慶應義塾大学SFC 英語 内容一致テクニック 『特定段落の内容と非一致の選択肢を選ぶ問題』

■ 第11段落
11:1 Unfortunately, much of the human rights community has not only shied away from expressing qualms about rights proliferation, it has often led the process.
11:2 But this approach has not helped advance the core freedoms that make the difference between liberal and non-literal states.
11:3 According to Freedom House, global respect for basic civil and political rights is in decline for the seventh consecutive year.
11:4 Of course, it is exactly those basic rights that non-free states want to neuter.
11:5 [47](1. Unless 2. When 3. Though) everything can be defined as a human right, the premium on violating such rights is cheap.
11:6 To raise the stock and ensure the effectiveness of human rights, their defenders need to acknowledge that less is often more.
[58] Which of the following is NOT appropriate as an implication of “less is often more” in the 11th paragraph? Putting human rights in a narrower range would make
1. people respect human rights more.
2. the enforcement of human rights law more feasible.
3. it difficult for non-free states to use human rights to rationalize their claims.
4. free states support the activities of the Human Rights Council.

■ 第5段落
5:1 As remarkable as it is, common sense exhibits some mysterious traits, one of the most striking of which is how much it varies across cultures.
5:2 Several years ago, a group of economists and anthropologists [5](1. set out 2. put out 3 . came off) to test how different cultures play a particular kind of game, called an ultimatum game.
5:3 The game goes something like this: First, pick two people and give one of them $100.
5:4 That person then has to propose a split of the money between himself and the other player, ranging from offering them the whole amount to nothing at all.
5:5 The other player then gets to accept the deal or reject it.
5:6 If the second player accepts the deal, they get what they were offered and both players go on their [6](1. contented 2. satisfied 3. merry) way.
5:7 But if they reject the offer, neither player gets anything; hence the ultimatum.”
[23] Which of the following is NOT a character is tic of the game “ultimatum”?
1. the first player has the right to split the money in any way he or she likes.
2. If the second player does not accept the deal, neither player receives any money.
3. The second player can negotiate with the first player if the deal is unfair.
4. the first player can keep all the money if the second player agrees.

■ 第4段落
4:1 The second feature is that while the power of formal knowledge [3](1. does away with 2. presides over 3. resides in) its ability to organize specific findings into logical categories described by general principles, the power of common sense lies in its ability to deal with every concrete situation on its own terms.
4:2 For example, it is a matter of common sense that what we wear or do or say in front of our boss will be different from how we behave in front of our friends.
4:3 Common sense just “knows” what the appropriate thing to do is in any particular situation, [4](1. without 2. upon 3. while) knowing how it knows it.
[21]According to the article, which of the following is NOT in accord with the characteristics of common sense?
1. it mainly serves to offer solutions to our daily problems.
2. it tries to account for various facts by underlying general principles.
3. it is very difficult to define exactly what common sense is.
4. it is so common that we hardly recognize its existence in everyday life.

■ 第3段落
3:1 For most political ecologists, this approach is somewhat too sharp a double-edged sword.
3:2 While it [34](1. defies 2 undergoes 3. allows) a critical examination of how politically empowered environmental science has influenced and created the environments of the world around us, which is an important political ecological project, this approach does not allow us to make [35](1. adaptations 2 contributions 3. references) to non-human actors and processes (like soil, trees, and climate) In explaining outcomes.
3:3 This makes hard constructivism unattractive to many researchers.
3:4 while producing a valuable open space for accepting and appreciating alternative constructions of the environment held by other social communities, like forest dwellers, nomadic herders, and religious philosophers, this approach makes the symbolic systems of humans [36](1. sovereign 2. go 3. carry) over all other reality, apparently disabling empirical Investigation In traditional environmental science.
[54] Which of the following does NOT fit the author’s description of “hard constructivism”?
1. There should be alternative views and constructions of the world if people have different perspectives.
2. The truth about the world is not given, but rather something that is produced by the people who are socially powerful and influential.
3. Our conception of the world is symbolically constructed in a social context, but it is objective, scientific facts that determine the validity of such constructions.
4. Mass media contributes to social constructions of the world and consensus-making on the “truth.”

■ 第8段落
8:1 But the core of the Christakis-Fowler collaboration is original research on what spreads through human social networks.
8:2 [43](1. By 2. Of 3. With) data from the Framingham Heart Study, which has been going on since 1948, they mapped more than 50,000 social ties among 5,124 people (who were connected to an external network of more than 12,000 people).
8:3 Because the study tracked all manner of health markers and asked subjects about an exhaustive list of behaviors―diet and exercise, medications, smoking, emotions―it was [44](1. a rich 2. a prosperous 3. an affluent) source of data.
[56] Which of the following is not true of the Framingham Heart Study as mentioned in the 8th paragraph?
1. Over 12,000 people took part.
2. It began over 60 years ago.
3. Christakis and Fowler did not lead the study.
4. It included data on the kind of food one eats.

■ 第12段落
12:1 Precise knowledge is needed for the type of network-based public-health interventions they envision.
12:2 In addition to knowing what works―in the case of obesity, perhaps distributing healthy recipes, or posting on Facebook or Twitter that you “feel so great after going for a run” to encourage friends to exercise―such interventions require knowing who is most influential, and this may vary from purpose to purpose.
12:3 Christakis and Fowler write that a network-based vaccination campaign, [48](1. consulting 2. excluding 3. targeting) people with the most social contacts, could be three times more cost- effective than a campaign that aims for universal vaccination.
12:4 Campaigns of the latter type over-vaccinate; immunizing only people who are hubs in social networks would enable administering a minimum of doses for maximum effect.
12:5 For instance, recommendations that healthcare workers receive more vaccinations than average citizens follow a similar model, assuming that such workers will have more [49](1. sympathy for 2. contact with 3. knowledge about) sick people and thus are more likely to spread infections.
12:6 A network-based disease prevention campaign, prioritizing well-connected people when monitoring infection’s spread, could be 700 times more efficient than random monitoring.
[59] According to the article, which of the following is not true of the nature of network science?
1. Network science is a new and emerging scientific discipline involving biological, social, physical, and other networks.
2. Network science seeks to discover common principles that govern network behavior.
3. Network science has emerged in diverse disciplines as a means of analyzing complex relational data.
4. Network science has successfully replaced the traditional theories of sociology, biology, and economics.

■ 第1段落
1:1 There are clearly many benefits to living in a well-connected, Internet-enabled society, but some of the benefits bring with them worrying elements of risk to personal privacy and safety.
1:2 We can now make and sustain wide-ranging, geographically unconstrained friendships and business connections with an ease previously unimaginable.
1:3 Much of the world’s collected knowledge is now freely accessible at a moment’s notice with simple keyword searches.
1:4 Powerful web-based forums and social networking databases enable us to find compatible lovers, former classmates, and people with shared interests or problems, in new and exciting ways.
[51] Which of the following is not included among the “worrying elements” mentioned in the 1st paragraph?
1. The government may monitor your online behavior.
2. You might be deceived out of your money at online shopping sites.
3. Too much dependence on the Internet may hinder your creativity.
4. Someone might follow every post you put on social networking media.

■ 第11段落
11:1 Although we cannot answer that question definitively, there is reason to believe that some differences in occupational choice are due to discrimination.
11:2 For example, the highest-paying blue-collar jobs are typically union jobs, and industrial and crafts unions have had a long history of opposition to women as members.
11:3 Or consider medicine.
11:4 Women are becoming much more numerous in specialties such as dermatology and radiology, where schedules tend to be more flexible, hours of work can be limited, and part-time practice is feasible.
11:5 But many physicians would argue that the noticeable underrepresentation of women in the high-paying surgical specialties is partly the result of discrimination against women, [49] (1. thus 2. rather than 3. when) reflecting the occupational choices preferred by women.
11:6 If this argument is correct, then even if women in a given specialty are paid the same as men in that specialty, the exclusion of women from high-paying slots will lower their average wages and make them worse off.

■ 第12段落
12:1 The extent of gender discrimination in the workplace is [50] (1. assumed 2. inclined 3. unlikely) to be definitively settled anytime soon.
12:2 Measured earnings differences, even those that account for experience, education, and other factors, clearly overstate the true pay gap between equally qualified men and women.
12:3 Just as surely, however, given the heavier parenting demands typically made on women, even when they receive equal pay, it is not for equal work.
[60] Which of the following is not mentioned in the 11th and 12th Paragraphs?
1. Surgeons are predominantly men because women tend to choose more flexible and less demanding work such as dermatology and radiology.
2. Some jobs have unions which tend to exclude women from becoming their members, and consequently, it is hard for women to choose those jobs.
3. Women are expected to take on heavier parenting demands, which put women in an unequal position even if they are given equal pay.
4. It is difficult to demonstrate clearly how and to what extent gender discrimination exists in the workplace.

■ 第5段落
5:1 Consider this fact, however: For more than forty years, it has been illegal to discriminate in the workforce on the basis of race or gender.
5:2 As interpreted by the courts, the law now says that if the statistical appearance of lower wages for women or minorities is present in a workplace, the employer is presumed to be guilty of discrimination and must prove [36] (1. otherwise 2. it 3. so) .
5:3 No one thinks that federal agencies do a perfect job at enforcing the law here or elsewhere, but it is hard to believe that a persistent 20 percent pay difference could escape the notice of even the most [37] (1. oversight 2. farsighted 3. nearsighted) federal bureaucrat.
[55] On the relationship between the law and the gender discrimination, which of the following is not correct, according to the article?
1. It is illegal both in theory and in practice to discriminate in the workforce on the basis of gender.
2. Even the strict law-enforcement agencies can overlook a 20% difference in pay between men and women.
3. If there is statistical evidence for women receiving lower wages, the employer can be accused of discrimination.
4. The law that prohibits gender discrimination in the workforce is enforced by federal agencies.

■ 第6段落
6:1 The other approach involved a novel cell type specialized for information processing: the neuron.
6:2 While the hormonal approach works fine for plants and fungi, multi-cellular animals move, sense and act, [39] (1. transforming 2. making . requiring) a more subtle neural form of control.
6:3 From the beginning, neurons were organized into networks: they are teamworkers collaboratively processing information and reaching group decisions.
6:4 Only neurons at the final output stage, like motor neurons, retain direct power over the body.

6:5 And even motor neurons must act together to produce [40] (1. moderate 2. accelerated 3. coordinated) movement rather than uncontrolled twitching.
[55] Which of the following is not mentioned as a characteristic of the hormonal model or system of control ?
1. Kings can control society through their scribes.
2. Communication is one-to-many.
3. Teamwork enables collaborative information processing.
4. Powerful individuals use the system to retain power.

■ 第8段落
8:1 The invention of writing allowed the first largescale societies, organized on [43] (1. hierarchical
2. horizontal 3. diagonal) lines: a few powerful kings and scribes had control over the communication channels and issued orders to all. This one-to-many model is essentially hormonal.
8:2 Despite their [44] (1. chronological 2. ecological 3. technological) sophistication, radio and television share this mode.
8:3 The proclamations and legal [45] (1. maneuvers 2. properties 3. decisions) of the ruler (or television producer) parallel the orders carried by hormones within our bodies: commands issued to all, which all must obey.
[54] Which of the following is not mentioned as a characteristic of language?
1. Language enables humans to form social groups.
2. Spoken language and written language function in a different Way.
3. Language can be used in either a hormonal model or a neuronal model.
4. Written language is superior to spoken language.

■ 第8段落
8:1 So which should we actually fear more, flying or driving?
8:2 It might first help to ask a more basic question: what, exactly, are we afraid of?
8:3 Death, presumably.
8:4 But the fear of death needs to be [13] (1. acted upon 2. narrowed down 3. held out).
8:5 Of course we all know that we are bound to die, and we might worry about it casually.
8:5 But if you are told that you have a 10 percent chance of dying within the next year, you might worry a lot more, perhaps even [14] (1. chose 2. being chosen 3. choosing) to live your life differently.
8:6 And if you are told that you have a 10 percent chance of dying within the next minute, you’ll probably panic.
8:6 So it’s the [15] (1. eminent 2. immanent 3. imminent) possibility of death that drives the fear―which means that the most sensible way to calculate fear of death would be to think about it on a per-hour basis.
9:1 If you are taking a trip and have the choice of driving or flying, you might wish to consider the per-hour death rate of driving versus flying.
9:2 It is true that many more people die in the United States each year in motor vehicle accidents (roughly forty thousand) than in airplane crashes (fewer than one thousand).
9:3 But it’s also true that most people spend a lot more time in cars than in airplanes.
9:3 The per-hour death rate of driving versus flying, [16] (1. likewise 2. however 3. all the more), is about equal.
9:4 The two contraptions are equally likely―or, in truth, un likely to lead to death.
[28] Which of the following is not mentioned in the comparison between the fear involved in driving and flying?
1. Control factors.
2. Familiarity factors.
3. Gruesomeness of death.
4. Death rate per hour.

■ 第9段落
9:1 If you are taking a trip and have the choice of driving or flying, you might wish to consider the per-hour death rate of driving versus flying.
9:2 It is true that many more people die in the United States each year in motor vehicle accidents (roughly forty thousand) than in airplane crashes (fewer than one thousand).
9:3 But it’s also true that most people spend a lot more time in cars than in airplanes.
9:3 The per-hour death rate of driving versus flying, [16] (1. likewise 2. however 3. all the more), is about equal.
9:4 The two contraptions are equally likely―or, in truth, unlikelyto lead to death.
[24] According to this article, which of the following statements is not true?
1. More people are afraid of unusual ways of dying than of dying of sickness.
2. More children die in pool accidents than in shooting accidents.
3. Driving and flying are equally hazardous, based on death rates per hour.
4. Both car seats and child placement in a car save an equal number of children’s lives.

6:1 In worlds where people share ideas, roles, resources, purposes, and fates because of places, shared paths weave into the larger was” of town and neighborhood, city, and state.
6:2 Place blends religious, ethnic, national, political, and other values to [39] (1. forbid 2. forsake 3.forge) “thick we’s.”

6:3 In a world of purposes, the inescapable shared fates necessary to “thick we’s” occur among friends and families, and in organizations.
6:4 Our cares and animosities arise in them.
6:5 We know that Germany and France were mortal enemies many times in the olden days.

6:6 But we do not [40] (1. allow 2. expect 3. implore) them to go to war ever again.
6:7 In a world of purposes, we do not hate people in the “thick we’s” of other organizations.
[59] Why are organizations less important in the world of places than in the world of purposes?
1. In villages and towns, people physically live together in the same place and naturally work together to realize “values.”
2. In the world of places, it is politics and elections that solve most of the issues.
3. In the world of places, organizations are not well developed beyond family, friends and religious groups.
4. In the world of places, people do not face any conflict among “values.”

7:1 Large societies are unsustainable without organizations or midlevel formations.
7:2 If organizations disappear, societies [41] (1. Destabilize 2. Consolidate 3. Develop) until new ones emerge.
7:3 De Tocqueville, for example, considered towns and associations [42] (1. vital 2. detrimental 3. harmless) to 19th century American democracy.
7:4 The immense Soviet Union was also just that — a union of mid level social formations called soviets.
7:5 However, mid level social formations grounded in place have at amazed in the last 30 years.

7:6 Structures that once made sense local government, neighborhood, and community – destabilized.
7:7 This instability will [43] (1. insist 2. resist 3. persist) until we recognize that organizations, not collectivities of is,” are the thick was” in which we share fates with others.
7:8 Organizations are the mid level social formations in a world of purposes.

8:1 Organizations are “thick we’s” in which individuals must [44] (1. hinder 2. balance 3. inflate) self-interest with the common good.
8:2 It is in organizations, not in places, that we most meaningfully share fates with other people beyond friends and family.

11:1 People who experience robust democracy in organizations are more likely to respect dissent, free speech, consent, participation, and responsibility.
11:2 They are less likely to violate the liberty and freedoms of others.
11:3 Neither value nor values can be [49] (1. promoted 2. ignored 3. achieved) in organizations.
11:4 Again, organizations must link their common good to the greater good of the planet.
11:5 In a world of purposes, this is what organizations do – this is what they are for.
11:6 Organizations are the solutions to [50] (1. restore 2. regulate 3. monopolize) “thick we’s,” where value and values as well as “I’s” and “we’s” can migrate.
11:7 Organizations decide the fate of the twin towers of democracy.
[57] Why are organizations important for democracy? Which of the following is not correct?
1. Conflict among values and self interest must be resolved in an organization.
2. Organizations can serve as small scale models for democracy.
3. An organization can be a shelter for losers of severe market competition.
4. Organizations are the key to maintaining a democratic society.

5:1 Hypotheses are derived from theory.
5:2 A good theory produces good hypotheses.
5:3 And yet, it is also hypotheses that make theories better and sounder.
5:4 There are two aspects to handling hypotheses: hypothesis making and hypothesis testing.
5:5 [13] (1. Distinguishing 2. Discounting 3. Defending) these aspects are the key to seeing how hypotheses can contribute to theory.
5:6 For example, Freud had a theory of anxiety that included the concept of “repression.”
5:7 [14] (1. By 2. On 3. To) repression, Freud meant the forcing of unacceptable ideas into the unconscious.
5:8 Testing Freud’s theory is thus a difficult matter, because the concepts of “repression” and the “unconscious” need to be defined in a measurable, empirical way.
5:9 This is [15] (1. part 2. Soil. Most) of making a hypothesis and testing it empirically.
5:10 If the concepts used in a hypothesis are operationally defined, that is, empirically testable, then a scientist can test the theory itself, and the theory can be improved upon.
5:11 [16] (1. Relative to 2. Depending Oil 3. Owing to) the hypothesis-testing activity tests not only the hypothesis in question but also the validity of the theory under consideration.
[24] According to the article, which of the following statements about the relationship between theory and hypothesis in scientific investigation is not true?
1. Hypotheses are derived from theory.
2. Theories are made better by hypotheses.
3. The validity of theories is tested through hypothesis-testing.
4. Scientists start with hypotheses and then construct theories.

7:1 In Edison’s view a patent was hardly worth the trouble of inventing something.
7:2 He knew from experience that selling patents to businessmen often left the inventor shortchanged.
7:3 More often than not the returns from a new idea went to the financier or manufacturer, while the inventor struggled to protect his patent in the courts and [16] (1. lose 2. enlarge 3. obtain) his share of the profits.
7:4 A patent alone was not enough, nor was an invention.
7:5 The original idea had to be developed into something more tangible than a patent;
7:6 it had to be transformed, or “perfected,” into a working model or a prototype – something a businessman could see and touch rather than [17](1. imagine 2. create 3. materialize.
7:7 This was essential to obtaining financial support.
7:8 In Edison’s words, “the money people” had to see money in an invention before they would invest in it.
7:9 Perfecting an invention included finding and remedying the bugs – the defects and design problems – that inevitably [18](1. broke down 2. went through 3. cropped up) in the development of an idea into a working model or process.
7:10 This stage of innovation ended when the invention was translated into a factory ready prototype.
7:11 The idea was now embodied in a technology, an amalgamation of ideas, knowledge, and hardware all directed [19] (1. in 2. toward 3. under) a practical goal.
7:12 Its value was much greater than a patent.
7:13 The final step was “pioneering” a technology by putting it into production and proving its commercial feasibility.
7:14 This meant financing and administrating a manufacturing operation until it could be sold to entrepreneurs.
[27] Which of the following statements best summarizes Edison’s view of patents?
1. Obtaining patents is the crucial step in the process of invention.
2. Protecting patents through the legal system is highly important.
3. Patents do not guarantee commercial success.
4. Patents are essential to obtaining financial support.

5:1 When Edison reached the age of forty in February 1887, he had achieved more than many men do in their [8](1. Scopes 2. Areas 3. Lifetimes).
5:2 The development of commercial electric lighting had brought him worldwide fame and a considerable fortune.
5:3 The famous invention of his incandescent lamp had taken place in 1879 at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, the “invention factory” where groups of [9](1. investors 2. experimenters
3. executives) had developed a stream of new products that included electric lighting.
5:4 In the years that [10](1. made 2. continued 3. followed) the invention of the electric lamp, Edison and his men built the first complete supply system based on a central power station.
5:5 New York’s Pearl Street station was completed in 1882.
5:6 It distributed electricity to a few blocks of the business district in lower Manhattan.

5:7 This was not the first electric light in New York City.
5:8 [11](1.when 2. for 3. although) Charles Brush and Edward Weston had already installed arc lights in public places, but it was the prototype of the commercial distribution of electricity.
5:9 The plain, shop front facade of the Pearl Street station did not do justice to this historic installation, which proved that large-scale electricity supply was technologically feasible.
5:10 It was a triumph for Edison and the small beginning of a great new industry.
5:11 [12] (1. The structures 2. The features 3. Copies) of the station soon appeared on both sides of the Atlantic, as affluent city dwellers clamored for the new light and entrepreneurs rushed to form local Edison lighting companies.
5:12 To his contemporaries, Edison, now known as the “Wizard of Menlo Park,” stood astride a mighty business empire.
[23] Which of the following is not one of Edison’s inventions?
1. The arc light.
2. The storage battery.
3. The phonograph.
4. The motion picture camera.

[25] According to the article, which of the following statements about industrialization is not correct?
1. The steam engine and textile mill are symbols of the first wave of industrialization.
2. The electrical industry was born at the beginning of the second wave of industrialization.
3. None of the powerful symbols of the second wave of industrialization remains today.
4. The microelectronics “revolution” is under way as a third wave of industrialization.

8:1 Many do-it-yourself veterans are grappling with these same issues.

8:2 We tried two tasks:
8:3 one, filling in our tax forms by ourselves versus hiring a tax accountant;

8:4 two, buying a jar of pre-chopped garlic versus buying a garlic press device and doing it ourselves.
8:5 The tax accountant finished his work only two minutes faster than we did ourselves when we used a software program, if we include the time it took to travel to his office.
8:6 However, employing him cost $100 more.
8:7 Buying the jar of garlic saved us 22 minutes of chopping and slicing by ourselves, making it worthwhile, but the garlic in the jar does not taste as good as fresh garlic.
8:7 We then hired a professional to organize our desk.
8:8 She did half of it, but [49](1. charged 2. paid 3. saved) nearly $100 per hour, during which we had to stay with her to help her understand the piles of papers, making it not worthwhile.
[54] According to the article, which of the following is not a cost-effective use of free time?
1. Organizing your desk at your workplace by yourself.
2. Filling in your yearly tax forms rather than hiring an accountant to do it.
3. Changing the oil in your car by yourself.
4. Working all the time and asking the phone company for a refund.

12:1 As virtual schools become more prevalent, they will compete with conventional schools for funding, teachers, and students.
12:2 It is likely that there will be [20] ( 1. a lack of interest in 2. harmonious discussions on 3. heated debates on) issues such as teacher training, course certification, academic standards, teaching methods, access, and socialization.
12:3 It is to be hoped that the result of these exchanges will be a renewed consideration of the means and ends of education in contemporary society.
[28] Which of the following is not mentioned as an issue related to virtual schooling?
1. The quality of parental supervision is likely to vary by household.
2. Students cannot experience live, face to face interactions.
3. Students with slower computers have a lower quality online experience.
4. Virtual and conventional schools will have to compete for funding.

5:1 Cities may have problems, but they are not necessarily a problem in themselves.
5:2 According to some urban planners in England, it is the ‘failure of effective governance within cities that explains the poor environmental performance of so many cities rather than a [40] (1.active 2. exceptional 3. inherent) characteristic of cities in general.’
5:3 The manipulation of urban form, and the provision of better forms of governance, may go some way to overcome city problems.
5:4 [41](1. Because of 2. Despite. Instead of) many problems, the fastest growing cities in developing countries have benefits for those living there.
5:5 They can provide ‘enhanced opportunity for millions of people’ and ‘refuges from a stifling, restrictive rural life’ that may no longer be economically sustainable.
5:6 The sheer vitality and numbers of people and ideas tend to change attitudes and lifestyles, and lead to higher [42](1. aspirations 2. levels 3. means) to improve standards of living.
5:7 How, then, does this tendency relate to sustainable development and sustainable urban form?

[56] Which of the following is not one of the points made in the 5th paragraph?
1. Cities are not necessarily a problem in themselves, because they can provide enhanced opportunity for millions of people.
2. The worst problems will occur in rural areas, because rural life is no longer economically sustainable.
3. City problems may be overcome by the manipulation of urban form and the provision of better forms of governance.
4. The growing cities in developing countries have benefits for those living there.

3:1 In these countries the expansion of urbanization is [33](1. controlling 2. growing 3. occurring) on an unimaginable scale.
3:2 Very large cities the megacities with populations of over 10 million people are becoming commonplace.
3:3 New York and Tokyo were the only megacities in 1960, but by 1999 there were 17.
3:4 In another 15 years projections suggest there will be at [34](1. largest 2. least 3. most) 26 such cities, 22 of which will be in developing countries, and 18 of these in Asia.
3:5 However, the most aggressive growth [35](1. Appears 2. Continues 3. Corresponds) to be in the cities of between 1 and 10 million.
3:6 In 1990, we had 270 million cities; by 2015, various predictions show that there may be between 358 and 516 of these cities.
[53] Which of the following statements is not in accord with the contents of the 3rd paragraph?
1. It can be predicted that by 2015, 400 ‘million cities’ will appear.
2. By 2015, it is projected that 70% of the world’s ‘million cities’ will be located in Asia.
3. It is predicted that between 1999 and 2015 another 9 mega-cities will appear.
4. Only 4 mega-cities will be in developed countries in 2015.

2:1 Over the past five years the world has seen a 2.5% growth in urban population, but that [31](1. scatters 2. stands 3. varies) between the more developed regions (0.7%) and the less developed regions (3.3%).
2:2 In 1999, 47%, or 28 billion, of the world’s population lived in cities, and this is set to increase [32](1. by 2. to 3. with) around 70 million people each year.
2:3 The expectation is that by 2030 nearly 5 billion (61%) of the world’s 8.1 billion people will live in cities.
2:4 Of the urban population, for every one person now living in cities in developed countries, there are two in the cities of the developing world.
2:5 Within 30 years this proportion is predicted to rise to 1:4, indicating that 90% of the growth in urbanization will be in developing countries.
[52] With regard to the world population, which of the following is not mentioned in the 2nd paragraph?
1. Between 1999 and 2030, the world’s city population will have added 2.2 billion people.
2. The growth ratio in the urbanization of developing countries has been much higher than that of developed countries.
3. The proportion of the urban population of developing countries to developed countries will double by 2030.
4. Within 30 years, the urban population of developing countries will occupy 90% of the world population living in cities.

9:1 During World War II, it became clear that the Laws of Geneva and Hague as they existed were inadequate in relation to the new methods of conducting war that widely involved civilian populations, and to the newly invented weapons such as the atomic bomb.
9:2 Therefore, the rules of armed conflict did not correspond to the new methods of modern war.
9:3 Nevertheless, if a case were brought before a court, the legality of such new methods of war had to be [15](1. evaluated 2. invented 3. Speculated) based on the existing law.
9:4 In 1963, in an opinion on the use of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the District Court of Tokyo held that even though the rules of Air Warfare were not written in a treaty they had become international customary law by the start of the World War II, and the indiscriminate aerial bombardment on [16](1. a disdefended 2. an antidefense 3. an undefended) city was perceived to be contrary to the rules of international customary law.
[26] Based on the ninth paragraph, which of the followir1g statements is most incorrect?
1. The District Court of Tokyo held that atomic bombs were illegally employed during World War II.
2. The District Court of Tokyo held that Rules of Air Warfare had become international customary law when atomic bombs were employed toward Japan.
3. The District Court of Tokyo held that the legality of the use of atomic bombs could not be brought before the court.
4. The District Court of Tokyo held that the indiscriminate aerial bombardment was contrary to the customary rules of law of armed conflict.

3:1 By the Middle Ages the power of the Church was such that it was able to forbid Christian knights [5](1. to 2. from 3. against) using certain weapons as hateful to God.
3:2 Thus, in 1139, the Second Lateran Council condemned the use of the crossbow and arc*, a view that matched the concept of chivalry* which regarded such weapons [6](1. as 2. such 3. very) disgraceful, since they could be used from a distance enabling a man to strike [7](1. with 2. before 3. without) the risk of himself being struck.
3:3 In fact, the feudal knights were aware of what they knew as the “law of chivalry,” a customary code of chivalrous conduct that controlled their affairs and which was enforced by specially appointed arbitrators* or, in the case of England and France, by Courts of Chivalry.
3:4 However, these limitations only covered those who shared the code of chivalry, such as knights of noble birth, and did not cover common soldiers.
[23] Based on the discussion of the chivalry in the third paragraph, which of the following statements is most incorrect?
1. The Church was powerful enough to order Christian knights not to use some kind of weapons during the Middle Ages.
2. If a French Christian knight did not observe the “law of chivalry,” he was held before the Courts of Chivalry.
3. The rules of chivalry were applicable to all the combatants unless they were Muslims.
4. The crossbow and arc were considered to be contrary to the concept of chivalry.

16:1 The Vietnamese Buddhist poet-priest, Thich Nhat Hanh, devised an interesting telephone meditation.
16:2 The sound of the telephone ringing, and our semiautomatic instinct to jump up and answer it, seem the very opposite of meditation.
16:3 Ring and reaction bring (19) (1. in 2. out 3. along) the essence of the choppy, nervous character of the way time is lived in our world.
16:4 He says use the first ring as a reminder, in the midst of whatever you were doing, of mindfulness, a reminder of breath, and of your own center.
16:5 Use the second and third rings to breathe and smile.
16:6 If the caller wants to talk, he or she will wait for the fourth ring, and you will be ready.
16:7 What Thich Nhat Hanh is saying here is that mindfulness, practice, and poetry in life are not to be reserved for a time and place where everything is perfect ; we can use the very instruments of society’s nervous pressures on us to (20)( 1. relieve 2. retrieve 3. repress) the pressure.
16:8 Even under the sound of helicopters-and this is a man who buried many children in Vietnam to the roar of helicopters and bombs he can say, “Listen, listen; this sound brings me back to my true self.”
(29)In this essay, the passage about the poet-priest, Thich Nhat Hanh, is not meant to illustrate
1. the importance of meditation to lessen nervous pressures of everyday life.
2. that anything can be used to our advantage if we are not shackled by preconceptions.
3. the way the telephone can be used as an instrument of meditation.
4. that poetry and creativity should be practiced when we feel calm.

(30) Which of the following would make a suitable title for this essay?
1. Poetry, Process, and Performance
2. The Creative Potential of Error
3. A Cultural View of Mistakes
4. The Wisdom of Oysters

8:1 The use of writing enables us to accumulate knowledge and at the same time to formalize, summarize, and generate it by means of paralinguistic devices, such as diagrams (including Euclidean geometry), lists, and tables.
8:2 Such devices not only facilitate comprehension, their creation advances understanding by grouping material in new or question raising ways.
8:3 The telephone directory and the dictionary are important developments from the simpler forms, powerful instruments of knowledge and communication.
8:4 At the same time the shopping list or railway timetable enables one to plan ones future action, and the critical value of such tables for the allocation of time, for teaching, for work, in calendars, and in daily diaries needs no stressing.
8:5 Once again, while planning is intrinsic to all human communities, such action can be greatly
(20) (1. enhanced 2. escalated 3. elevated) by the use of literacy.
(27) Which of the following is not mentioned as a function of paralinguistic devices in writing?
1. They help us make plans for the future.
2. They help us predict our future.
3. They promote our understanding.
4. They help us organize and create knowledge.

3:1 The first achievement of writing is to ensure the storage and communication over time and space of linguistic messages.
3:2 There lies its prime role in transforming social organizations, but the process of setting down such messages, whether or not they are then communicated to anyone, leads to changes in human understanding itself.
3:3 In terms of the mechanics of reading and writing, these involve the development of secondary skills, the coordination of the eye with the brain, the inner ear, and the silent voice, by which linguistic thoughts are expressed in visual formulae and vice versa.
3:4 The process of learning to read involves the deliberate cultivation of exact memory and verbatim recall right from the start.
3:5 The memorizing of hundreds of basic shapes is (6) (1. crucial 2. marginal 3. irrelevant) to any logographic writing such as Chinese; syllabic scripts make fewer initial demands, and alphabetic ones fewer still.
(23) Which of the following does not reflect the author’s view of writing?
1. Writing affects human cognition in significant ways.
2. Writing enables us to store and communicate linguistic messages over time and Space.
3. Writing requires that we develop precise memory and word for word recall.
4. Writing has a marginal role to play in changing social organizations.

2:1 Alice was the admissions officer’s dream.
2:2 She was easily admitted to our graduate program.
2:3 She came with (1) (1. average 2. stellar 3. satisfactory) test scores, outstanding college grades, excellent letters of recommendation, and, overall, close to a perfect record.
2:4 Alice proved to be more or less what her record promised.
2:5 She had excellent critical and analytical abilities, which earned her outstanding grades during her first two years at our school.
2:6 When it came to taking tests and writing papers, she (2) (1. had no peer 2. had no help 3. was popular) among her classmates.
2:7 But after the first two years, Alice no longer looked quite so outstanding.
2:8 In our graduate program, as in most, emphasis shifts after the first couple of years.
2:9 It is not enough just to criticize other people’s ideas or to study concepts that other people have proposed.
2:10 You must (3) (1. not rely on 2. begin reviewing 3. start coming up with) your own ideas and figuring out ways of implementing them.
2:11 Alice’s synthetic abilities were far inferior to her analytic ones.
2:12 But there was no way of knowing this from the evidence available in the admissions folder, for
(4) (1. although 2. however 3. whenever) conventional measures can give us a good reading on analytic abilities, they give virtually no assessment of synthetic abilities.
2:13 Thus, Alice was “IQ test” smart, but not equally (5)1. discreet 2. disciplined 3. distinguished) in the synthetic, or practical, areas of intelligence.

4:1 Celia, on paper, appeared to be somewhere between Alice and Barbara in terms of suitability for admission to the graduate program.
4:2 She was good on almost every measure of success but not truly outstanding on any.
4:3 We admitted her, (6) (1. expecting that she comes out 2. expecting her to come out 3. having expected to come out) near the middle of the class.
4:4 This did not happen.
4:5 Celia proved to be outstanding, though in a way that is quite different from Alice’s or Barbara’s.

4:6 Celia’s expertise lies in figuring out and adapting to the demands of the environ mint.
4:7 Placed in a totally new setting, she loses no time identifying what is required of her and behaving (7) (1. agreeably 2. accordingly 3. selectively).
4:8 She knows exactly what to do to get ahead.
4:9 In conventional parlance, Celia is “street smart.”
4:10 She excels in practical intelligence.
(30) Which of the following statements does not reflect the beliefs of the author?
1. Students who initially seem as though they might be successful in graduate school sometimes fail later on.
2. “Street smarts” are beneficial in graduate school.
3. It is impossible to judge students accurately from the contents of a typical admissions folder.
4. Applicants to the author’s graduate school need to design and implement some creative research before being accepted.

10:1 And what about authority?
10:2 Do we perhaps identify authority with the designer who had the idea of inventing a new polo shirt design, or with the manufacturer who decided to sell it, and to sell it on a wide scale, to make money?
10:3 Or with those who legitimate lee agree to wear it, and to advertise an image of youth and recklessness, or happiness?
10:4 Or with the TV director, who has one of his young actors wear the polo shirt to characterize a genera tion?
10:5 Or with the singer who, to cover his expenses, agrees to sponsor the polo shirt?
10:6 All are in it, and all are outside it.
10:7 Power is elusive, and there is no longer (16) (1. any 2. some 3. all) telling where the “plan” comes from.
10:8 There is a plan, but it is no longer intentional.
10:9 Therefore, it cannot be criticized with the traditional (17) (1. critic 2. criticism 3. critics) of intentions.
10:10 All the professors of communication, trained by the texts of twenty years ago (this includes me), should be pensioned off.
[10] Which one of the following statements does not reflect the author’s opinion?
1. Art since the 1960s has given way to consumerism.
2. Messages today all tend to be ideologica.
3. It is no longer possible to pinpoint the source or receiver of a message with precision.
4. It has become easier to trace the source of a message to people with power.

3:1 One reason why the personal qualities required of a leader (6)(1.should 2. may 3. may not) be diverse is because leadership cannot be divorced from the environment within which it occurs.
3:2 The role of this environment is (7)(1. manifest 2. manifold 3. manipulative) in several ways.
3:3 To begin with, the personal qualities of leaders are personal only in the sense that these leaders happen to possess them: they may also be viewed as being in part the product of the environment, from the family in which the leaders grew up to the nation to which they belong.
3:4 But there are two other essential ways in which leadership is related to and indeed (8)(1.
contends with 2. suspends from 3. depends on) the environment.
3:5 First, leadership is, usually at least, clearly connected to the holding of a particular position: a prime minister may exercise his or her leadership more or less successfully; in the first instance, however, the fact of being prime minister provides opportunities which others do not have.
3:6 The holder of such a post is expected to be a leader; other politicians and the population as a whole look to the head of the government for guidance.
3:7 What needs explanation is more why some prime ministers or presidents do not succeed in becoming real leaders, rather than why they succeed (9)(1. in doing it 2. in doing so 3. in being it.

3:8 Indeed, more generally, the institutional framework truly fashions the characteristics of leadership in that it provides opportunities to exercise power: the British prime minister, for example, has an easier task in this respect than the Italian prime minister, who heads a coalition government whose many components are more likely to rebel than to follow.
[3] Which of the following is not mentioned as an environmental factor affecting leadership?
1. education
2. family
3. nationality

4:1 The model for this distinction between liberal and conservative tendencies is British politics of the 19th century.
4:2 Even this model is imperfect, however, because political parties in liberal coun tries commonly have only a loose attachment to any political principle.
4:3 For example, in the United States in the mid-20th century, the two major political parties might both have been described as “liberal,” though in different senses of the word.
4:4 The Republicans stood for a minimum of governmental (4)( 1. association 2 . interference 3. attachment) with the affairs of individuals, while the Democrats generally favored legislation to supply underprivileged individuals with what were thought to be the essential conditions for the exercise of individual liberty.
[2] Which of the following statements is not supported by the essay?
1. In the United States, the Republican party espouses British conservatism.
2. The word “liberal” might be applied to the Republicans as well as to the Democrats in the United States in 1950s.
3. Since political parties in liberal countries vary, one cannot apply the model distinction between liberal and conservative in Britain to other countries.

3:1 The most extreme female socioeconomic disadvantage is found generally in agrarian and pastoral societies.
3:2 Virtually all the great world religions, namely, those that spread beyond the tribal level, developed in agrarian or mixed agrarian and pastoral societies.
3:3 Those that became monotheistic (e.g., Judaism, Christianity, Islam) dropped the female element entirely (3) (1. from 2. over 3. in) their concept of the deity and original creation.
3:4 They came to view the sexes in an invidious fashion.
3:5 Women were barred from formal religious roles (4) (1. such as 2. rather than 3. for) the clergy, were defined as polluted or as temptresses, and were made subject to the secular as well as sacred authority of male kin.
3:6 Even when monotheism did not develop (e.g., Hinduism, Confucianism), the same types of controls over women came to be justified by religion (5) (1. by means of 2. in spite of 3. on the basis of) women’s supposed innate inferiority.
[3] In which type of society is sexism most likely to be extreme?
1. Industrial-technological
2. Agrarian pastoral
3. Horticultural and hunting-gathering




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