慶應義塾大学SFC 英語 内容一致テクニック 『特定段落以外の内容と非一致の選択肢を選ぶ問題』

[59] Which of the following is NOT a theme explored in this article?
1. Doctor liability
2. Medical law
3. Patient safety
4. Wireless security

[27] According to the article, which of the following would not be an issue for global governance?
1. The maintenance of luxury tourist hotels for developmental purposes.
2. The maintenance of unique ecologies through a global biosphere program.
3. The development of local economies through the extension of subsidized loans.
4. The development of an accessible and transparent system of the rule of law.

■ 第3段落
3:1 According to an article in the British newspaper, the Financial Times, the focus of the scandal is eight luxury hotels on Lanzarote, the easternmost of the Canary Islands.
3:2 Because of its remote geography and its overdependence on tourism, Lanzarote was [4] (1. provided 2. accounted 3. eligible), under the EU treaty, for a variety of European and national subsidies.
3:3 Fuelled by the expanding economy of the 1990s, tourism, which had been the mainstay of the islands economy for the past 40 years, [5] (1. boomed 2. bubbled 3. banged).
3:4 Hotels were built, and the islands airfield was expanded in 1999 to handle the [6] (1. intrusion 2. influence 3. inflow) of tourist flights from EU countries.
3:5 In 2008, more than five million passengers travelled to Lanzarote.
3:6 Commenting on this development, the Financial Times article states, “The rapid growth of the tourism industry has crowded out agriculture and fishing from the local economy and [7] (1. undermined 2. strengthened 3. demonstrated) the sustainability of an island.”

■ 第5段落
5:1 The Canary Islands High Court has annulled 22 building licenses for various projects on Lanzarote.
5:2 It is this relationship between development and environmental issues that has added aspects of political corruption to the financial [9] (1. assistance 2. award 3. fraud) case.
5:3 The Financial Times reported that more than 30 public officials and businessmen have been arrested on allegations of corruption regarding illegal building and operating [10] (1.. systems 2. principles 3. permits).
5:4 These charges transcend local political issues and involve major international organizations on the questions of policy and responsibility.

■ 第6段落
6:1 In preparing the background research for the article, the Financial Times collaborated with the London-based NPO, the Bureau of Investigative Journalism (BIJ).
6:2 On its web site, the BIJ states that its goal is “to bolster original journalism by producing high- quality investigations, and to explore new ways of conducting and funding investigative journalism.”
6:3 By working in collaboration with other news groups, it aims to [11] ( 1. call 2. address 3. support) the difficulty that national and international media often face in [12] (1. funding 2. avoiding
3. finding) expensive long-term investigations.
6:4 The joint investigation by the Financial Times and the BIJ alleges that eight large hotels used a special environmental status to promote their business and to help [13] (1. clarify 2.qualify 3.exemplify) for the 23.6 million euros in loans to help generate employment in the area.
6:5 According to their research, before the development boom Lanzarote received a “Reservation of the Biosphere” status (hereafter called Biosphere status) in 1993 under the UNESCO “Man and the Biosphere” (MAB) Program.
6:6 This status helped the island win special funding for sustainable development.

■ 第9段落
9:1 As UNESCO reviews Lanzarote’s Biosphere status, EU officials have begun to consider the implications of member states’ money being involved in political corruption.
9:2 The European Anti-Fraud Office has been charged with ensuring the [17] (1. recovery 2. expenditure 3. loss) of any EU subsidies used to finance illegal construction.
[23] Which of the following is not mentioned in the article as a basis of the Lanzarote scandal?
1. The ethical failure of public officials.
2. The conflict between UNESCO and the EU.
3. The overdevelopment of tourism infrastructure.
4. The misuse of UNESCO environmental designations.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Public trust is a term that implies both a set of responsibilities to preserve, protect, and enhance property held [44] (1. on top of 2. on behalf of 3. in addition to) the public and a code of conduct to ensure that this responsibility is discharged with the highest degree of skill and diligence.
9:2 As public institutions, museums are expected to act and behave in a way that is in keeping with the perceived [45] ( 1. thoughts 2. values 3. politics) they embody.
9:3 This is true regardless of whether they are privately or publicly funded, civic or state institutions.

■ 第11段落
11:1 The key term here is moral authority, which brings us back to the issue of responsibility and where we began.
11:2 If art museums are to continue [47l (1. thriving 2. sliding 3. revolving) they must recognize that their moral authority derives from the trust the public invests in them because the public believes they are acting responsibly and for the common good.
11:3 Lessening of trust is ultimately a loss of a museum’s authority and credibility, and once lost, that trust is very difficult to [48] ( 1. sustain 2. regain 3. refrain).
11:4 The question, however, is not whether art museums can find a way to embrace commercial culture but whether they can demonstrate that there is a clear and discernible difference between art and commerce that is worth preserving.
11:5 This is not an easy task in a world where art and commerce can, and often do, merge seamlessly into each other, where museums can become part of vast entertainment complexes, and where museums are compelled to act more and more like commercial enterprises.
[55] Which of the following does not explain the nature of “public trust” in this article?
1. A museum collection is held in trust for the general public.
2. Public trust is an invisible investment by the people in the museum.
3. Museums cannot destroy their public trust because of their popularity.
4. Public trust requires museums to demonstrate responsibility for the common good.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Indeed, this scrutiny was so intense, and its implications for other museums so potentially damaging, that the American Association of Museums took the unusual step in the aftermath of Sensation of adopting new guidelines concerning the financing of exhibitions and the avoidance of conflicts of interest in order to bolster public confidence in museums and demonstrate to lawmakers that museums are capable of policing themselves.
8:2 Whatever gains the museum may have had in attendance and profile were more than [43] (1. multiplied 2. repaid 3. offset) by the fact that this came at the cost of public trust in the institution.
[54] According to the 8th paragraph, which of the following explains the motive of the American Association of the Museums when it stepped into the Brooklyn Museum controversy?
1. To prevent the federal government from stepping into the fight in question.
2. To protect the reputation of American museums by setting higher professional standards.
3. To save the Brooklyn Museum of Art from attack by the mayor and the press.
4. To bolster public interest in museum management.

■ 第11段落
11:1 The key term here is moral authority, which brings us back to the issue of responsibility and where we began.
11:2 If art museums are to continue [47l (1. thriving 2. sliding 3. revolving) they must recognize that their moral authority derives from the trust the public invests in them because the public believes they are acting responsibly and for the common good.
11:3 Lessening of trust is ultimately a loss of a museum’s authority and credibility, and once lost, that trust is very difficult to [48] ( 1. sustain 2. regain 3. refrain).
11:4 The question, however, is not whether art museums can find a way to embrace commercial culture but whether they can demonstrate that there is a clear and discernible difference between art and commerce that is worth preserving.
11:5 This is not an easy task in a world where art and commerce can, and often do, merge seamlessly into each other, where museums can become part of vast entertainment complexes, and where museums are compelled to act more and more like commercial enterprises.
[55] Which of the following does not explain the nature of “public trust” in this article?
1. A museum collection is held in trust for the general public.
2. Public trust is an invisible investment by the people in the museum.
3. Museums cannot destroy their public trust because of their popularity.
4. Public trust requires museums to demonstrate responsibility for the common good.

■第1段落
1:1 Some people think that science and common sense are alike because science is a systematic and controlled extension of common sense, which is, in turn, a series of concepts and conceptual schemes satisfactory for practical uses.
1:2 But science and common sense differ in two significant ways.
1:3 First, their uses of conceptual schemes and theoretical structures are strikingly different.
1:4 [1] (1. Since 2. While. Now that) the man in the street uses “theories” and concepts, he ordinarily does so in a loose fashion.
1:5 He often accepts fanciful explanations of natural and human phenomena.
1:6 An illness, for instance, may be thought to be a punishment for sin.
1:7 The scientist, on the other hand, systematically builds her theoretical structures, tests them for [2] (1. internal 2. external 3. social) consistency, and subjects aspects of them [3] (1. for 2. to 3. through) empirical testing.
1:8 Furthermore, she knows that the concepts she is using are manmade terms that may or may not exhibit a close relation to reality.

■第2段落
2:1 Secondly, the scientist systematically and empirically tests her hypotheses.
2:2 The man in the street certainly tests his “hypotheses,” too, but he tests them in what might be [4] (1. defined 2. assumed 3. called) a selective fashion.
2:3 He often “selects” evidence simply because it is consistent with his hypothesis.
2:4 Take the stereotype: Fast food is bad for you.
2:5 If some people believe this, they can easily “verify” their belief by noting that many kinds of fast food are unhealthy.
2:6 [5] (1. Exceptions 2. Rules 3. Objectives) to the stereotype, such as healthy or low-fat fast foods, are not taken into account.
2:7 The true social scientist, knowing this “selection tendency” to be a common psychological phenomenon, carefully guards her research against her own preconceptions and predilections, and avoids selecting only the kinds of data that support her hypotheses.
2:8 Most importantly, she is not content with an armchair exploration of a relation;
2:9 she feels it [6] ( 1. uncomfortable 2. obligatory 3. stressful) to test her hypothesis against empirical reality.
2:10 She thus emphasizes the importance of systematic, controlled, and empirical testing of her hypotheses.
[30] Which of the following statements about scientists is not true according to this article?
1. Scientists believe that theoretical concepts reflect the real world.
2. Scientists maintain that their theories should be checked against empirical reality.
3. Scientists are aware that their hypotheses are not immune to their personal bias.
4. Scientists make predictions about the outcome of their research.

■第1段落
1:1 The Thomas A. Edison National Historic Site in West Orange attracts thousands of people who would normally avoid the harsh, deindustrialized landscape of northern New Jersey.
1:2 Situated about forty five minutes from New York City, the site of Edison laboratory and museum is one of the most popular national parks on the East Coast.
1:3 The Park Service estimated that over 50,000 people visited the site in 1987, its 100″ anniversary.
1:4 These visitors came from all parts of the nation and a large portion came from abroad.
1:5 It is [1] (1. similarly 2. exceedingly 3. hardly) surprising that Edison’s laboratory is most popular with Japanese tourists, who share his work ethic and commitment to innovation.

■第2段落
2:1 The creators of today’s microelectronics “revolution” find relevance in the “Second Industrial Revolution,” which began in the 1880s and [2] (1. ended 2. completed 3. lasted) until the Great War of 1914-18.
2:2 This period of rapid economic growth came after the first wave of industrialization had begun to transform the economy and society of the United States.
2:3 Edison’s invention of the incandescent light bulb marked the beginning of the second burst of innovation, one that created several major new industries.
2:4 This second wave of industrialization does not have the same powerful images as the first;
2:5 the steam engine and textile mill are universally recognized as the symbols for the first great movement, which began in Great Britain and [3] (1. led 2. spread 3. continued) to the United States in the early nineteenth century.
2:6 The new industries of the 1870s and 1880s do not have the same familiar symbols.
2:7 Edison’s Pearl Street station in downtown Manhattan – the first architectural relic of the electrical industry is no longer standing.
2:8 But Edison’s laboratory in West Orange is both a [4] (1. accessible 2. attainable 3. adaptable) and appropriate symbol of this movement.

■第3段落
3:1 The complex of buildings in West Orange was erected in the late 1880s, when the Second Industrial Revolution was just beginning.
3:2 As the greatest industrial research facility in the United States, the laboratory was the breeding ground for a new generation of technology and the starting point of some important new industries of the twentieth century.
3:3 Here Edison worked at spreading his electrical lighting systems throughout the industrialized West and [5] (1. estimating 2. lowering. dispersing) the price of electricity until it was available to everyone.
3:4 The motion picture camera was invented at the laboratory, along with a host of other important products, such as the Edison storage battery and the dictating machine.
3:5 Edison perfected the phonograph at this facility and manufactured thousands of them at his nearby factories.
3:6 Two of the twentieth century’s most influential media industries -motion pictures and musical entertainment – had their humble beginnings in this cluster of brick buildings.
[21] Which of the following statements about the Edison National Historic Site is not correct?
1. It attracts many visitors, including Japanese.
2. It is located next to the Pearl Street station.
3. It has the complex of buildings originally erected in the 1880s.
4. It is a rare symbol of the Second Industrial Revolution.

■第5段落
5:1 Perhaps the most serious concern about virtual schools is whether they can teach students to work cooperatively, and to [4](1. acquire 2. interrupt 3. reject) the humanistic and egalitarian values that are the foundations of democratic society.
5:2 Many who oppose on demand virtual schools claim that, because such schools do not [5](1. prevent 2. provide 3. propose) live interaction, they are destined to diminish civic engagement and deepen the social isolation that can be seen among so many of today’s young people.

■第7段落
7:1 Defenders of conventional schooling make parallel arguments, claiming that children need the physical and emotional peer connections that they experience in classroom activities, school assemblies, club meetings, and the like in order to develop the social skills they will need to [9] ( 1 .participate in 2. borrow from 3. retreat from) democratic society.
7:2 On the other hand, some argue that virtual schooling can actually promote civic participation because it provides a [10](1.measurement 2. mechanism 3. messenger) by which thoughtful communication can take place among a nearly limitless range of students.

■第8段落
8:1 This point, however, is called into question by the fact of socioeconomic inequality.
8:2 Technology mediated education may, at least in the short term, prevent people at the lower end of the income scale from participating in online education.
8:3 Indeed, students whose families can afford Internet access and the required hardware and software currently [11](1. regulate 2. reduce 3. constitute) the majority of those participating in virtual schooling.
8:4 However, as computers and Internet access become less expensive, they will come within reach even of disadvantaged groups.
8:5 At that point, debate will likely focus on the overall quality of the online educational experience rather than on [12](1. access 2. excess 3. success) itself.
8:6 Therefore, it will probably become necessary to demonstrate to potential users that high-quality education is being provided.
8:7 One way this can be accomplished is by establishing standards for teacher certification and course content with which virtual schools must [13](1.comply 2. contend 3. contract).
[23] Which of the following does the author not mention in relation to virtual schooling?
1. Social isolation.
2. Increasing dropout rates.
3. Inequality of opportunity.
4. Civic disengagement.

■第9段落
9:1 Wealth is also a poor [8](1. predictor 2. fortune-teller 3. future) of happiness.
9:2 People have not become happier over time as their cultures have increased in wealth.
9:3 Even though Americans earn twice as much in today’s dollars as they did in 1957, the proportion of those telling interviewers from the National Opinion Research Center that they are “very happy” has declined from 35 to 29 percent.

■第7段落
7:1 Interviews with representative samples of people of all ages, for example, reveal that no time of life is especially happier or unhappier.
7:2 [6](1. Simultaneously 2. Similarly 3.Definitely), men and women are equally likely to declare themselves “very happy” and “satisfied” with life, according to a statistical digest of 146 studies compiled by researchers at Arizona State University.
7:3 Other researchers at the University of Northern British Columbia and the University of Michigan summarizing surveys of 18,000 university students in 39 countries and 170,000 adults in 16 countries have supported these findings.

■第16段落
16:1 Religiously active people also report greater happiness.
16:2 One survey found that highly religious people were twice as likely as those lowest in spiritual commitment to declare them very happy.
16:3 Other surveys, including a collaborative study of 166,000 people in 16 nations, have found that reported happiness and life satisfaction [17] (1. rise 2. relate 3.register) with the strength of religious affiliation and frequency of attendance at worship services.
16:4 Some researchers believe that religious affiliation [18] (1. equates 2. encourages 3. evolves) greater social support and hopefulness.

■第6段落
6:1 Researchers have found that the even distribution of happiness cuts across almost all demographic classifications of age, economic class, race and educational level.
6:2 In addition, almost all [5](1. research 2. study 3.real) strategies for assessing subjective well- being turn up similar findings.

■第8段落
8:1 Ethnicity also gives little clue to subjective well-being.
8:2 African-Americans are only slightly less likely to feel “very happy” when compared to European- Americans.
8:3 The National Institute of Mental Health found that the rates of depression and alcoholism among blacks and whites are roughly equal.
8:4 Social psychologists at the University of California have also found that people in [7](1. discovered 2. aristocrat 3.disadvantaged) groups maintain self-esteem by valuing things at which they excel, by making comparisons within their own groups and by blaming problems on external sources such as prejudice.

■第11段落
11:1 Are people in rich countries happier, by and large, than the people in not so rich countries?
11:2 It appears in general that they are, but the margin may not be very large.
11:3 In Portugal, for example, only one in ten people reports being very happy, [10](1. whereas 2. whereby 3.wherefore) in the much more prosperous Netherlands the proportion of very happy people is four in ten.
11:4 Yet there are curious exceptions in this correlation between national wealth and well-being — the Irish during the 1980’s consistently reported greater life satisfaction than the wealthier West Germans.
11:5 Furthermore, other factors, such as civil rights, literacy and the duration of democratic government, all of which also [11](1. accept 2. promote 3.prove) a sense of life satisfaction, tend to go hand in hand with national wealth.
11:6 As a result, it is impossible to tell whether the happiness of people in wealthier nations is based on money or is a byproduct of other important aspects of life.
[29] Which of the following statements does not represent the views of tl1e research mentioned in this article?
1. Persona l happiness is not dependent 0n personal income.
2. Personal happiness is greatest in middle age.
3. Personal happiness is related to religious activity.
4. Personal happiness is not connected to nationality.

■第1段落
1:1 It has been recognized since earliest times that some restraints should be observed during armed conflict.
1:2 Already in the Old Testament* there are instances of limitations set by God.
1:3 Sun Tzu* maintained that in war one should attack the enemy armies, and that “the worst policy is to attack cities.
1:4 Attack cities only when there is no alternative.”
1:5 In ancient India it was considered that war should be conducted on a basis of equality between the opponents:

1:6 “A car warrior should fight a car warrior.
1:7 One on horse should fight one on horse.
1:8 Elephant riders must fight with elephant riders, as one on foot fights a foot soldier.”
1:9 According to Homer*, the ancient Greeks considered that the use of poison on weapons was forbidden by the gods;
1:10 and among the city states, temples and priests and embassies could not be attacked.
1:11 The Romans were more regular and disciplined soldiers than those of any other ancient nation.
1:12 They did not, as a rule, lower themselves to indiscriminate massacre and [1](1. unrestrained
2. unavailable 3. spotted) destruction.

■第2段落
2:1 By the seventh century some of these principles had spread to the Islamic world.
2:2 The leading Islamic statement on the law of nations written in the ninth century to some extent reflects principles laid [2](1. upon 2. down 3. by) in the Old Testament, with its ban on the killing of women, children, the old and [3](1. the helpless 2. the help 3. helpful).
2:3 Moreover, a prisoner of war should not be killed, but he may be ransomed* or set free.
2:4 But, prisoners might be killed if it were considered advantageous in conducting a war [4](1. therefore 2. however 3. despite), this would not be so if the prisoners converted to Islam.

■第3段落
3:1 By the Middle Ages the power of the Church was such that it was able to forbid Christian knights [5](1. to 2. from 3. against) using certain weapons as hateful to God.
3:2 Thus, in 1139, the Second Lateran Council condemned the use of the crossbow and arc*, a view that matched the concept of chivalry* which regarded such weapons [6](1. as 2. such 3. very) disgraceful, since they could be used from a distance enabling a man to strike [7](1. with 2. before
3. without) the risk of himself being struck.
3:3 In fact, the feudal knights were aware of what they knew as the “law of chivalry,” a customary code of chivalrous conduct that controlled their affairs and which was enforced by specially appointed arbitrators* or, in the case of England and France, by Courts of Chivalry.
3:4 However, these limitations only covered those who shared the code of chivalry, such as knights of noble birth, and did not cover common soldiers.

■第11段落
11:1 In general, in the absence of any specific treaty or international customary law relating to a particular weapon and restricting or controlling its use, the employment of such weapons is subject to the general rules of the law of armed conflict.
11:2 The question of the legality of such weapons should be decided in accordance with those rules, particularly those concerning unnecessary suffering and proportionality.
11:3 In view of the effects of a nuclear explosion, the long-term nature of its radioactive fallout, and the existence of treaties banning the use of poison or other biological weapons, it might be expected [19](1. to 2. although 3. that) nuclear weapons would fall under the ban on those weapons causing unnecessary suffering and adversely affecting the environment.
11:4 However, some schools of international lawyers hold that war employing nuclear weapons to prevent new nuclear powers from emerging would be reasonable in some circumstances.
[29] Based on the entire reading, which of the following statements is most incorrect?
1. The law of armed conflict has gradually evolved since earliest times.
2. The proper treatment of the sick and wounded was first made into a treaty by Russian Emperor.
3. Prisoners of war were t1nder some circumstances allowed to be killed in the Islamic world.
4. The legality of nuclear weapons is considered to be covered by the law of armed conflict.

■第5段落
5:1 In contemplating this problem, Lovelock found that the fact that all living organisms take in energy and matter and discard waste products was the most general characteristic of life he could (6)( 1. identify 2. modify 3. codify).
5:2 He first thought that one should be able to express this key characteristic mathematically in terms of entropy, but then his reasoning went in a different direction.
5:3 Lovelock assumed that life on any planet would use the atmosphere and oceans as fluid media for raw materials and waste products.
5:4 Therefore, he speculated, one might be able, somehow, to detect the existence of life by analyz ing the chemical composition of a planet’s atmosphere.
5:5 Thus if there was life on Mars, the Martian atmosphere should (7) (1. remove 2. repel 3. reveal) some special combination of gases, some characteristic “signature” that could be detected even from Earth.

■第7段落
7:1 Lovelock realized that the (10) (1. assumption 2. tendency 3.reason) for that particular atmospheric profile on Mars is that on a planet with no life, all possible chemical reactions among the gases in the atmosphere were completed a long time ago.
7:2 Today no more chemical reactions are possible on Mars; there is complete chemical equilibrium in the Martian atmosphere.
(22) Which of the following statements does not fit the definition of life in this article?
1. It needs an external source of energy to survive.
2. It is a result of chemical reactions completed a long time ago.
3. It produces waste.
4. It can be detected by studying the chemicals in the ocean.

■第1段落
1:1 In the early 1960s, the concept of self-organizing systems began to take hold.
1:2 About that time, atmospheric chemist James Lovelock had an (1) ( 1 .erroneous 2. illuminating
3. alternative) insight into the organization of living systems that led him to formulate a model that is perhaps the most surprising and most beautiful expression of self-organization —the idea that the planet Earth as a whole is a living, self-organizing system.

■第5段落
5:1 In contemplating this problem, Lovelock found that the fact that all living organisms take in energy and matter and discard waste products was the most general characteristic of life he could (6)( 1. identify 2. modify 3. codify).
5:2 He first thought that one should be able to express this key characteristic mathematically in terms of entropy, but then his reasoning went in a different direction.
5:3 Lovelock assumed that life on any planet would use the atmosphere and oceans as fluid media for raw materials and waste products.
5:4 Therefore, he speculated, one might be able, somehow, to detect the existence of life by analyz ing the chemical composition of a planet’s atmosphere.
5:5 Thus if there was life on Mars, the Martian atmosphere should (7) (1. remove 2. repel 3. reveal) some special combination of gases, some characteristic “signature” that could be detected even from Earth.

■第6段落
6:1 These speculations were (8)( 1. rejected 2 .confirmed 3.discovered) dramatically when Lovelock and a colleague, Dian Hitchcock, began a systematic analysis of the Martian atmosphere, using observations made from Earth, and compared it with a similar analysis of the Earth’s atmosphere.
6:2 They dis covered that the chemical compositions of the two atmospheres are (9) (1. strikingly
2. slightly 3. arguably) different.
6:3 While there is very little oxygen, a lot of carbon dioxide (C02) and no methane in the Martian atmosphere, the Earth’s atmos phere contains massive amounts of oxygen, almost no C02, and a lot of methane.
(21) Which one of the following statements cannot be made based on information given in this article?
1. There is a need to work on environmental issues on a world wide basis.
2. Mars’ atmosphere can be analyzed by the same instruments we analyze Earth’s by.
3. The earth works as a single integrated system.
4. All planets process waste products differently.

14:1 As with human beings, some of the attributes and behaviors of butterfly courtship are quite
(20) (1. simple 2. tangible 3. elaborate), whereas others are fairly straightforward.
14:2 Intricate or simple, courtship and mating remain the mechanism by which survival and evolution take place.
14:3 Whether a butterfly watcher catches a glimpse of a swarming colony of Monarchs mating in the mountains of central Mexico or the mating of two alfalfa butterflies in a backyard, the observer is fortunate enough to be watching the results of, and the continuing course of, evolution.

■第12段落
12:1 The male impulse to send their genetic material into the next generation causes them to try to prevent their mate from mating again.
12:2 Male butterflies actually make a substantial contribution to females during copulation, passing along a large quantity of nutrients.
12:3 This nutrient store can be as much as 6 to 10 percent of the males body weight; a male cannot afford such (16) (1. an investment 2. and experiment 3. a waste) in a female who will use his competitors sperm to fertilize her eggs.
12:4 In fact, evolution has come up with a mechanism that favors the male that has succeeded in mating first.
12:5 The presence of the nutrient store in the female’s reproductive tract* causes her to be unresponsive to further sexual advances.
12:6 Experimental evidence supports this (17)(1. evolution 2. conclusion 3. prediction): artificially filling a virgin’s reproductive tract renders her uninterested in mating, while cutting the nerves to this area in a mated female restores her sexual interest.
12:7 Another male technique for barring other suitors from his mate is less elegant — he leaves a plug that obstructs the reproductive tract.
(30) Which one of the following statements cannot be made on the basis of the information given in this article?
1. Butterfly courtship reflects evolutionary development.
2. We can observe the results of butterfly evolution in our own backyard.
3. Some males leave plugs that prevent females from mating with other males.
4. Butterfly courtship is less sophisticated than that of human beings.

■第12段落
12:1 The male impulse to send their genetic material into the next generation causes them to try to prevent their mate from mating again.
12:2 Male butterflies actually make a substantial contribution to females during copulation, passing along a large quantity of nutrients.
12:3 This nutrient store can be as much as 6 to 10 percent of the males body weight; a male cannot afford such (16) (1. an investment 2. and experiment 3. a waste) in a female who will use his competitors sperm to fertilize her eggs.
12:4 In fact, evolution has come up with a mechanism that favors the male that has succeeded in mating first.
12:5 The presence of the nutrient store in the female’s reproductive tract* causes her to be unresponsive to further sexual advances.
12:6 Experimental evidence supports this (17)(1. evolution 2. conclusion 3. prediction): artificially filling a virgin’s reproductive tract renders her uninterested in mating, while cutting the nerves to this area in a mated female restores her sexual interest.
12:7 Another male technique for barring other suitors from his mate is less elegant — he leaves a plug that obstructs the reproductive tract.

■第2段落
2:1 Recent experimental work with butterflies has (1)(1. borne out 2. taken out 3. washed out) Darwin’s suspicions of more than a century ago that species tend to evolve attributes and behaviors that enhance courtship — and thus reproductive success.
2:2 Some traits might render an individual more attractive to the opposite sex.
2:3 Color is now known to spark sexual interest for some species in the butterfly world, as do other sensory signals that were (2) (1. beyond 2. against 3. within) Darwin’s human perception.
2:4 But the creatures are more discerning than this observation might suggest.
2:5 Ostentatious coloration or scent may do more than attract attention.
2:6 Appearance and aroma may be shorthand notations of their bearer’s health and heartiness.

■第13段落
13:1 Females face different evolutionary pressures.
13:2 They often get but one chance to mate and must therefore be highly (18) (1. responsible 2. reliable 3. selective).
13:3 By accepting only the fittest male, a female can assure her own offspring a quality genetic endowment, and she might also secure for herself a more generous nutrient store — which most likely helps her live longer and, in turn, lay more of her eggs.
13:4 Male colors, pheromones and displays may allow females to judge a suitor’s overall fitness and success in life.
13:5 We suspect that (19) (1. physical 2. chemical 3. color) signals indicate the quality of a male’s diet: the crucial mating pheromone of male Queen Butterflies, for instance, is produced only when the males have fed at certain plants.
13:6 And vibrant colors can signal younger, healthier individuals.

■第9段落
9:1 Gaudy wings, smooth moves and pheromones do a male butterfly no good if he cannot find a female butterfly on whom to practice his seduction.
9:2 Males of many butterfly species adopt a search-on the fly strategy, wandering the landscape looking for mates.
9:3 Often they (12) (1. confuse 2. investigate 3. reveal) likely areas, such as plants where females tend to lay their eggs or sites where virgin butterflies emerge from their cocoons.
(25) Which one of the following statements cannot be made based on information given in this article?
1. Males emit compounds which cause females to reduce their sexual interest.
2. Males do not have to practice seduction as long as they are healthy and fit.
3. Some males employ a search-on the fly strategy for mating.
4. Females receive nutrients from males during copulation which enable them to live longer.

■第12段落
12:1 I expect multimedia experimentation to continue into the next decade, and the one after that, and so on indefinitely.
12:2 The multimedia components appearing in documents on the net today are (19) (1. an analysis
2. a rejection 3. a synthesis) of current media — and they often do a clever job of enriching communication. 12:3 But over time we’ll start to create new multimedia forms and formats that will enable us to go significantly beyond what we’re able to do now.
12:4 The exponential expansion of computing power will keep changing the tools and opening up new possibilities that might seem as remote and farfetched then as some of the things I’ve speculated about here might seem today.
12:5 Talent and creativity have always shaped advances in unpredictable ways.

■第13段落
13:1 How many have the talent to become a Steven Spielberg, a Jane Austen, or an Albert Einstein?
13:2 We know there has been at least one of each, and maybe one is all we’re allotted.
13:3 I can’t help but believe, though, that the potential and aspirations of many talented people have been (20) (1. encouraged 2. thwarted 3.supported) by economics and a lack of tools.
13:4 New technology will offer people new means with which to express themselves.
13:5 The internet will open up undreamed-of artistic and scientific opportunities to a new generation of geniuses — and to everybody else, too.
(30) Which one of the following statements does not reflect the author’s opinion?
1. It is not possible to predict how creativity and talent will influence progress.
2. Many talented people have not been able to achieve their potential because they lacked money and tools.
3. With the advent of digital technology, we are bound to have more Steven Spielbergs, Jane Austens, or Albert Einsteins.
4. For the foreseeable future, people will continue to experiment with multimedia.

■第4段落
4:1 But let’s not sell paper documents short.
4:2 The paper-based book, magazine, or newspaper still has a lot of advantages (5)(1. upon 2. over 3. with) its digital counterpart.
4:3 A newspaper offers a wide field of vision, good resolution, portability, and ease of use.
4:4 A book is small, lightweight, high-resolution, and inexpensive compared to the cost of a computer or some other information appliance you need to read a digital document.
4:5 For at least a decade, it won’t be as convenient to read a long, sequential document on a computer screen as on paper.
4:6 {I’ll admit that I’ve done a lot of the editing of this book with a pen on paper.
4:7 I like reading text on paper.}
4:8 The first digital documents that achieve widespread use will offer new (6) (1. functionality 2. productivity 3. reliability) rather than simply duplicate the older medium.
4:9 After all, a television set is larger, more expensive, and (7) (1. more cumbersome 2. more widespread 3. more convenient) and offers lower resolution than a book or a magazine, but that hasn’t limited TV’s popularity.
4:10 Television brought video entertainment into our homes, and it was so (8) (1. aggravating 2. enduring 3. compelling) that television sets found their place alongside our books and magazines.

■第9段落
9:1 Other than Web pages, very few multimedia documents are being created by PC users so far.

9:2 It still takes too much effort.
9:3 Millions of people have camcorders and make videos of their kids or their vacations.
9:4 But to edit video right now you have to be a professional with expensive equipment.
9:5 This will change.
9:6 Advances in PC word processors and desktop publishing software have already made professional-quality tools for creating sophis ticated paper documents available relatively inexpensively to millions of people.
9:7 Desktop publishing software has progressed to the point that many magazines and newspapers are produced with the same sort of PC and software packages you can buy at any local computer store and use to design an invitation to your daughter’s birthday party.
9:8 PC software for editing film and creating special effects will become as (16) (1. mediocre 2. commonplace 3. outdated) as desktop publishing software.
9:9 At that point the difference between professionals and amateurs will be one of talent and craft rather than access to tools

■第10段落
10:1 Imagination will be a key element in creating content for all new applications.
10:2 It isn’t enough just to re-create the real world.
10:3 Great movies are a lot more than just graphic depictions on film of real events.
10:3 It took a decade or so for such innovators as D.W. Griffith and Sergei Eisenstein to take the Vitascope and the Lumieres’ Cinematographer technology and (17) (1. make 2. figure 3. stand) out that motion pictures could do more than record real life or even a play.
10:4 Moving film was a new and dynamic art form, and the way it could engage an audience was very different from the way the theater could.
10:5 The pioneers saw this and invented movies as we know them today.
(24) Which one of the following statements does not reflect the author’s opinion?
1. Great movies are not just portrayals of real events.
2. Television sets will continue to be more popular than paper documents.
3. Few multimedia documents have been made by amateur PC users.
4. Imagination will play a key role in creating content.

■第2段落
2:1 People may move because of dissatisfaction with their community, or because of the attraction of a different community.
2:2 Examples of the first type of [3](1. effect 2. movement 3. incentive) to migrate are the loss of a job, causing the person to consider equivalent employment in another locality, or the exhaustion of natural resources, [4](1. including 2. inducing 3. providing) a group to move to a foreign land.

2:3 These are push factors of migration.
2:4 On the other hand, a person may choose a new community because its housing or job opportunities are superior, or a relatively large group may suddenly migrate to a distant place when gold is discovered there.
2:5 These are pull factors.
2:6 Either kind of motive may operate alone, but these factors generally [5](1. interact 2.
predominate 3. function) in a migration.

■第3段落
3:1 Push factors are more likely to predominate in a less developed country, where families are large and land is scarce.
3:2 People who can find no means of support in rural areas migrate to the cities in desperate search of work.
3:3 In developed countries, where opportunities for better housing and employment are more available and where knowledge of other communities is both more abundant and more exact, push and pull factors tend to interact[6](1. contradictorily 2. more evenly 3.profoundly).
3:4 Potential migrants weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the region of origin and of the possible regions of destination.

■第4段落
4:1 Local migrations are usually motivated by housing and aspects of residential environment such as schools.
4:2 The chief factor in long-distance migrations is employment, [7](1. in that 2. thereby 3. although) differences in housing and climate are the main incentive for elderly people to migrate long distances.
4:3 The volume of migration tends to be [8](1. inversely 2. generally 3. positively) proportional to the distance traveled, because nearby communities are better known.
4:4 For the same reason the volume of internal migration is greater than that of international migration.

■第10段落
10:1 The demographic effects of migration are sometimes difficult to evaluate.
10:2 The movement of x number of people from Country A to Country B would seem to have the effect of reducing A’s population and increasing B’s by the same amount.
10:3 But in the long run, this is not necessarily true.
10:4 Since the migrants typically are young adults, the fertility rate in the sending country may go down, while that in the receiving country may go up.
10:5 On the other hand, emigration may result in a higher birthrate by [17](1. relieving 2.
receiving 3. retracting) population pressures that delay marriage and conception.
10:6 Immigration may lower the birthrate by speeding industrialization and urbanization, thus promoting the upward social mobility of the established population with a consequent [18](1. reduction 2. increase 3.balance) in average family size.

[2] Of the topics below, this article does not deal with
1. the historical process of human migration
2. determinants of human migration
3. a definition Of human migration
4. the effects of human migration

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