recent) few centuries.
10:3 While we do find some anticipatory components in parts of the ancient Western traditions, there are other such anticipatory components in parts of nonwestern ancient traditions as well.
10:4 On the particular subject of toleration, Plato and Confucius may be on a somewhat similar side, [18](1. such as 2. just as 3. thereby) Aristotle and Ashoka may be on another side.
10:5 The need to acknowledge diversity applies not only between nations and cultures, but also
within each nation and culture.

10:6 In the anxiety to [19](1. write 2. take 3. put) adequate note of international diversity and cultural divergences, and the so-called differences between “Western civilization,”“Asian values,” “African culture, and so on, there is often a dramatic neglect of heterogeneity within each country and culture.
10:7 “Nations” and “cultures” are not particularly good units to understand and analyze intellectual and political differences.
10:8 Lines of division in commitments and skepticism do not run along national boundaries — they
run at many different [20](1. speeds 2. faces 3. Levels).

10:9 The rhetoric of cultures, with each “culture” seen in largely homogenized terms, can trouble us politically as well as intellectually.
[25] Aristotle’s philosophy in this article is characterized as advocating
1. the ideas of Plato and St. Augustine.
2. the human rights of women and slaves.
3. the ideas of toleration and freedom.
4. the ideas of Confucius.

[26] Which one is incorrect, according to the author, about Confucius?
1. He preferred order and discipline over freedom.
2. He had a similar point of view with Plato.
3. He considered human rights as the entitlement of every human being.
4. He justified certain kinds of disobedience to power.

■第7段落
7:1 In seeing Western civilization as the natural habitat of individual freedom and political democracy, there is a tendency to extrapolate backwards from the present.
7:2 Values that the European Enlightenment and other recent developments since the eighteenth century [10](1. did make 2. have made 3.are made) common and widespread are often seen as part of the long-run Western heritage, experienced in the West over millennia.
7:3 The concept of universal human rights in the broad general sense of entitlements of every human being is really a relatively new idea, [11](1. as being not 2. not to be 3. As never been) much found either in the ancient West or in ancient civilizations elsewhere.
[24] The expression “a tendency to extrapolate backwards from the present” in the seventh paragraph means that one
1. assumes that the present has a continuous basis in the past.
2. denies that the present has a continuous basis in the past.
3. denies that history moves backward.
4. assumes that history moves backward.

■第8段落
8:1 The real problem underlying many of the criticisms of anthropomorphism is actually anthropocentrism.
8:2 Placing humans at the center of all interpretation, observation, and concern, and dominant men at the center of that, has led to some of the worst errors in science, whether in astronomy, psychology, or animal behavior.
8:3 Anthropocentrism treats animals as (18)(1. superior 2. inferior 3. compatible) forms of people and denies what they really are.
8:4 It reflects a passionate wish to (19)(1. differentiate 2. alienate 3. dismiss) ourselves from animals, to make animals other, presumably in order to maintain humans at the top of the evolutionary hierarchy and the food chain.
8:5 The notion that animals are wholly other from humans, despite our common ancestry, is more
(20) (1. likely 2. rational 3. irrational) than the notion that they are like us.
(27) Which of the following statements best reflects the author’s opinion regarding anthropocentrism?
1. No scientists would accept anthropocentrism because it supports the idea that humans are at the top of the evolutionary hierarchy.
2. The development of science would have been accelerated if scientists had realized the value of anthropocentrism.
3. Scientists will never be able to overcome the problems of anthropocentrism.
4. Anthropocentrism has been responsible for misleading scientists in serious ways.

■第4段落
4:1 To accuse a scientist of anthropomorphism is to make a severe criticism of unreliability.
4:2 It is regarded as a species-confusion, a forgetting of the line between subject and object.
4:3 To assign thoughts or feelings to a creature known incapable of them would, indeed, be a problem.
4:4 But to ascribe to an animal emotions such as joy or sorrow is only anthropomorphic error if one knows that animals cannot feel such emotions.
4:5 Many scientists have made this decision, but not on the basis of evidence.
4:6 The situation is not so much that emotion is denied but that it is regarded as too dangerous — such a minefield of (8)(1. relativity 2. objectivity 3.subjectivity) that no investigation of it should take place.
4:7 As a result, all but the most prominent scientists (9)(1. obtain 2. risk 3. establish) their reputations and credibility in venturing into this area.
4:8 Thus many scientists may actually believe that animals have emotions, but be unwilling not only to say that they believe it, but unwilling to study it or encourage their students to investigate it.
4:9 They may also (10)(1. defend 2. attack 3. copy) other scientists who try to use the language of the emotions.
4:10 Nonscientists who seek to retain scientific credibility must tread carefully.
4:11 An administrator at one internationally known animal training institute remarked, “We don’t take a position on whether animals have emotions, but I’m sure if you talked to any one of us we’d say ‘Sure they have emotions.’
4:12 But as an organization we would not want to be (11)(1. depicted 2. anticipated 3. rejected) as saying they have emotions.”
(23) According to the article, many scientists
1. have accumulated enough evidence to show that animals cannot feel joy or sorrow as humans do.
2. claim, without providing evidence, that ascribing emotions to animals is “anthropomorphic error.”
3. have succeeded in differentiating between animal emotions and human emotions.
4. know for sure that animals do not have emotions such as joy or sorrow, and therefore it is anthropomorphic error to ascribe emotions to them.

■第11段落
11:1 The space scientists at NASA, by the way, did not like Lovelock’s discovery at all.
11:2 They had developed an impressive array of life-detection experiments for their Viking mission to Mars, and now Lovelock was telling them that there was really no need to send a spacecraft to the red planet in search of life.
11:3 All they needed was a spectral analysis of the Martian atmosphere, which could easily be done through a telescope on Earth.
11:4 Noo surprisingly, NASA (17) (1. disregarded 2. followed 3. solicited) Lovelock’s advice and continued to develop the Viking program.
11:5 Their spacecraft landed on Mars several years later, and as Lovelock had (18) (1. predicted 2. wanted 3. wondered), it found no trace of life.
(26) After NASA learned of Lovelock’s theory, they
1. performed an exploration of Mars by means of telescopes.
2. decided to launch the Viking program.
3. proceeded with their original plans as scheduled.
4. cancelled certain space exploration projects.

■第10段落
10:1 The process of self-regulation is the key to Lovelock’s idea.
10:2 He knew from astrophysics that the heat of the sun has increased by 25 percent since life began on Earth and that, in spite of this increase, the Earth’s surface temperature has remained constant, at a level (15) ( 1 .ready 2 . profitable 3. comfortable) for life, during those four billion years.
10:3 What if the Earth were able to regulate its temperature, he asked, as well as other planetary conditions — the composition of its atmosphere, the salinity of its oceans, and so on — just as living organisms are able to self-regulate and keep their body temperature and other variables constant?
10:4 Lovelock realized that this hypothesis amounted to a radical break with conventional science:
10:5 Consider Gaia theory as an alternative to the conventional wisdom that sees the Earth as a dead planet made of inanimate rocks, ocean, and atmosphere, and merely inhabited by life.
10:6 Consider it as a real system, comprising all of life and all of its environment tightly (16) (1. wound 2. coupled 3. as sociated) so as to form a self-regulating entity.
(25)According to the article, the rise in the sun’s temperature over the last four billion years has
1. forced the Earth to lose water.
2. increased the salt content in the ocean.
3. had devastating effects on the solar system.
4. had little effect on the planet Earth.

(25)The author seems to believe that most people see the Earth as
1. a dead planet.
2. an integrated system.
3. a living planet.
4. a self-regulating entity.

■第7段落
7:1 The best-understood case of (10) (1. visual 2. nonvisual 3. acoustic) butterfly communication involves the Queen butterfly.
7:2 Males of this species produce pheromones, compounds designed to elicit specific reactions — of sexual interest in this case from other butterflies.
7:3 These pheromones disseminate from brush like structures, called hair pencils, found at the end of the abdomen in males only.
7:4 Hair pencils have a particularly large surface area for their small volume and are thus highly efficient at distributing chemicals.
7:5 As a male flies up and down in front of a female, he touches her antennae with his protruding hair pencils, thereby depositing pheromones.
7:6 The female responds to this chemical signal by alighting and remaining still while the male copulates with her.
(29) Which one of the following statements can be made on the basis of information given in this article?
1. Male and female butterflies both produce pheromones.
2. Male butterflies use pheromones to attract females.
3. Female butterflies use pheromones to attract males.
4. Colors play a more important role in sexual attraction than aroma.

■第1段落
1:1 As any adult knows, interest in potential mating partners is heavily influenced by sensory cues.
1:2 A glimpse of lustrous hair or of piercing eyes can suddenly cause a man to be attracted with a woman, or she with him.
1:3 The detection of a provocative scent or a sensuous touch may also kindle desire.
(26) According to the author, “sensory cues” refers to signals which
1. females need to locate the best male partners.
2. determine the sex of butterflies.
3. help determine the selection of mating partners.
4. are perceived under ultraviolet light.

■第5段落
5:1 The next phase of the experiment showed that color was (6) (1. negligible 2. responsible 3. eligible) for this choice.
5:2 I prepared a card with two sets of male wings.
5:3 A quartz slide that transmits both visible and ultraviolet light covered one set of wings, and a filter that blocks ultraviolet wavelengths overlaid the other.
5:4 Males now attempted to mate with the male wings under the filter — wings that appeared to be female.
5:5 This species displays a sexual difference in ultraviolet reflectance*, and after a male’s ultraviolet reflectance is (7) (1. deleted 2. enhanced 3. alleviated) other males treat him like a female.
(22) What did the author’s study of the Little Yellow lead him to conclude about how males recognize sex?
1. They use human visible and ultraviolet light information.
2. They use human visible light information.
3. They use ultraviolet light information.
4. They use sunlight information.

■第2段落
2:1 Recent experimental work with butterflies has (1)(1. borne out 2. taken out 3. washed out) Darwin’s suspicions of more than a century ago that species tend to evolve attributes and behaviors that enhance courtship — and thus reproductive success.
2:2 Some traits might render an individual more attractive to the opposite sex.
2:3 Color is now known to spark sexual interest for some species in the butterfly world, as do other sensory signals that were (2) (1. beyond 2. against 3. within) Darwin’s human perception.
2:4 But the creatures are more discerning than this observation might suggest.
2:5 Ostentatious coloration or scent may do more than attract attention.
2:6 Appearance and aroma may be shorthand notations of their bearer’s health and heartiness.
(21)Which one of the following statements cannot be made based on information given in this article?
1. Darwin’s ideas on mating have been shown to be false.
2. Butterfly mating attraction is determined by appearance and scent.
3. Color is one of several important elements in sexual attraction in butterflies.
4. Darwin did not know that butterflies perceive ultraviolet light.

■第7段落
7:1 When scientists offer a powerful new technology, “they are making policy in our Society,” Joan Fujimura, an anthropologist at Stanford University, says.
7:2 “When I talk to scientists, they don’t always see that.”
7:3 Fujimura says even highly influential scientists often see their role as narrowly focused on finding out how nature works, while others in society think of the effect.
7:4 “Biologists are producing the technology that will (5) (1. shape 2. twist 3. capture) our future,” she says.
7:5 “It is important for them to think about the culture that will use their technology, what kind of society we want to have.”
(29) Which of the following statements is accurate according to information given in the text?
1. Fujimura wants to direct scientists’ attention more to social policy.
2. Cox is worried about the risks of genetic research.
3. Billings is an ivory tower researcher.
4. Cox agrees with Billings.

■第7段落
7:1 When scientists offer a powerful new technology, “they are making policy in our Society,” Joan Fujimura, an anthropologist at Stanford University, says.
7:2 “When I talk to scientists, they don’t always see that.”
7:3 Fujimura says even highly influential scientists often see their role as narrowly focused on finding out how nature works, while others in society think of the effect.
7:4 “Biologists are producing the technology that will (5) (1. shape 2. twist 3. capture) our future,” she says.
7:5 “It is important for them to think about the culture that will use their technology, what kind of society we want to have.”
(24) Joan Fujimura says “they (the scientists) are making policy.” Which of the following statements would she most likely agree with?
1. By bringing about medical advances, scientists are in fact determining social policy.
2. Scientists are regularly being appointed to government panels that oversee genetic research.
3. Government policy is determined by individual initiative.
4. Powerful technologies need to be under government control so that they will be used safely.

■第6段落
6:1 This is intimate knowledge, a biography in advance, not just of the individual but of her family.
6:2 How do we interpret that information?
6:3 How do we ensure that it doesn’t fall into the wrong hands?
6:4 Do we really want to know this much about ourselves?
(23)The author implies that some people are “wary” of the gene project because
1. it involves genetic experiments on human beings.
2. it may create a “mutant” disease by mistake.
3. it will hinder the development of mass medicine.
4. its focus on individualized medicine may lead to an invasion of personal privacy.

■第8段落
8:1 Equipment breaks down, it is Sunday night, the stores are all closed, and the audience is arriving in an hour.
8:2 You are forced to do a little bricolage, improvising some new and crazy device.
8:3 Then you attain some of your best moments.
8:4 Ordinary objects or trash suddenly become valuable working materials, and your perceptions of what you need and what you don’t need (7)( 1. adversely 2. radically 3. momentarily) shift.
8:5 Among the things I love so much about performing are those totally unforeseen, impossible calamities.
8:6 In life, as in a Zen koan, we create by shifting our perspective to the point at which interruptions are the answer.
8:7 The (8) (1. sharpening 2. relaxation 3. redirec tion) of attention involved in incorporating the accident into the flow of our work frees us to see the interruption with new eyes, and find the alchemical gold in it.
(23)According to the author, in what way are mistakes like alchemy?
1. They are mystical occurrences understood only by a few.
2. They allow accidents to flow naturally into our work.
3. They incorporate secret knowledge.
4. They can change ordinary situations to precious opportunities.
(24) The author loves the “unforeseen, impossible calamities” of performing because they
1. inspire him to improvise.
2. remind him of a Zen koan.
3. allow him to polish his performance.
4. allow him to face obstacles realistically.
(21) In this passage, the author takes up the story of the oyster to suggest that
1. the oyster has the ability to integrate errors and otherness into its own system.
2. people can utilize an accidental occurrence to create something valuable.
3. people should seek out errors and accidents as a way to be creative.
4. the oyster uses grit and mucous to produce a beautiful pearl out of a foreign irritation.

■第4段落
4:1 But let’s not sell paper documents short.
4:2 The paper-based book, magazine, or newspaper still has a lot of advantages (5)(1. upon 2. over 3. with) its digital counterpart.
4:3 A newspaper offers a wide field of vision, good resolution, portability, and ease of use.
4:4 A book is small, lightweight, high-resolution, and inexpensive compared to the cost of a computer or some other information appliance you need to read a digital document.
4:5 For at least a decade, it won’t be as convenient to read a long, sequential document on a computer screen as on paper.
4:6 {I’ll admit that I’ve done a lot of the editing of this book with a pen on paper.
4:7 I like reading text on paper.}
4:8 The first digital documents that achieve widespread use will offer new (6) (1. functionality 2. productivity 3. reliability) rather than simply duplicate the older medium.
4:9 After all, a television set is larger, more expensive, and (7) (1. more cumbersome 2. more widespread 3. more convenient) and offers lower resolution than a book or a magazine, but that hasn’t limited TV’s popularity.
4:10 Television brought video entertainment into our homes, and it was so (8) (1. aggravating 2. enduring 3. compelling) that television sets found their place alongside our books and magazines.
(27)The author has done a lot of the editing of this book with a pen on paper because
1. the computer screen resolution is high.
2. electronic documents are currently unreliable.
3. editing a digital document is expensive.
4. he is fond of reading printed documents.
(28)Which statement does not reflect the author’s opinion about the future?
1. Documents will be accessible over a network.
2. You will be able to turn e-book pages like paper documents.
3. CD ROMs will completely replace printed paper documents.
4. More audio and video elements will be seen across a network.

■第3段落
3:1 We will be able to do things with these rich electronic docu ments we could never do with pieces of paper.
3:2 The future net work’s powerful database technology will (4)(1. allow 2.replace 3. require) documents to be indexed and retrieved by means of interactive exploration.
3:3 It will be extremely cheap and easy to distribute them.
3:4 These new digital documents will replace many printed paper documents because they’ll be able to help us in new ways.

■第4段落
4:1 But let’s not sell paper documents short.
4:2 The paper-based book, magazine, or newspaper still has a lot of advantages (5)(1. upon 2. over 3. with) its digital counterpart.
4:3 A newspaper offers a wide field of vision, good resolution, portability, and ease of use.
4:4 A book is small, lightweight, high-resolution, and inexpensive compared to the cost of a computer or some other information appliance you need to read a digital document.
4:5 For at least a decade, it won’t be as convenient to read a long, sequential document on a computer screen as on paper.
4:6 {I’ll admit that I’ve done a lot of the editing of this book with a pen on paper.
4:7 I like reading text on paper.}
4:8 The first digital documents that achieve widespread use will offer new (6) (1. functionality 2. productivity 3. reliability) rather than simply duplicate the older medium.
4:9 After all, a television set is larger, more expensive, and (7) (1. more cumbersome 2. more widespread 3. more convenient) and offers lower resolution than a book or a magazine, but that hasn’t limited TV’s popularity.
4:10 Television brought video entertainment into our homes, and it was so (8) (1. aggravating 2. enduring 3. compelling) that television sets found their place alongside our books and magazines.

■第5段落
5:1 Ultimately (9)(1. implicit 2. incremental 3. incidental) improvements in computer and screen technology will give us a lightweight, universal electronic book, or “e-book,” that will approximate today’s paper book.
5:2 Inside a case roughly the same size and weight as today’s hardcover or paperback book, you’ll have a display for high-resolution text, pictures, and video.
5:3 You’ll be able to (10)(1. write 2. flip 3. edit) pages with your finger or use voice commands to search for the passages you want.
5:4 Any document on the network will be accessible from such a device.

■第8段落
8:1 CD-ROMs provide us with some models for the creation of on-line content.
8:2 CD-ROM-based multimedia titles have integrated different types of information — text,
graphics,photographic images,animation,music,and video — into single documents,and right
now they’re our best (15) (1.approximations 2.solutions 3.resolutions) of what the rich
documents of the future will be like.
(26) According to the author, current digital technology allows us to
1. integrate many kinds of information.
2. deal efficiently with long sequential texts.
3. explore multimedia databases interactively.
4. access any document we wish on the network.

■第9段落
9:1 Other than Web pages, very few multimedia documents are being created by PC users so far.

9:2 It still takes too much effort.
9:3 Millions of people have camcorders and make videos of their kids or their vacations.
9:4 But to edit video right now you have to be a professional with expensive equipment.
9:5 This will change.
9:6 Advances in PC word processors and desktop publishing software have already made professional-quality tools for creating sophis ticated paper documents available relatively inexpensively to millions of people.
9:7 Desktop publishing software has progressed to the point that many magazines and newspapers are produced with the same sort of PC and software packages you can buy at any local computer store and use to design an invitation to your daughter’s birthday party.
9:8 PC software for editing film and creating special effects will become as (16) (1. mediocre 2. commonplace 3. outdated) as desktop publishing software.
9:9 At that point the difference between professionals and amateurs will be one of talent and craft rather than access to tools
(25) According to the author, when film-editing software for PCs is as popular as desktop publishing software, what will be the difference between professionals and amateurs who edit videos?
1. Talent and skill.
2. Networking capability.
3. Access to tools.
4. The use of CD ROMs.

■第2段落
2:1 When you think of a “document,” you probably visualize one or more pieces of paper with print on them, but that’s a narrow definition.
2:2 A document can be any body of information.
2:3 A newspaper article is a document, but the broadest definition of the word includes a Web page, a TV show, a song, or an interactive video game.
2:4 Because all kinds of information can be stored in digital form, documents containing all kinds of information will get easier and easier to find, store, and send across a network.
2:5 Paper is more (2) (1. suitable 2. reliable 3. awkward) to store and transmit, and its content is pretty much limited to text with drawings and images.
2:6 A digitally stored document can be made (3) (1. out with 2. up with 3. up of) photos, video, audio, programming instructions for interactivity, animation, or a combination of these elements and others.
(22) Which of the following definitions of “document” best expresses the view of the author?
1. A “document” is one or more pieces of printed paper that are found, stored, and sent across a network.
2. A “document” is one or more pieces of printed material that offer a wide field of vision, good resolution, portability, and ease of use.
3. A “document” is a digital form sent across a network like a Web page.
4. A “document” includes paper, video games, TV shows, music, and Web pages.

■第6段落
6:1 So much for writing.
6:2 While reading aloud is necessarily an individual task and a frequent feature of early literacy, especially when only a small proportion of the population had the skills, it involved an immediate audience, the (14)(1. Physiological 2. Virtual 3. Physical) presence of hearers.
6:3 So, too, did a parallel feature of early literacy, the repetitive reading to oneself of a piece, then its subsequent recitation, as if produced purely orally, to a collected audience.
6:4 Such a process involves rereading, that is, going over for a second or a third time the linguistic message, in a fashion that is virtually impossible without writing.
6:5 The backward look facilitates not only verbatim memorizing but also understanding and critical analysis, as well as enabling the writer to construct and present more complex sentences than would otherwise be possible.
6:6 Such reviewing is the counterpart of comparing several versions of the same incident, poem, or account and of evaluating their differences, a procedure that gave (15) (1. birth 2. impetus 3. way) to history in the technical sense.
(28) Which of the following is true according to the article?
1. People were not able to construct complex sentences until they acquired the skill of using paralinguistic devices.
2. “Objective knowledge” stored in libraries made only a negligible contribution to the development of the critical analysis of texts.
3. Reviewing and reciting the same description of an event would have been very difficult without the development of literacy.
4. Paralinguistic devices played an important role in intellectual operations before the development of writing.

■第7段落
7:1 After conducting this extensive review of the literature on intelligence, I was impressed that my review led me to exactly the same place that my observations of Alice, Barbara, and Celia had taken me.
7:2 To understand intelligence completely, it seems that one needs to understand the relationship of intelligence to three things: the internal world of the individual, the external world of the individual, and the experience with the world that (12) (1. Separates 2. Intercepts 3. Mediates between) the internal and the external worlds.
(25) The term “triarchic theory of intelligence” refers to which of the following ideas?
1. Three well-known psychologists (the author, Arthur Jensen, and Howard Gardner) have developed the most important theories of intelligence.
2. Intelligence consists of three kinds of interrelated mental processes.
3. Intelligence is characterized by three different internal and external factors that relate to each other.
4. Intelligence is best explained as three hierarchically arranged levels of analytical ability.

■第8段落
8:1 The (13) (1. convergence 2. divergence 3. incompatibility) of my analysis of the research literature and my personal experience convinced me that what was needed was a “triarchic” theory of human intelligence — one that did justice to each of these three aspects of intelligence.
8:2 It is important to mention that my goal in constructing the tribrachic theory was quite (14) (1. contrary to 2. interchangeable with 3. compatible with) that of most psychologists who have developed theories of intelligence.
8:3 The field has been (15)1. Exceptionally focused 2. Notoriously contentious 3. Unusually harmonious), with every theorist setting out to prove that his theory is right and everyone else’s is wrong.
8:4 For example, Arthur Jensen argues for the predominance of a single, general factor in human intelligence, while Howard Gardner maintains that there are at least seven or eight multiple intelligences.
8:5 For me, the most disturbing element of these and other opposing theorists has been that while they have done reasonably well in (16) (1. amassing 2. refuting 3. responding to) evidence to support their own point of view, they have generally failed to disprove the views of others.
8:6 How could this be?
8:7 After reviewing earlier theories, I came to the conclusion that the reason for this was that virtually all of them have been (17)(1. inaccurate 2. incomplete 3. inconsistent).
8:8 Though proposed as full theories of intelligence, each has dealt with only some limited aspects.
8:9 Often, too, these theories have proved to be complementary rather than contradictory, as might be expected.
8:10 It is not difficult to show that a theory of general intelligence and the theory of multiple intelligences can be (18) (1. infused 2. installed 3. integrated) in a hierarchical framework, with general intelligence at the top of the hierarchy and multiple intelligences lower down.
8:11 More specific abilities would then be viewed as sub-abilities.
8:12 The point to be made, then, is that often the competition among theorists has been (19) (1. fierce 2. spurious 3. accommodating).
8:13 Their theories are really theories of different aspects of intelligence.
(23) The author seems to believe that
1. previous theories of intelligence are wrong.
2. previous theories of intelligence do not encompass enough aspects of intelligence.
3. previous theories of intelligence contradict each other.
4. his own theory of intelligence is still rather incomplete in comparison with existing theories.

■第10段落
10:1 And what about authority?
10:2 Do we perhaps identify authority with the designer who had the idea of inventing a new polo shirt design, or with the manufacturer who decided to sell it, and to sell it on a wide scale, to make money?
10:3 Or with those who legitimate lee agree to wear it, and to advertise an image of youth and recklessness, or happiness?
10:4 Or with the TV director, who has one of his young actors wear the polo shirt to characterize a genera tion?
10:5 Or with the singer who, to cover his expenses, agrees to sponsor the polo shirt?
10:6 All are in it, and all are outside it.
10:7 Power is elusive, and there is no longer (16) (1. any 2. some 3. all) telling where the “plan” comes from.
10:8 There is a plan, but it is no longer intentional.
10:9 Therefore, it cannot be criticized with the traditional (17) (1. critic 2. criticism 3. critics) of intentions.
10:10 All the professors of communication, trained by the texts of twenty years ago (this includes me), should be pensioned off.
[6] When the author says, “All are in it, and all are outside it,” he is referring to :
1. the media.
2. advertising.
3. ideology.
4. authority.

■第9段落
9:1 Once again, what is a mass medium?
9:2 Is it the newspaper advertisement?
9:3 The TV broadcast?
9:4 The polo shirt?
9:5 Here we have not one but two, three, perhaps more mass media, active (14) (1. with · 2. from
3. through) different channels.
9:6 The media have multiplied, but some of them act as media of media, or in other words media squared.
9:7 And at this point who is sending the message?
9:8 The manufacturer of the polo shirt?
9:9 Its wearer?
9:10 The person who talks about it on the TV screen?
9:11 Who is the producer of ideology?
9:12 And what is the polo shirt manufacturer trying to say?
9:13 What does the wearer want to say?
9:14 (15)(1. As 2.To 3.In) a certain sense the meaning of the message changes according to the channel under consideration, and perhaps also its ideological weight.
[5] “Media squared” refers to
1. the fact that media can portray other media.
2. media’s relationship to authority.
3. the question of free advertising.
4. the increased number of television channels.

■第8段落
8:1 What is a mass medium today?
8:2 Let’s try to imagine a not so imaginary situation.
8:3 A company produces polo shirts with an alligator on them and advertises them.
8:4 A (12) (1. member 2. generation 3. character) begins to wear the polo shirts.
8:5 Each consumer of the polo shirt advertises, via the alligator on his chest, this brand of polo shirt (just as the owner of a Toyota is an unpaid, and paying, advertiser of the Toyota line and the model he drives).
8:6 A TV broadcast, to be faithful to reality, shows some young people wearing the alligator polo shirt.
8:7 The young (and the old) see the TV broadcast and buy more alligator polo shirts because they
(13) (1. have 2. take 3. give) “the young look.”
[4] The thing that the polo shirt and the Toyota have in common is that
1. they have the same kind of consumers.
2. their appeal is in the way we learn to read their messages.”
3. their consumers are also their advertisers.
4. they have replaced earlier forms of media.

■第16段落
16:1 The concept of modularity (19) (1. lies 2. forms 3. stays) at the heart of much innovative research in cognitive science.
16:2 The brain does a great deal of work by complex coordination among its parts, but we have also known for a long time that highly particular attitudes and behaviors map to specific portions of the brain.
16:3 Barrington’s study of Mozart and the modern scientific research on the behavior of newborn gulls may seem at first sight to have (20) (1. little 2. much 3. everything) in common.
16:4 However, although we may read it to learn more about the life of a man revered for his contribution to the world of art, the illustration of modularity evidenced both in Mozart’s own behavior and in his ability to separate and abstract single emotions is an important contribution to our understanding of the human mind.
[9] Barrington’s study of Mozart and modern research on gulls both illustrate
1. the correlation of parts of the brain.
2. the principle of dissociability.
3. the optimal functions of the brain.
4. the logic of Cuvier’s thinking.

■第9段落
9:1 This fundamental principle of dissociability works just as well for the mental complexities of emotions and intelligence as for designs of entire bodies.
9:2 As he began to (9) (1. compile 2. change 3. contain) the notes that would lead to his evolutionary theory, Charles Darwin recognized that he could not give an evolutionary account of human emotions without the principles of modularity and dissociation.
[5] According to this essay, the evolution of the mind is
1. unrelated to physical evolution.
2. beyond the capacity of most species to attain.
3. known as the “principle of simplified modularity.”
4. in principle, similar to physical evolution.

■第7段落
7:1 Cuvier used this principle primarily to argue that he could reconstruct entire organisms from fossil fragments, because one bone implied a necessary shape for all others.
7:2 But Cuvier had a Second, even grander motive — the denial of evolution.
7:3 How can transmutation (6)(1. disappear 2. occur 3. lessen) if parts cannot alter separately, or at least with some degree of independence?
7:4 If each tiny modification requires a redesign of absolutely every other feature, then inertia itself must prevent evolution.
7:5 Cuvier continued:
7:6 Animals have certain fixed and natural characters, which resist the effects of every kind of influence, whether proceeding from natural causes or human interference; and we have not the smallest reason to suspect that time has any more effect upon them than climate.
[2] The author of this essay suggests that Cuvier’s principle of the “correlation of parts”
1. means that inertia requires that organisms evolve together with other organisms.
2. is in conflict with the theory of evolution.
3. is, in fact, similar to the principle of “mosaic evolution.”
4. increases the possibility that animals are affected by weather, time, and human influences.

■第3段落
3:1 What especially intrigued Barrington was the nature of genius itself.
3:2 (3)(1. How it is, he wondered 2. How is it, wondered he 3. How is it, he wondered), that this child could be so exceptional in one particular arena, and so normal a child in apparently every other way?
3:3 Not only did Mozart look like a child, but
3:4 …whilst he was playing to me (Barrington wrote), a favorite cat came in, upon which he immediately left his harpsichord, nor could we bring him back for a considerable time.
3:5 He would also sometimes run about the room with a stick between his legs (playing horse).

■第4段落
4:1 When asked to write a song of love, and a song of rage, Mozart astonished Barrington with passion he had trouble attributing to an eight year-old boy, with presumably limited experience of (4)(1. his times 2. any lessons 3. such passions).
[1] The principle of dissociation suggests that
1. Mozart’s genius is the source of his ability to express passion in his music.
2. Barrington’s theory is premature and based on too little evidence.
3. intelligence has not evolved beyond the skills still exhibited by severely handicapped people.
4. Mozart’s ability to express the passion of an adult does not interfere with his ability to enjoy child’s play.

■第10段落
10:1 The demographic effects of migration are sometimes difficult to evaluate.
10:2 The movement of x number of people from Country A to Country B would seem to have the effect of reducing A’s population and increasing B’s by the same amount.
10:3 But in the long run, this is not necessarily true.
10:4 Since the migrants typically are young adults, the fertility rate in the sending country may go down, while that in the receiving country may go up.
10:5 On the other hand, emigration may result in a higher birthrate by [17](1. relieving 2. receiving 3. retracting) population pressures that delay marriage and conception.
10:6 Immigration may lower the birthrate by speeding industrialization and urbanization, thus promoting the upward social mobility of the established population with a consequent [18](1.
reduction 2. increase 3.balance) in average family size.
[8] As for the effect of migration on population, which of the following is true according to the article?
1. Immigration will cause a gradual increase in the population of the receiving country.
2. The birthrate of the sending country will rise because early marriage and conception are encouraged.
3. The effect of migration on population accurate measurement.
4. Upward social mobility will cause industrialization and urbanization which in turn will delay marriage.

■第6段落
6:1 Although distance is the chief obstacle to migration, a gold rush, a famine, or religious persecution may produce a sudden large movement to a distant and unfamiliar place.
6:2 But when the Strong pul or push factor is[11](1. considered 2. removed 3. reinforced), the volume of subsequent migration in the same direction will depend on interregional evaluations by potential migrants, now better informed.
6:3 After the California gold rush of 1848-1852and the depletion of the gold, migration to California continued despite the long journey because the state’s basic natural wealth became known and transportation was improved.
[5] The volume of migration to anew community will
1. automatically decrease if distance becomes a big obstacle to migration.
2. decrease only if a strong pull factor (such as a gold rush) that once motivated a migration of a large group later becomes unattractive.
3. Vary according to how the migrants evaluate the good points and bad points of moving to the community.
4. continually increase if migrants are better informed about the new community they intend to migrate to.

■第3段落
3:1 Push factors are more likely to predominate in a less developed country, where families are large and land is scarce.
3:2 People who can find no means of support in rural areas migrate to the cities in desperate search of work.
3:3 In developed countries, where opportunities for better housing and employment are more available and where knowledge of other communities is both more abundant and more exact, push
and pull factors tend to interact[6](1. contradictorily 2. more evenly 3.profoundly).
3:4 Potential migrants weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the region of origin and of the possible regions of destination.
[4] As for the relationship between the push factors and pull factors of migration, this article points out that
1. the push and pull factors are essentially different and operate in dependently in motivating a migration.
2. migration tends to be reciprocal when migrants evaluate the pull factors more strongly than the push factors.
3. if a new community provides opportunities for better housing and jobs, the push and pull factors reinforce each other.
4. adequate information about the receiving community is an important factor for the push and pull factors to operate together.

■第10段落
10:1 Scholarly interpretations of festival stress the licensed relaxation of norms and rules, a (19)(1. stipulation 2. negation 3. creation) of the social order that opens doors of risk and confronts destruction and recreation.
10:2 Closely associated are themes of revitalization, suggesting that the principles of excess, reversal, repetition, juxtaposition and condensation lead participants to experience transformation and regeneration.
10:3 This may take many forms: personal affirmation, political action, courtship and marriage, social revitalization, and so on.
[10] Social revitalization becomes possible when
1. festival permits the social order to be maintained in a harmonious manner.
2. festival permits people to enhance the strength of the group activities.
3. festival permits people to experience transformation through the relaxation of social norms and rules.

■第9段落
9:1 Almost any theme selected by festival will be repeated in many codes, and most behaviors and
actions can be found (17)(1. in excess 2. in a clear-cut fashion 3. in some special festivals).
9:2 Symbolic forms permit the communication of a larger quantity of cultural knowledge because symbols condense messages and carry multiple meanings, offering some ambiguity in meaning.
9:3 Among the most dramatic symbols associated with festival are masks and costumes.
9:4 They (18)(1. take off 2. keep out 3. draw upon) both the familiar and the strange but distinctly transform the human inside into a message bearer — carrying information that may be supernatural, exotic, or mysterious in nature.

[9] Masks and costumes are used in festival because they
1. turn the wearer into a symbolic being carrying unusual messages.
2. make mysterious messages understandable to everybody.
3. are bright and colorful and contribute to the festive atmosphere.

■第9段落
9:1 Almost any theme selected by festival will be repeated in many codes, and most behaviors and
actions can be found (17)(1. in excess 2. in a clear-cut fashion 3. in some special festivals).
9:2 Symbolic forms permit the communication of a larger quantity of cultural knowledge because symbols condense messages and carry multiple meanings, offering some ambiguity in meaning.
9:3 Among the most dramatic symbols associated with festival are masks and costumes.
9:4 They (18)(1. take off 2. keep out 3. draw upon) both the familiar and the strange but distinctly transform the human inside into a message bearer — carrying information that may be supernatural, exotic, or mysterious in nature.
[8] The power of symbols to carry a large amount of cultural knowledge is explained in terms of 1. the nature of symbols which permits different ways of interpretation.
2. the potential of symbols to indicate their specific referents.
3. the relationship between the intended meaning and the interpreted meaning.

■第4段落
4:1 Two symbolic processes contribute heavily to the festival mystique: the manipulation of temporal reality and transformation.
4:2 The temporal reality of festival incorporates time in at least two dimensions.
4:3 In the first, the principles of periodicity and rhythm define the experience.
4:4 Not surprisingly, this cyclic pattern is associated with the cycles of the moon in cultures (8)(1. in which 2. of which 3. by which) the lunar calendar is or has been used in recent history.
4:5 With the passage of time festival occurs again and again, marking the cycles of the moon, the annual repetition of the seasons, and the movements of the planets governing the solar calendar.

4:6 Festival occurs calendrically, either on a certain date each month or on a specific date or periodic time each year.
4:7 The cycles of time are the justification for festival, independent of any human agent.
4:8 Unlike rites of passage, which move individuals through time, festival yokes the social group to this cyclic force, (9)(1. breaking 2. establishing 3. changing) contact with the cosmos and the eternal process of time.
[3] With respect to the process of time, how does the article describe festival?
1. The date on which festival occurs is adjustable according to the social climate.
2. Humans can justify the cycles of time on the basis of the solar calendar when festival takes place.
3. The cyclic pattern of the passage of time is the primary factor that determines when festival occurs.

■第7段落
7:1 It seems reasonable to continue to assume that leaders play a major part in determining political actions though it is also reasonable to believe that this part is larger in some circumstances than in others and especially (19)(1. large 2. small 3. negligible) at times of crisis or when a new country is created.
7:2 This is probably why the strongest form of leadership, described as “charismatic,” often (2)(1. failed 2. prevailed 3. disappeared) during the post second-world-war period, when dozens of states became independent and many others underwent revolutions.
[10] The strongest form of leadership emerged following World War II because
1. of the occurrence of revolutions and the emergence of new nations.
2. rebuilding a nation after a war demands powerful leadership.
3. charismatic leaders are born in wartime and flower in peace.

■第6段落
6:1 So far there has been no definite answer to the question and none is likely to be given in the near future.
6:2 Attempts to compare different situations and assess how much of the variations could be attributed to leaders have occasionally been made.
6:3 Even if the efforts are not wholly convincing they (16)(1. take 2. rest 3.make) the case of those who suggest that leaders merely reflect their environment more difficult to sustain: it goes against common sense; it goes against the way people have always behaved, not least those who have (17)(1. processed 2. possessed 3. professed) that the environment was all powerful.
6:4 It is the political regimes that are most closely built on this philosophy, the communist systems, that produce the politicians who place most emphasis on leadership as though the socioeconomic forces needed Lenin, Mao, Tito and others to (18)(1. materialize 2. destroy .
neutralize) themselves in the reality of political life.
[8] In the debate about how leaders and the environment affect history, which position does the author probably take?
1. Leaders are mere symbols reflecting social and economic trends.
2. Social and economic trends are created by leaders.
3. Leaders serve to allow socio economic forces to develop into reality of political life.

■第4段落
4:1 There is, however, a second and even more fundamental way in which the environment appears to condition or even mould leadership : the circumstances are not equally advantageous to all those who hold top positions.
4:2 Of course, a “real” leader is the one who can (10)(1. lose 2. hold 3. seize) the opportunities and (11)(1. exploit 2. explain 3. extort) them to the full; but the opportunities may be rare.
4:3 Some leaders may benefit from the disunion of their enemies at home and abroad; others may benefit from the fact that external circumstances are favorable.
4:4 Indeed, it is in the context of foreign affairs that the characteristics of leadership have tended to (12)(1. indulge 2. submerge 3. emerge) most strongly, in part because foreign affairs have always been more glamorous than internal policy making and in part because, the stakes being much higher, up to and including the destruction of the country, the successes can be immense.
4:5 Machiavelli knew this well: most of his 1ecommendations to the Prince were connected to the aim of establishing leadership through prestigious victories against (13)(1. domestic 2. foreign 3. native) enemies.
4:6 Closer to our own day, one wonders how Winston Churchill would have fared — indeed whether he would still play a part in the history books, despite having been minister several times
— had he not “met with destiny” in 1940; the same might be said of Charles de Gaulle, as a result of the brutal French defeat of the same year.
[5] In comparing the British and Italian governments which aspect of the institutional framework that fashions leadership does the article mention as important?
1. The relationship of the political parties to one another.
2. The role of the prime minister in the government.
3. The size and wealth of the countries.

■第1段落
1:1 Leadership has been defined as the power of one or a few individuals to induce a group to adopt a particular line of policy.
1:2 Leadership has always fascinated the general public (1)(1. as well as 2. as told to 3.as understood by) observers of political life because of the element of “miracle” which seems embedded in the phenomenon.
1:3 It appears to belong to the realm of the divine, of the (2)(1. secular 2. mundane 3. sacred) as it creates a bond between rulers and ruled which defies ordinary explanations.
1:4 Not surprisingly, therefore, leadership has (3)(1. proved 2. found 3. judged) difficult to measure and to assess; works on the subject have tended to be descriptions of the deeds of heroes rather than careful analyses of the subject.
[1] According to this article, why does there seem to be an element of “miracle” embedded in the phenomenon of leadership?
1. Leadership has always fascinated the general public.
2. Leaders are often charismatic people.
3. The bond between leaders and followers seems to be of divine origin.

■第11段落
11:1 Gadamer’s approach accepts the inevitability of the hermeneutic circle.
11:2 The meaning of an individual text is contextual, depending on the moment of interpretation and the horizon brought to it by the (18)(1. text 2. interpreter 3. fallacy).
11:3 But that horizon is itself the product of a history of interactions in language, interactions which themselves represent texts that had to be understood in the light of preunderstanding.
11:4 What we understand is based on what we already know, and what we already know comes from being able to (19)(1. decontextualize 2. understand 3. forget).
[9] What is the hermeneutic circle?
1. It refers to the dependence of one individual text on another.
2. Our understanding is based on knowledge, which is in turn based on understanding.
3. It refers to a group of scholars who concentrates on human understanding and knowledge.

■第10段落
10:1 We can become aware of some of our prejudices, and in that way emancipate ourselves from some of the limits they place on our thinking.
10:2 But we commit a fallacy in believing we can ever be (17) (1. full 2. free 3. composed) of all prejudice.
10:3 Instead of striving for a means of getting away from our own preunderstanding, a theory of interpretation should aim at revealing the ways in which that preunderstanding interacts with the text.
[8] Which of the following restates a point that Gadamer makes?
1. We can free ourselves from prejudices and fallacies by taking the objectivist view of hermeneutics.
2. We should realize that we can free ourselves of our prejudices.
3. We should realize how prejudices interact with the text.

■第7段落
7:1 In fact history does not belong to us, but we belong to it.
7:2 Long before we understand ourselves through the process of self-examination, we understand ourselves in a self-evident way in the family, society, and (10)(1. history 2. state 3. psychology) in which we live.
7:3 The focus of subjectivity is a distorting mirror.
7:4 The self-awareness of the individual is only a flickering in the closed circuits of historical life.
7:5 That is why the prejudices of the individual, far (11)(1. more 2. less 3. later) than his judgments, constitute the historical reality of his being.
7:6 Gadamer, Truth and Method (1975), p. 245.
[6] Gadamer insists that we are social creatures because
1. we mainly understand ourselves through self-examination.
2. our self-awareness is not based on the historical reality of our being.
3. our self-awareness is based on social environments.

■第4段落
4:1 For the objectivist school of hermeneutics, the text must have a meaning that exists independently of the act of interpretation.
4:2 Their goal of a hermeneutic theory is to develop methods by which we rid ourselves of all prejudices and produce an objective analysis of what is really there.
4:3 The ideal is to completely (6)(1. contextualize 2. decorate 3. decontextualize) the text.
[4] The objectivist school of hermeneutics
1. accepts a relativistic appeal to individual reactions in favor of realities.
2. is not interested in interactions between the text and interpretation.
3. rejects the idea that the meaning of a text derives from interpretation.

■第3段落
3:1 Within hermeneutics there has been an ongoing debate between those who place the meaning (5)(1. within 2. outside 3. of) the text and those who see meaning as grounded in a process of understanding in which the text, its production, and its interpretation all play a vital part.
[3] People who disagree with the notion that the meaning is in the text would claim that
1. meaning does not exist apart from interpretation.
2. all careful readers should arrive at the same meaning of a text.
3. those who see meaning as grounded in a process of understanding are wrong.

■第10段落
10:1 Moreover, emotional appeals have been found to be quite effective, especially when they are incorporated with factual information.
10:2 For example, the American Lung Association’s antismoking campaign and the driver education programs in high schools that show horrible traffic accidents both share a common element of fear with the (13)(1. intention 2. pretension3. contention) to persuade.
10:3 Research suggests that fearful and emotional appeals that are successful in producing greater fear will, in fact, strengthen the message’s effectiveness.
10:4 The degree of fear appeals in a message and the amount of fear (14)(1. established 2. erased
3. evoked) in an audience are prime determinants of successful persuasion.
10:5 However, if a message contains an extremely high degree of fear it may persuade an audience but it might also (15)(1. attract 2. detract from 3. diversify) the message content, producing an opposite effect.
[6] Messages containing fearful or emotional appeals tend to be more persuasive when they
1. contain factual information.
2. are addressed to well-educated people.
3. are addressed to highly motivated audiences.

■第20段落
20:1 Second, many persons became fascinated with the possibility of bureaucratic organization, by contrast with which the hit-and-miss of capitalist entrepreneurs seemed outmoded and inefficient.

20:2 Third, moral admiration was directed away from the person who mastered his passions and
(20) (1. committed 2. submitted 3. emitted) to authority and toward the one who struggled against authority.
20:3 Fourth, many things previously attributed to the “original sin” of human nature came to be attributed to the irrational fries of social structure.
20:4 And finally, these enlightened ideas, although they had earlier been associated with despotism, gained democratic favor from their sponsorship by the French revolutionaries.
20:5 All these considerations facilitated the advance of modern liberalism.
[10] According to the author, “many things previously attributed to the ‘original sin’ of human nature came to be attributed to the irrationalities of social structure.” What is the implication of this statement in relation to the new liberalism?
1. New Liberalism fought against privileges of the church, which advocated the “original sin” of human nature. This change helped the modern liberal denounce the church.
2. New Liberalism focused on eliminating wrong social structures instead of blaming individuals for their imperfection.
3. This ideological shift supported “enlightened” ideas, because despotism helped gain democratic favor.

■第19段落
19:1 Many later intellectual developments have given impetus to the new liberalism.
19:2 First, toward the end of the 19th century, a compassionate sensibility developed among Europeans.
19:3 The old political concern with justice was jostled by a new concern with happiness, and political discussion concerned itself with classes of persons who were thought to have been deprived of happiness by the arrangements of society: slaves, prisoners, women, the poor, prostitutes, racial minorities, and so on.
19:4 (19)(1. Preoccupation with 2. Strength in 3. Ignorance of) such concerns led many persons in the 19th century from liberalism to socialism, which, in some forms, is a modified version of modern liberalism.
[9] Why does the author consider socialism to be a type of modern liberalism?
1. Because both Classical Liberalism and Modern Liberalism succeeded in eliminating the king as the absolute power of the State.
2. Because New Liberalism was friendly to any state power fighting against feudal and entrenched interests.
3. Because New Liberalism, with its concern with happiness, was influenced by the concern with “deprived” people.

■第7段落
7:1 By the 18th century the social contract theory of government had displaced its main rival, the divine right of king’s doctrine, which asserted that rulers exercised authority by gift from God.
7:2 The popular version of the social contract envisaged a contract between rulers and ruled and granted the people the right to displace rulers thought to have (8) (1 .renewed 2. admired 3.broken) the contract.
7:3 The metaphor of a contract requires an impartial party to judge whether the contract has been broken, and in politics no such party exists.
7:4 The more carefully considered versions of the theory — those of Hobbes, Locke, and Spinoza
— all take this difficulty into account.
7:5 Later liberal writers have tended to dispense with the metaphor of a contract.
[4] Why does the author say that the metaphor “contract” is imperfect?
1. Because Hobbes, Locke and Spinoza found out that rulers often broke the contract.
2. Because the contract must be written with authority from God.
3. Because the word “contract” presupposes the existence of a party with fair judgement.

■第5段落
5:1 Wherever and whenever it has become current, “liberal” has acquired local (5) (1. overtones 2. syndicates 3. predominance).
5:2 In France it has been associated with anticlericalism, because the Roman Catholic Church was viewed as the embodiment of feudalism.
5:3 In Germany liberals have always supported party politics against the old Prussian tradition of absolute government.
5:4 In Russia and Spain the liberals traditionally have supported a policy of political democracy and industrial modernization, in contrast with those who believed that such innovations would (6) (1. destroy 2. upgrade 3. restore) the unique moral qualities of Russian or Spanish life.
[3] Which of the following statements is supported by the essay?
1. The Devil has been called the first liberal because he did not believe in the Whigs intervention in personal life.
2. The social contract theory claims that once people are free and rational, they can always have political authority.
3. The enemy of liberalism was feudalism in France but a fear of the loss of the moral system in Spain.

■第2段落
2:1 One way to grasp the idea central to liberalism is to consider what liberalism is (2) (1. not 2. claiming 3. revealing).
2:2 From a liberal point of view, the slave and the serf are the most miserable of men — the slave because he is at the mercy of arbitrary despotism, and the serf because his life is repressively regulated by customary rules and duties.
2:3 Neither can exercise his rational will.
2:4 Despotism and feudalism are the twin enemies of liberalism.
[1] How does the author describe the slave and the serf in relation to the concept of liberalism?
1. The slave and the serf are the twin enemies of liberalism.
2. The slave and the serf paradoxically illustrate what liberalism is.
3. The tyrant often shows the slave and the serf a little mercy.

■第5段落
5:1 Second, communication permits animals to identify one another.
5:2 Individuals can thus select information of importance to them — usually from members of their own species and often particular individuals.
5:3 Special cases exist, however; members of different species that normally coexist in the same environment may attend each other’s signal.
5:4 Thus, the maximum alarm communicated by one songbird when it discovers a falcon or hawk in its environment is attended by all other songbirds species in the area.
5:5 In addition, by facilitating identification, communication acts at a premating level to help maintain reproductive isolation among species.
[6] According to the article, which of the following statements is true?
1. Vocalization of songbirds of a certain species is never attended by members of different species.
2. Vocalization of a songbird always indicates that the communicator is about to flee from its predator.
3. Vocalization helps species to isolate themselves from other species for the purpose of reproduction.

 

3:1 Because the complexity of social interactions makes experimental manipulation difficult, human understanding of the signalling in the social life of animals remains largely based upon inference.
3:2 It is difficult to repeat an example many times with rigid control of all (5)(1. variations 2. variables 3. functions) except the one being investigated, and attempts to structure the testing situation to simplify the form of interaction often obviate the interaction.
3:3 Displays are universal among animals of any degree of structural complexity, however, so that they would not have been evolved and retained if they lacked important function.
3:4 But the function of a display is likely to differ, depending upon the individuals involved.
3:5 A small bird seeing an approaching hawk, for example, may utter a vocal display indicating the high probability that it (the communicator) is, or soon will be, engaged in an attempt to escape.
3:6 Other small birds, upon hearing the vocalization, may seek cover immediately.
3:7 Hence, the function of the vocalization is to give them a better opportunity to remain alive and not to increase the immediate chances of survival of the communicator — indeed, its chances for survival may slightly decrease.
3:8 The display functions for the communicator (6)(1. in that 2. for which 3. for whom) it protects individuals whose continued existence provides a benefit to him greater than the cost of using the display.
3:9 These individuals may be his offspring or associates whose similar responses to the environment will provide him future protection and, through their alertness in the future, make it possible for him to spend less time (7) ( 1. glancing 2. looking 3. scanning) his surroundings for predators.
[3] The study of nonhuman communication has neglected social aspects of animal interaction because
1. social interactions are so complex that it is difficult for researchers to conduct an experiment in scientifically rigorous manner.
2. social interactions are universal among animals of any degree of structural complexity.
3. it is difficult for researchers to design an experiment in such a way that it reveals the universal nature of interaction.

[4] When the article states that “attempts to structure the testing situation to simplify the form of interaction often obviate the interaction,” it means that such attempts
1. exaggerate the very interaction that is being investigated.
2. misinterpret the very interaction that is being investigated.
3. preclude the very interaction that is being investigated.

■第5段落
5:1 The close links between rules and arguments can be illustrated by considering a culture which has formalized its rules of everyday behavior to an unequalled extent.
5:2 The Talmud, containing the rules of Orthodox Judaism, specifies in detail what correct actions for every aspect of daily life are.
5:3 Even the most trivial action must be performed in a sanctified manner to prevent godlessness from (16) (1. entering into 2. ruling over 3. opening up) everyday routines.
5:4 The novelist Jorge Luis Borges, in his story The Zahir, describes the Talmud as having “codified every conceivable human eventuality.”

5:5 This is (17) (1. an accurate description 2. a general conclusion 3. an exaggerated description), for the continuation of Talmudic debates shows that the complete codification is unattained but aimed for.
5:6 The Talmud represents a self-produced anthropology, explaining to orthodox Jews the meaning of their rituals in a detail which the professional anthropologist, seeking the unwritten rules of social life, can only admire.
5:7 Just as the behavior of game players is meaningless without knowledge of the rules of the game, so the customs of orthodox Jews are incomprehensible without the Talmud.
5:8 However, this great code of behavior, which seeks to leave (18) (1. nothing to chance 2. a lot to be desired 3. much room to debate) but dictates detailed rule following, is principally a record of arguments.
5:9 From its opening page, through its sixty or so volumes of tractates, it describes the arguments of the ancient rabbis, as they disputed their interpretations of the Holy Law.
5:10 Every pronouncement is a subject of argument, and, as Heiman has shown in his account of modern Talmudic study groups, even today the Orthodox learn the rules by (19) ( 1. abandoning 2. reliving 3.authorizing) the ancient arguments.
5:11 All in all, the Talmud represents not merely one of the most detailed codes of behavior ever produced, but is also one of the greatest collections of arguments in literature.
[9] Of the following descriptions of the Talmud, which is most relevant to the conclusion in this article?
1. The Talmud codifies orthodox Jew’s everyday behaviour, being one of the most detailed codes of behaviour ever produced.
2. The Talmud contains the ancient arguments made by rabbis about their interpretations of the Holy Law.
3. The Talmud represents a self-produced anthropology, explaining to orthodox Jews the meaning of their rituals.

■第4段落
4:1 There is a general point which does not concern the details of that unhappy cricket tour, and which is not even restricted to the world of sport.
4:2 The (13) (1. more specific 2. more ambiguous 3. wider) issue is the close connection between lawmaking and argumentation.
4:3 Laws may exist to resolve disputes, but they are created out of dispute, frequently at the cost of provoking further Argument.
4:4 A simple syllogism might illustrate this: if there are lawyers, there will be arguments; therefore, if there are laws, there will be arguments.
4:5 This same general point is better expressed in Plato’s Republic, which looked forward to the creation of a well-ordered state.
4:6 The citizenry of this ideal republic would obey the states rationally founded laws without dispute.
4:7 Such a perfect state, in the interests of maintaining its ordered harmony, would need to (14) (1. dispense with 2. formulate 3. abide by) laws about trivia such as contracts made in the market and contracts for manufacture, questions of slander and assault, the lodging of legal actions and empaneling of juries, exaction and payment of market or harbor dues and the general business of regulating business and police and harbor charges and other similar matters.
4:8 If laws were formulated on such minor matters, then the citizenry would waste their whole time making and correcting detailed regulations, with the result that harmonious order would (15) (1. naturally follow 2. never be achieved 3. often be guaranteed).
4:9 Sextons Empirics blamed the rhetoricians, rather than the existence of laws, for argumentation.
4:10 He noted that among the barbarians there were no rhetoricians, and the laws remained unaltered and generally obeyed, whereas amongst those who cultivate rhetoric they are altered daily, as is the case with the Athenians.
4:11 We could add that the “barbarians” Sextus Empiricus had in mind would not have codified their laws with the precision of the legislative bodies presiding over modern bat and ball games.
[8] According to the article, how did Sextus Empiricus characterize ‘the barbarians’?
1. The barbarians do not use rhetorical argumentation and, hence, abide by the existing laws without major changes.
2. The barbarians find it hard to obtain the harmonious order because there are no rhetoricians among them.
3. The barbarians make laws just as precise as those governing modern bat and ball games.

■第2段落
2:1 Much of the early rule formation arose directly out of argumentation, for it had been necessary to develop more regular procedures for settling disputes.
2:2 For example, the 1846 rules of rugby were (5) (1. complete 2. not exhaustive 3.closed) rules of procedure, covering all aspects of the sport, but, in point of fact, were little more than decisions of certain disputed points.
2:3 Things were not settled once-and for all when the various self-appointed rule makers had codified their decisions into proper systems of rules.
2:4 Disputes were still liable to arise, especially as tactics and styles developed.
2:5 In fact, the administrators of all sports need to monitor the rules, in order to make certain that the delicate balances between attack and defense, between vigor and dullness, and so on, are maintained.
2:6 If the authorities (6) (1. succeed in 2. tackle with 3. fail in) this task, the new developments, which are so necessary if a game is to continue to be interesting, can so easily upset the balances on which all sports depend.
2:7 Within every sport there will be individuals or lobbies who will (7) (1. deny 2. announce 3. support) that the change would lead to improvement.
2:8 The continual monitoring of rules ensures that the process of rule formulation is never ended.
[5] How does the author probably view ‘the continual monitoring of rules’?
1. It is a good decision making process and yet, ideally, rules should be fixed to avoid unnecessary disputes.
2. It is inevitable and, in fact, necessary in order to make the game interesting.
3. It could be stopped if disputes among the administrators end up with a rational consensus.

■第4段落
4:1 There is a general point which does not concern the details of that unhappy cricket tour, and which is not even restricted to the world of sport.
4:2 The (13) (1. more specific 2. more ambiguous 3. wider) issue is the close connection between lawmaking and argumentation.
4:3 Laws may exist to resolve disputes, but they are created out of dispute, frequently at the cost of provoking further Argument.
4:4 A simple syllogism might illustrate this: if there are lawyers, there will be arguments; therefore, if there are laws, there will be arguments.
4:5 This same general point is better expressed in Plato’s Republic, which looked forward to the creation of a well-ordered state.
4:6 The citizenry of this ideal republic would obey the states rationally founded laws without dispute.
4:7 Such a perfect state, in the interests of maintaining its ordered harmony, would need to (14) (1. dispense with 2. formulate 3. abide by) laws about trivia such as contracts made in the market and contracts for manufacture, questions of slander and assault, the lodging of legal actions and empaneling of juries, exaction and payment of market or harbor dues and the general business of regulating business and police and harbor charges and other similar matters.
4:8 If laws were formulated on such minor matters, then the citizenry would waste their whole time making and correcting detailed regulations, with the result that harmonious order would (15) (1. naturally follow 2. never be achieved 3. often be guaranteed).
4:9 Sextons Empirics blamed the rhetoricians, rather than the existence of laws, for argumentation.
4:10 He noted that among the barbarians there were no rhetoricians, and the laws remained unaltered and generally obeyed, whereas amongst those who cultivate rhetoric they are altered daily, as is the case with the Athenians.
4:11 We could add that the “barbarians” Sextus Empiricus had in mind would not have codified their laws with the precision of the legislative bodies presiding over modern bat and ball games.
[4] In the early stages of
1. codify how rugby should be played properly.
2. set up procedures to settle disputed points.
3. make sure that the game would be interesting.

■第1段落
1:1 If rules are treated as fixed and non controversial entities, then it becomes difficult to explain their origins.
1:2 The problem is a particularly acute one for theorists applying the game metaphor.
1:3 The difficulty of discussing the origins of games by applying the game metaphor is well illustrated by Michael Argyle’s article about the rules of social life.
1:4 Argyle, having stated that “even the most fiercely competitive and aggressive games can only take place if both sides abide by the rules”, adds the comment that “rules are developed gradually, as cultural products, as ways of handling certain situations; they can be changed, but changes are slow.”
1:5 These comments suggest that the formulation of rules is something which somehow evolves with (1) (1. observable changes 2. sluggish mystery 3. open arguments) almost as imperceptibly as biological evolution.
1:6 Just as the experimental social psychologist can safely assume that the course of biological evolution is not going to be changed in the middle of an experiment, so the rule theorist can rest (2) ( 1. assured 2. debated 3. informed) that the rules of social life will not be subject to sudden and troublesome alterations.
1:7 However, this tacit dismissal of the issue of rule formulation is based upon (3) (1. a misconception 2. a new assumption 3. a historical condition).
1:8 The major Sports of the modern world, such as football, cricket, tennis, and rugby, do not owe their rules to a slow process of accumulation, stretching over centuries of folk custom.
1:9 On the contrary, the nineteenth century (4) (1. reached 2. evolved 3.saw) an energetic burst of rulemaking.
1:10 Some important studies in the sociology of sport have shown that this rulemaking occurred at specific times of social change.
1:11 Moreover, it was predominantly confined to a particular class.
[3] How is the relationship between rules and arguments described in this article?
1. Rules are formed independently of arguments.
2. The nature of rules determines the nature of arguments.
3. Rules and arguments operate reciprocally.

■第6段落
6:1 Because arguments are such a constant theme in the history of social rules, their psychological importance should be recognized.
6:2 However, psychologists will be unable to give due attention to argumentation as long as they employ theoretical frameworks which subtract the argumentative aspects from human activities.
6:3 If this point is accepted, then we now have our excuse to (2) (1. leave 2. emphasize 3. construct) modern theory, and to enter the ramshackle old city center of rhetoric: it is in ancient rhetoric, but not in recent social psychology, that argumentation is placed in the center of human affairs.
6:4 Consequently, the antiquarian psychologist is able to offer a justification for temporarily closing the modern psychology books, and for opening the texts of the ancient rhetorical tradition.
[1] According to the article, the author suggests that
1. the study of argumentation should be restricted to the field of rhetoric.
2. modern psychological theories can account for the mental processes of argumentation.
3. it is necessary to develop a new psychological framework to handle the issue of argumentation.

■第8段落
8:1 The power to define the world and to define standards of judgment constitutes the power to shape the sociocultural world to one’s own image and interests.
8:2 Sexism, rooted in economic phenomena, legitimated and extended by ideologies, (12) (1. tests 2. vests 3. lifts) such power in males.
8:3 In turn, definitional power reinforces sexism.
8:4 When extreme Sexism exists, women are not simply denied all manner of rights, resources, and opportunity but are denied the ability to define themselves, their experience, and their works as worthy and valuable, sometimes even as real.
[9] According to the author, our concepts of what is real are primarily shaped by
1. natural phenomena legitimated by scientific investigation.
2. religious doctrine legitimated by philosophical inquiry.
3. economic phenomena legitimated by ideology.

■第6段落
6:1 In controlling the cultural, public aspects of their societies, including the very institutions that produce the ideology legitimating such control, men in sexist societies become the gatekeepers who decide what is to be defined as valuable, worthy, and proper.
6:2 It is their imagery of females that becomes the official, societal definition.
6:3 Men define that which constitutes humanness, and, in the words of French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir, women become simply “the other.”

6:4 Substantial research suggests that conceptions of “human” and “masculine” tend to coincide, but they differ from those of(11)(1. “individual” 2. “feminine” 3. “artistic”).
6:5 If a woman manages to produce a painting, a musical composition, a poem, or a scientific paper, it is judged by the standards men have set, if indeed male gatekeepers deem a woman’s production worthy of being judged at all.
6:6 Such standards are taken to be universal and unbiased, not as the product of specific people with vested interests.
6:7 They assume a reality of their own that transcends their social origins and are seen as applicable across time and space.
6:8 Women who would produce cultural artifacts in a sexist society are caught in a double bind: they can attempt to meet male standards that are defined as (12) (1. universal 2. masculine. esthetic), but since they are not male they compete for recognition at a disadvantage; or they can produce according to their own experience and ideas of quality, and their products will typically be defined as (13) (1. innocent 2. inferior 3. tasteful) by societal gatekeepers.
6:9 Thus, for instance, women’s art in basketry, weaving, and needlework constitute only “crafts,” whereas men’s in paint, stone, and bronze are “fine arts.”
[7] According to the author, in sexist societies the conception of what is masculine tends to be the same as the conception of
1. power.
2. humanity.
3. justice.

■第4段落
4:1 One very common practice in extremely sexist societies has been much stricter control over women’s sexuality than over men’s (6) (1. economic power 2. sexuality 3. political influence).
4:2 This has been done in order to ensure “proper” paternity, which in turn is linked to the intergenerational transmission of property from father to son.
4:3 It takes an extreme form such as purdah (the total seclusion of women in Hindu and Islamic tradition) or milder forms such as chaperoning unmarried women, (7) (1. painting 2. covering 3. washing) women’s bodies and faces almost entirely, or simply a double standard that punishes women (either alone or more harshly than men) who lose their virginity premarital or commit adultery.
4:4 The ideological justification often stresses women’s extreme sexuality and the diversion from duty this supposedly creates for men.
4:5 Left unchecked, female sexuality would presumably constitute a danger to the social collectivity.
4:6 In such cases the image of females is sharply bifurcated: the pure, virginal, or chaste woman who conforms to religious and social strictures (the lady) versus the polluted whore like temptress, the fallen woman who has rebelled against God and society.
4:7 There is no counterpart bifurcation of males on the basis of sexuality.
4:8 Language often reflects this phenomenon by producing a vast terminology of dirty words” to refer to women who step (8) (1. out of sight 2. out of hand 3. out of bounds) and more generally to specific parts of the female anatomy.
4:9 Women are thus defined essentially on the basis of their sexuality and sexual conduct, resulting in the irony that in attempting to repress female sexuality women are made into sexual objects.
4:10 Moreover, when the repressive aspect is removed the objectification does not quickly disappear, as manifested by contemporary advertising and pornography.
[4] According to the author, extremely sexist societies control women’s sexuality much more strictly than men’s. Why?
1. To ensure that property passes smoothly from fathers to sons.
2. To ensure that women’s extreme sexuality in kept under control.
3. To meet religious requirements that women be secluded and protected.
[6] In a sexist society the image of females is sharply bifurcated :
1. the lady and the tramp.
2. the sexual partner and the mother.
3. the homemaker and the wage earner.

■第4段落
4:1 One very common practice in extremely sexist societies has been much stricter control over women’s sexuality than over men’s (6) (1. economic power 2. sexuality 3. political influence).
4:2 This has been done in order to ensure “proper” paternity, which in turn is linked to the intergenerational transmission of property from father to son.
4:3 It takes an extreme form such as purdah (the total seclusion of women in Hindu and Islamic tradition) or milder forms such as chaperoning unmarried women, (7) (1. painting 2. covering 3.
washing) women’s bodies and faces almost entirely, or simply a double standard that punishes women (either alone or more harshly than men) who lose their virginity premarital or commit adultery.
4:4 The ideological justification often stresses women’s extreme sexuality and the diversion from duty this supposedly creates for men.
4:5 Left unchecked, female sexuality would presumably constitute a danger to the social collectivity.
4:6 In such cases the image of females is sharply bifurcated: the pure, virginal, or chaste woman who conforms to religious and social strictures (the lady) versus the polluted whore like temptress, the fallen woman who has rebelled against God and society.
4:7 There is no counterpart bifurcation of males on the basis of sexuality.
4:8 Language often reflects this phenomenon by producing a vast terminology of dirty words” to refer to women who step (8) (1. out of sight 2. out of hand 3. out of bounds) and more generally to specific parts of the female anatomy.
4:9 Women are thus defined essentially on the basis of their sexuality and sexual conduct, resulting in the irony that in attempting to repress female sexuality women are made into sexual objects.
4:10 Moreover, when the repressive aspect is removed the objectification does not quickly disappear, as manifested by contemporary advertising and pornography.
[4] According to the author, extremely sexist societies control women’s sexuality much more strictly than men’s. Why?
1. To ensure that property passes smoothly from fathers to sons.
2. To ensure that women’s extreme sexuality in kept under control.
3. To meet religious requirements that women be secluded and protected.

■第2段落
2:1 In technologically simple, no surplus producing societies (horticultural and hunting gathering) women’s productive roles are usually (1) (1. peripheral 2. central 3. closed) to the collectivity inasmuch as they typically provide from 40 to 80 percent of the food.
2:2 In such societies sexism is minimal to nonexistent, and their religious imagery typically incorporates a female principle.
2:3 As the technology becomes more complex, the production of surplus commodities for trade and familial aggrandizement (2) (1. scores 2. achieves 3. becomes) a primary goal.
2:4 When this happens, males come increasingly to control economic resources, and religion increasingly stresses the male principle.
[2] In which type of society is sexism most likely to be rare or nonexistent?
1. Industrial-technological
2. Agrarian pastoral
3. Horticultural and hunting-gathering

■第1段落
1:1 The degree to which males and females are socially unequal has varied, both cross culturally and historically, from near equality to radical female disadvantage.
1:2 Such variation is linked to the type of technology and economy (e.g., industrial, agrarian, horticultural, foraging) and to women’s role in the economy.
1:3 Women’s status relative to men’s in a given society is closely related to that society’s dominant, gender related ideology, whether secular, religious, or both.
1:4 Dominant, gender related ideology refers to the manner in which a society defines appropriate behavior, personality, interests, and so on for each sex and justifies any differences in their rights, duties, and rewards.
1:5 When women are disadvantaged relative to men in their access to socially valued resources and the dominant ideology explains and justifies such disadvantage, we use the term sexism.
1:6 Sexism in some degree is universal in contemporary societies.
[1] According to the author, a sexist society is one in which
1. men have much greater access to valuable social resources than women.
2. religious and/or secular ideology defines women as inferior to men.
3. women have an inferior position within the context of an ideology which justifies their inferiority.

■第6段落
6:1 In controlling the cultural, public aspects of their societies, including the very institutions that produce the ideology legitimating such control, men in sexist societies become the gatekeepers who decide what is to be defined as valuable, worthy, and proper.
6:2 It is their imagery of females that becomes the official, societal definition.
6:3 Men define that which constitutes humanness, and, in the words of French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir, women become simply “the other.”
6:4 Substantial research suggests that conceptions of “human” and “masculine” tend to coincide, but they differ from those of(11)(1. “individual” 2. “feminine” 3. “artistic”).
6:5 If a woman manages to produce a painting, a musical composition, a poem, or a scientific paper, it is judged by the standards men have set, if indeed male gatekeepers deem a woman’s production worthy of being judged at all.
6:6 Such standards are taken to be universal and unbiased, not as the product of specific people with vested interests.
6:7 They assume a reality of their own that transcends their social origins and are seen as applicable across time and space.
6:8 Women who would produce cultural artifacts in a sexist society are caught in a double bind: they can attempt to meet male standards that are defined as (12) (1. universal 2. masculine. esthetic), but since they are not male they compete for recognition at a disadvantage; or they can produce according to their own experience and ideas of quality, and their products will typically be defined as (13) (1. innocent 2. inferior 3. tasteful) by societal gatekeepers.
6:9 Thus, for instance, women’s art in basketry, weaving, and needlework constitute only “crafts,” whereas men’s in paint, stone, and bronze are “fine arts.”
[8] “Women are caught in a double bind.” What is the nature of this double bind?
1. If women try to meet male standards, they compete at a disadvantage and their work will be judged inferior.
2. If women follow their own standards, they produce work which will be judged inferior.
3. Whether women follow male standards or their own standards, their work will be judged inferior.

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