慶應義塾大学SFC 英語 内容一致テクニック 『特定段落以外の内容と合致する選択肢を選ぶ問題』

■ 第6段落
6:1 Just how bad it is, though, no one knows for sure.
6:2 The software used in the vast majority of medical devices is closed and [36](1. primary 2. probationary 3. proprietary).
6:3 This prevents rivals from copying each other’s code or checking for patent infringements.
6:4 It also makes it harder to [37](1. expose 2. produce 3. protect) flaws.
6:5 The FDA, which could demand to see the source code for every device it approves, does not routinely do so, but instead leaves it to manufacturers to validate their own software.

■ 第7段落
7:1 Frustrated by the lack of co-operation from manufacturers, some academics now want to reinvent the medical-device industry from the [38](1. belly 2. seat 3. ground) up, using open-source techniques.
7:2 In open-source systems, the source code is freely shared and can be viewed and modified by anyone who wants to see how it works or build an improved version of it.
7:3 Exposing a design to many hands and [39](1. ears 2. eyes 3. feet), the theory goes, results in safer products.

■ 第12段落
12:1 All these open-source systems address very different problems in medical science, but they have one thing in common: all are currently prohibited for use on live human patients.
12:2 To be used in a clinical setting, open-source devices must first [45](1. undergo 2. underlie 3. understand) the same expensive and lengthy FDA approval processes as any other medical device.
12:3 FDA regulations do not yet require software to be analyzed for bugs, but they do insist on a rigorous paper trail detailing its development.
12:4 This is not always a good fit with the collaborative and often informal nature of open-source coding.
[54]Which of the following is NOT a problem with using open source software for medical devices?
1. It is expensive to pass government regulations.
2. Medical companies have not accepted open-source methods.
3. The informality of open-source programming makes documentation more difficult.
4. Academics disapprove of open-source software because of buggy code and hackers.

■ 第7段落
7:1 That something is actually three things.
7:2 First, women’s pay is extremely sensitive to whether or not they have children.
7:3 In Britain, for example, where this issue has been studied intensively, the average pay earned by a woman begins to fall shortly before the birth of her first child and continues to drop until the child becomes a teenager.
7:4 Although earnings begin to [39] (1. revive 2. accumulate 3. level off) once the first child passes the age of twenty or so, they never fully recover.
7:5 The earnings drop associated with motherhood is close to one-third, and only one-third of that drop is regained after [40] (1.. the bottle 2. the container 3. the nest) is empty.
7:6 American data suggest that the same pattern is present on [41] (1. the coverage 2. this side 3. the region) of the Atlantic.

■ 第8段落
8:1 The parenthood pay declines suffered by women stem from a variety of sources.
8:2 Some are [42] ( 1. put on 2. put out . put off) the “mommy track,” with reduced responsibilities and hours of work; others move to different employers around the time their first child is born,
taking jobs that offer more flexible work schedules but offer [43] (1. characteristically 2. unduly 3. correspondingly) lower pay as well.
8:3 Overall, a woman with average skills who has a child at age twenty-four can expect to receive nearly $1 million less compensation over her career, [44] (1. as 2. compared to 3. over) one who remains childless.
8:4 It is worth emphasizing that no similar effect is observed with men.
8:5 In fact, there is some evidence that men with children are actually paid more than men without children.
8:6 These findings strongly suggest a fact that will [45] (1. consider 2. show 3. come) as no surprise to most people: Despite the widespread entry of women into the labor force, they retain the primary responsibility for child care at home, and their careers suffer as a result.
[57] According to the 7th and 8th paragraphs, which of the following is correct about the relationship between motherhood and women’s pay ?
1. In Britain, having a child is a major cause for the drop of women’s pay, while in America, the situation is less obvious.
2. Women’s earnings start to drop after the birth of a child and go up gradually until they reach the original level.
3. Women with children are paid less than women without children because the former prefer more flexible work schedules.
4. With the entry of more women in the labor force, the wages of women with children will naturally increase.

[30] Which of the following is the key idea of the article?
1. The importance of understanding context in assessing human character.
2. The importance of developing ethical education.
3. The importance of critical thinking in understanding humanity.
4. The importance of understanding the impact of society on the human mind.

■ 第9段落
9:1 conduct to ensure that this responsibility is discharged with the highest degree of skill and diligence.
9:2 As public institutions, museums are expected to act and behave in a way that is in keeping with the perceived [45] ( 1. thoughts 2. values 3. politics) they embody.
9:3 This is true regardless of whether they are privately or publicly funded, civic or state institutions.

■ 第12段落
12:1 Art museums, in short, will be able to survive as mission-driven educational institutions only if they can continue to [49] (1. provoke 2. convince 3. question) the public that they discharge their responsibilities with integrity and diligence; that there is a discernible difference between the discomforting challenge of genuinely new art and ideas, whether created a thousand years ago or just last week, and the immediate pleasure of shopping at a designer store or going to a theme park; and that they [50] (1. manage 2. manipulate 3. merit) the public’s trust in them, and that because of this it is worth according them a special status in order to fulfill their public mission.
[59] Which of the following most closely explains the phrase “they discharge their responsibilities with integrity and diligence” in the last paragraph?
1. Museums should become more transparent in balancing economics and mission.
2. Museums should serve visitors’ needs for shopping and pleasure as well as education.
3. Museums should focus their activities on education and enlightenment.
4. Museums should show both new pop art and old national heritage.

■第7段落
7:1 Large societies are unsustainable without organizations or midlevel formations.
7:2 If organizations disappear, societies [41] (1. Destabilize 2. Consolidate 3. Develop) until new ones emerge.
7:3 De Tocqueville, for example, considered towns and associations [42] (1. vital 2. detrimental 3. harmless) to 19th century American democracy.
7:4 The immense Soviet Union was also just that — a union of mid level social formations called soviets.
7:5 However, mid level social formations grounded in place have at amazed in the last 30 years.
7:6 Structures that once made sense local government, neighborhood, and community – destabilized.
7:7 This instability will [43] (1. insist 2. resist 3. persist) until we recognize that organizations, not collectivities of is,” are the thick was” in which we share fates with others.
7:8 Organizations are the mid level social formations in a world of purposes.

■第8段落
8:1 Organizations are “thick we’s” in which individuals must [44] (1. hinder 2. balance 3. inflate) self-interest with the common good.
8:2 It is in organizations, not in places, that we most meaningfully share fates with other people beyond friends and family.

■第11段落
11:1 People who experience robust democracy in organizations are more likely to respect dissent, free speech, consent, participation, and responsibility.
11:2 They are less likely to violate the liberty and freedoms of others.
11:3 Neither value nor values can be [49] (1. promoted 2. ignored 3. achieved) in organizations.
11:4 Again, organizations must link their common good to the greater good of the planet.
11:5 In a world of purposes, this is what organizations do – this is what they are for.
11:6 Organizations are the solutions to [50] (1. restore 2. regulate 3. monopolize) “thick we’s,” where value and values as well as “I’s” and “we’s” can migrate.
11:7 Organizations decide the fate of the twin towers of democracy.
[58] Which of the following best explains the relationship between liberty and “thick we’s”?
1. Liberty means freedom only in “thin we’s,” not in “thick we’s.” 2. Liberty is something that people learn to respect in “thick we’s.” 3. Liberty conflicts with “thick we’s.”
4. Liberty has nothing to do with “thick we’s” or “thin we’s.”

■第5段落
5:1 In our placeless world, our dominant shared role in relation to government is consumer, not citizen.
5:2 Citizenship becomes [37] (1. no less than 2. no more than 3. as little as) a nostalgically shared idea.
5:3 We experience the self-governance historically linked to the role of citizen in organizations, not places.
5:4 If we find the meaning of community, we do so in organizations and among friends, not places.

5:5 We can vote.
5:6 But voting is a single thread of democracy.
5:7 In the [38] (1. event 2. absence 3. institution) of accompanying political and social values, voting is a specialized currency for consumption in political markets.

■第11段落
11:1 People who experience robust democracy in organizations are more likely to respect dissent, free speech, consent, participation, and responsibility.
11:2 They are less likely to violate the liberty and freedoms of others.
11:3 Neither value nor values can be [49] (1. promoted 2. ignored 3. achieved) in organizations.
11:4 Again, organizations must link their common good to the greater good of the planet.
11:5 In a world of purposes, this is what organizations do – this is what they are for.
11:6 Organizations are the solutions to [50] (1. restore 2. regulate 3. monopolize) thick was,” where value and values as well as “I’s” and “we’s” can migrate.
11:7 Organizations decide the fate of the twin towers of democracy.
[60] Which of the following is true, according to this article?
1. Economic-value-oriented societies are dynamic, but respect for human values is also important in today’s democracy.
2. Democracy can be maintained only by creating new types of organizations where “value” and “values” can merge without conflict.
3. Place based traditional democracy no longer functions properly. A new type of organizational democracy is necessary for the world of purposes.
4. It is more important to think about “we’s” than “I’s.” The quality of democracy depends on self control and caring for others.

[30] Which of the following statements best summarizes this article?
1. A solution to the complex problems relating to water management can be found by international collaboration.
2. Global climate change limits people’s ability to manage safe water supplies.
3. Scientific, engineering, and political factors all need to be incorporated in order to manage safe water supplies.
4. Arsenic in drinking water is less of a problem than diarrhea and drought.

■第11段落
11:1 The arsenic was washed from the sediments of the Himalayas, and is thought to have been accumulating beneath the Bengal Delta for at least 2 million years.
11:2 The puzzle is why it is now being drawn to the surface in some wells, but not in others.
11:3 One leading theory is that the arsenic is released from the sediments into groundwater under oxygen-free, reducing conditions.
11:4 And some researchers suspect that rotting vegetation in the uppermost 30 meters or so of sediment creates just such an environment.
11:5 That would help to explain why the problem seems worse in shallower wells, and adds to hopes that it may be possible to [17] (1. modify 2. identify. overcome) and selectively shut down those that are hazardous.
[28] Which of the following statements is supported by the 10th and 11th paragraphs?
1. Almost all of the wells in the Bengal Delta do not contain water with arsenic levels above the WHO limit.
2. Deeper wells have a high probability of including a high concentration of arsenic in the water.
3. Shallower wells are more likely to contain an unacceptable concentration of arsenic.
4. The concentration of arsenic in well water is not dependent on factors such as the depth of the well.

■第10段落
10:1 Over the ensuing five years, Chakraborty and his colleagues at Dhaka Community Hospital showed that the problem extends across large areas of the Bengal Delta on both sides of the India- Bangladesh border.
10:2 Some wells contain 400 times the World Health Organization (WHO) safe drinking water standard for arsenic.
10:3 Current estimates are that 80 million Bangladeshis are [16] ( 1. at large 2. at odds 3. at risk), with 30 million drinking water containing five times the WHO arsenic limit.
10:4 “The danger is very, very real,” says Chakraborty.
[27] According to the 9th and 10th paragraphs, epidemiologist Dipankar Chakraborti asserted that
1. the problem of contaminated water is confined to the areas of the Bengal Delta on one side of the India Bangladesh border.
2. the increase in skin lesions and cancers in Bengali villages was caused by well water massively contaminated by arsenic.
3. 30 million people drink water that is safe by WHO standards.
4. wells, once proven safe, are unlikely to become unsafe over time.

■第6段落
6:1 The picture looks bleak, but experts point out that Bangladesh is, in some ways, a victim of its own success.
6:2 Given the hydrological hand they were dealt, the inhabitants of the Bengal Delta traditionally grew low-yielding but flood tolerant rice, and fished wetlands and pools that were recharged by annual floods.
6:3 This could support a modest population at [8](1. Flat 2. Similar 3. Subsistence) levels, but no more.
6:4 Since the late 1950s, however, aid donor-backed irrigation schemes, later incorporating groundwater pumping, have opened up vast areas of fertile delta soil to the plough.
6:4 Now almost all of the land in Bangladesh that is suitable for agriculture is in use.
6:5 High-yielding rice varieties have boosted productivity hugely, while the development of coastal areas for shrimp farming has also provided further food and revenue.

■第7段落
7:1 As a result, the population has quadrupled since 1950.
7:2 Today, an average of 920 people crowd into each square kilometer of Bangladesh, making it one of the most [9](1. largely 2. densely 3. appropriately) populated countries in the world.
7:3 Therein lies the problem:
7:4 population pressure has helped to make droughts more severe and floods potentially more [10] (1. devastating 2. demanding 3. enriching).
7:3 Also, with sanitation still inadequate, the rapid population growth of the past half century has exacerbated problems with waterborne disease.
7:4 Environmental scientist Atiq Rahman [11](1. prefers 2. likens 3. ascribes) Bangladesh to a giant toilet flushed just once a year.
[24] According to this article, aid donor-backed irrigation schemes incorporating groundwater pumping
1. benefited only the international donors and local companies providing the pumping equipment.
2. increased the risk of infectious diseases among people in the Bengal Delta.
3. alleviated international tensions concerning the water of the Ganges.
4. made more land suitable for agriculture, accelerating the population explosion.

[60] Which of the following statements best summarizes this article?
1. Student volunteer groups are on the rise in Asia.
2. The 2004 tsunami has triggered unprecedented volunteerism across Asia.
3. Collaborative relationships between governments and NGOs are developing across Asia.
4. Humanitarianism is a powerful force among today’s Asian young people.

■第4段落
4:1 In fact, the interplay between individualism and collective action forms the background of much of Asia’s dynamism.
4:2 One example is modern day Bangladesh.
4:3 [38] (1. Due to 2. Infamous for 3. Motivated by) bad governance and incessant civil unrest, the country of 145 million has, nevertheless, become an overachiever among developing nations.
4:4 Its gravity―defying economy was expected to grow by 6.7 percent in 2006, and the country is on [39](1. track 2. hold 3. top) to meet its development goals on poverty reduction, gender equality, literacy and rural development.

■第5段落
5:1 But how?
5:2 One growth [40] (1. expectation 2. obstacle 3. driver) is the millions of small scale enterprises funded by loans extended without conditions to poor households.
5:3 The other: a vibrant, youth oriented NGO community that bolsters educational and health services.
5:4 “The government is wobbly and [41] (1. ineffective 2. incisive 3. influential),” says Muhammad Yuns, founder of the microcredit project called the Graeme Bank and winner of this year’s Nobel Peace Prize.
5:5 “But our NGOs are strong and getting stronger, and they focus on the issues we need them to.”

[54] What is the main reason that the example of Bangladesh is mentioned in paragraphs 4 and 5?
1. It has many younger people who work for health and educational NGOs.
2. It has high economic growth, and is following the same consumption trends as other Asian countries.
3. It has a gravity―defying economy thanks to the efforts of a Nobel Prize winner.
4. It suffers from the tension between individualism and collective action.

[30] Based on the entire reading, which of the following best summarizes Edison’s overall contribution?
1. He produced many of our current technologies by concentrating purely on invention.
2. He built a number of significant edifices as symbols of industrial progress.
3. He pioneered the process of developing, modifying, and commercializing inventions.
4. He successfully promoted his electric technology to countries outside the United States.

■第5段落
5:1 Perhaps the most serious concern about virtual schools is whether they can teach students to work cooperatively, and to [4](1. acquire 2. interrupt 3. reject) the humanistic and egalitarian values that are the foundations of democratic society.
5:2 Many who oppose on demand virtual schools claim that, because such schools do not [5](1. prevent 2. provide 3. propose) live interaction, they are destined to diminish civic engagement and deepen the social isolation that can be seen among so many of today’s young people.

■第8段落
8:1 This point, however, is called into question by the fact of socioeconomic inequality.
8:2 Technology mediated education may, at least in the short term, prevent people at the lower end of the income scale from participating in online education.
8:3 Indeed, students whose families can afford Internet access and the required hardware and software currently [11](1. regulate 2. reduce 3. constitute) the majority of those participating in virtual schooling.
8:4 However, as computers and Internet access become less expensive, they will come within reach even of disadvantaged groups.
8:5 At that point, debate will likely focus on the overall quality of the online educational experience rather than on [12](1. access 2. excess 3. success) itself.
8:6 Therefore, it will probably become necessary to demonstrate to potential users that high-quality education is being provided.
8:7 One way this can be accomplished is by establishing standards for teacher certification and course content with which virtual schools must [13](1.comply 2. contend 3. contract).

■第11段落
11:1 Over the past century, we have witnessed an evolution of approaches, structures, and technologies related to distance education.
11:2 Since the advent of the computer and the Internet, this evolution has [19] (1. accelerated 2. accentuated 3. accorded) to the point that no one can confidently predict how the educational landscape will look in the future.
11:3 While there is ample research on distance education, research on virtual schooling is still in its infancy.
[29] Research on the effectiveness of virtual schooling is
1. conclusive.
2. questionable.
3. misleading.
4. incomplete.

[30] According to the article, computers and the Internet will
1. replace books, paper, and pens in conventional schools.
2. be provided to most disadvantaged students.
3. change the way school-based education is approached.
4. worsen the problems of race and class in our society.

■第4段落
4:1 There was a crude but very efficient knife or saw, which would serve well for the next three million years.
4:2 It was simply the lower jawbone of an antelope, with the teeth still in [5](1. frame 2. pattern 3. place); there would be no substantial improvement until the coming of steel.
4:3 Then there was an awl or dagger in the form of a gazelle horn, and finally a scraping tool made from the complete jaw of almost any small animal.

■第5段落
5:1 The bone club, the toothed saw, the horn dagger, the bone scraper these were the marvelous inventions which the manages needed in order to survive.
5:2 Soon they would recognize them for the symbols of power that they were, but many months [6] (1. could 2. had to 3. might) pass before their clumsy fingers would acquire the skill or the will to use them.
5:3 The odds were still [7](1. against 2. between 3. beyond) them, and there were endless
opportunities for failure in the ages that lay ahead.
5:4 Yet the manages had been given their first chance.

5:5 There would be no second one;
5:6 the future was, very literally, in their own hands.
[22] In the statement “the man-apes had been given their first chance” in the 5th paragraph, what kind of chance does the author mean?
1. To grow crops.
2. To tame the animals.
3. To survive by using tools.
4. To recognize symbols.

■第6段落
6:1 However, this view confuses a feature of languages which is due just to their history with an [13] (1. insistent 2. inherent 3. initial) property of languages.
6:2 That is, this opinion concludes that because there has been no occasion or need to discuss, for arguments sake, nuclear physics in Maori; it could never be done because of some inherent fault in Maori.
6:3 A little thought, however, will show that this argument cannot be maintained.
6:4 Computers were not discussed in Old English;
6:5 Modern English is the same language as Old English, only later;
6:6 it should follow that Modern English cannot be used to discuss computers.
6:7 This is clearly [14] (1. assertive 2. absurd 3.appropriate).
6:8 What of course has happened is that through time English has developed the resources necessary to the discussion of computers and very many other topics which were simply unknown in earlier times.
6:9 And ‘developed’ is the crucial word in this matter.
6:10 English expanded its vocabulary in a variety of ways so as to meet the new [15] (1.demands
2. supply 3. necessity) being made of it.
6:11 All languages are capable of the same types of expansion of vocabulary to deal with whatever new areas of life their speakers need to talk about.

■第7段落
7:1 If one looks at the words which are used in English to handle technical subjects, one sees that in fact the vast majority of these words have actually come from other languages.
7:2 This process is usually called ‘borrowing’, though there is no thought that the words will be given back somehow!
7:3 All languages do this to some extent, though English is perhaps the language which has the highest level of ‘borrowed’ vocabulary, at least among the world’s major languages.
[29] Which of the following statements would be supported by the author?
1. English is now used extensively for international communication for reasons which are not related to the structure of the language.
2. English is so rich in vocabulary that it is not necessary to import words from other languages.
3. Borrowing is a process through which languages expand their vocabulary by using their own existing resources.
4. Certain languages are destined to become international languages.

[30] Which of the following statements is in accordance with the author’s opinion?
1. There are things you can do in one language but not in another; therefore some languages are better than others.
2. Some languages have greater vocabulary than others; therefore some languages are better than others.
3. You cannot claim that some languages are superior to others based on the size of vocabulary.
4. All languages are equal in terms of the structural complexity and the size of vocabulary.

■第8段落
8:1 So how does the ambiguity of international customary law affect a contemporary issue of the laws of war such as nuclear weapons?
8:2 What is the legal status of nuclear weapons?
8:3 Are they prohibited or not?
8:4 There are treaties regulating the use of particular weapons such as biological and chemical weapons, but as yet there is no established law concerning the use of nuclear weapons, [14](1. though 2. and 3. no less than) there are treaties directed against the testing of such weapons and limiting the number of such weapons.
8:5 Consequently, there are various legal opinions on this issue.
[28] Based on the discussion of nuclear weapons in this article, which of the following statements best summarizes the current status of nuclear weapons?
1. Without a specific treaty banning the nuclear weapons, their legal status cannot be discussed.
2. Some school teachers support war if it can stop more nations from developing nuclear weapons.
3. There are some treaties trying to control nuclear weapons, though there is no treaty to totally ban them.
4. Unnecessary suffering can be avoided by resorting to nuclear weapons.

■第1段落
1:1 It has been recognized since earliest times that some restraints should be observed during armed conflict.
1:2 Already in the Old Testament* there are instances of limitations set by God.
1:3 Sun Tzu* maintained that in war one should attack the enemy armies, and that “the worst policy is to attack cities.
1:4 Attack cities only when there is no alternative.”
1:5 In ancient India it was considered that war should be conducted on a basis of equality between the opponents:

1:6 “A car warrior should fight a car warrior.
1:7 One on horse should fight one on horse.
1:8 Elephant riders must fight with elephant riders, as one on foot fights a foot soldier.”
1:9 According to Homer*, the ancient Greeks considered that the use of poison on weapons was forbidden by the gods;
1:10 and among the city states, temples and priests and embassies could not be attacked.
1:11 The Romans were more regular and disciplined soldiers than those of any other ancient nation.
1:12 They did not, as a rule, lower themselves to indiscriminate massacre and [1](1. unrestrained
2. unavailable 3. spotted) destruction.

■第2段落
2:1 By the seventh century some of these principles had spread to the Islamic world.
2:2 The leading Islamic statement on the law of nations written in the ninth century to some extent reflects principles laid [2](1. upon 2. down 3. by) in the Old Testament, with its ban on the killing of women, children, the old and [3](1. the helpless 2. the help 3. helpful).
2:3 Moreover, a prisoner of war should not be killed, but he may be ransomed* or set free.
2:4 But, prisoners might be killed if it were considered advantageous in conducting a war [4](1. therefore 2. however 3. despite), this would not be so if the prisoners converted to Islam.

■第3段落
3:1 By the Middle Ages the power of the Church was such that it was able to forbid Christian knights [5](1. to 2. from 3. against) using certain weapons as hateful to God.
3:2 Thus, in 1139, the Second Lateran Council condemned the use of the crossbow and arc*, a view that matched the concept of chivalry* which regarded such weapons [6](1. as 2. such 3. very) disgraceful, since they could be used from a distance enabling a man to strike [7](1. with 2. before
3. without) the risk of himself being struck.
3:3 In fact, the feudal knights were aware of what they knew as the “law of chivalry,” a customary code of chivalrous conduct that controlled their affairs and which was enforced by specially appointed arbitrators* or, in the case of England and France, by Courts of Chivalry.
3:4 However, these limitations only covered those who shared the code of chivalry, such as knights of noble birth, and did not cover common soldiers.

■第11段落
11:1 In general, in the absence of any specific treaty or international customary law relating to a particular weapon and restricting or controlling its use, the employment of such weapons is subject to the general rules of the law of armed conflict.
11:2 The question of the legality of such weapons should be decided in accordance with those rules, particularly those concerning unnecessary suffering and proportionality.
11:3 In view of the effects of a nuclear explosion, the long-term nature of its radioactive fallout, and the existence of treaties banning the use of poison or other biological weapons, it might be expected [19](1. to 2. although 3. that) nuclear weapons would fall under the ban on those weapons causing unnecessary suffering and adversely affecting the environment.
11:4 However, some schools of international lawyers hold that war employing nuclear weapons to prevent new nuclear powers from emerging would be reasonable in some circumstances.
[30] Based on the entire reading, which of the following statements best represents the view of the author of this article?
1. Nuclear weapons are against international law under any circumstances.
2. Since nuclear weapons were thought to be hateful to God, they were already prohibited in the Old Testament.
3. The historical growth of the laws of war seems to support a treaty to control nuclear weapons.
4. Although ICJ tried to draw up a treaty of nuclear ban, it nevertheless did not succeed in doing it.

慶應義塾大学総合政策学部 問二 2002年度 英語長文問題解答 過去問 内容一致問題
[25] According to the entire reading, which of the following statements is most correct?
1. The United Nations Charter explicitly forbids the use of nuclear weapons.
2. The law of armed conflict was established through treaties during the Middle Ages.
3. The contents of the Hague Law are different from those of the Geneva Law.
4. Civilian population has been exempted from the misery of war through the whole history.

■第5段落
5:1 The next phase of the experiment showed that color was (6) (1. negligible 2. responsible 3. eligible) for this choice.
5:2 I prepared a card with two sets of male wings.
5:3 A quartz slide that transmits both visible and ultraviolet light covered one set of wings, and a filter that blocks ultraviolet wavelengths overlaid the other.
5:4 Males now attempted to mate with the male wings under the filter — wings that appeared to be female.
5:5 This species displays a sexual difference in ultraviolet reflectance*, and after a male’s ultraviolet reflectance is (7) (1. deleted 2. enhanced 3. alleviated) other males treat him like a female.

■第7段落
7:1 The best-understood case of (10) (1. visual 2. nonvisual 3. acoustic) butterfly communication involves the Queen butterfly.
7:2 Males of this species produce pheromones, compounds designed to elicit specific reactions — of sexual interest in this case from other butterflies.
7:3 These pheromones disseminate from brush like structures, called hair pencils, found at the end of the abdomen in males only.
7:4 Hair pencils have a particularly large surface area for their small volume and are thus highly efficient at distributing chemicals.
7:5 As a male flies up and down in front of a female, he touches her antennae with his protruding hair pencils, thereby depositing pheromones.
7:6 The female responds to this chemical signal by alighting and remaining still while the male copulates with her.

■第12段落
12:1 The male impulse to send their genetic material into the next generation causes them to try to prevent their mate from mating again.
12:2 Male butterflies actually make a substantial contribution to females during copulation, passing along a large quantity of nutrients.
12:3 This nutrient store can be as much as 6 to 10 percent of the males body weight; a male cannot afford such (16) (1. an investment 2. and experiment 3. a waste) in a female who will use his competitors sperm to fertilize her eggs.
12:4 In fact, evolution has come up with a mechanism that favors the male that has succeeded in mating first.
12:5 The presence of the nutrient store in the female’s reproductive tract* causes her to be unresponsive to further sexual advances.
12:6 Experimental evidence supports this (17)(1. evolution 2. conclusion 3. prediction): artificially filling a virgin’s reproductive tract renders her uninterested in mating, while cutting the nerves to this area in a mated female restores her sexual interest.
12:7 Another male technique for barring other suitors from his mate is less elegant — he leaves a plug that obstructs the reproductive tract.

■第2段落
2:1 Recent experimental work with butterflies has (1)(1. borne out 2. taken out 3. washed out) Darwin’s suspicions of more than a century ago that species tend to evolve attributes and behaviors that enhance courtship — and thus reproductive success.
2:2 Some traits might render an individual more attractive to the opposite sex.
2:3 Color is now known to spark sexual interest for some species in the butterfly world, as do other sensory signals that were (2) (1. beyond 2. against 3. within) Darwin’s human perception.
2:4 But the creatures are more discerning than this observation might suggest.
2:5 Ostentatious coloration or scent may do more than attract attention.
2:6 Appearance and aroma may be shorthand notations of their bearer’s health and heartiness.

■第13段落
13:1 Females face different evolutionary pressures.
13:2 They often get but one chance to mate and must therefore be highly (18) (1. responsible 2. reliable 3. selective).
13:3 By accepting only the fittest male, a female can assure her own offspring a quality genetic endowment, and she might also secure for herself a more generous nutrient store — which most likely helps her live longer and, in turn, lay more of her eggs.
13:4 Male colors, pheromones and displays may allow females to judge a suitor’s overall fitness and success in life.
13:5 We suspect that (19) (1. physical 2. chemical 3. color) signals indicate the quality of a male’s diet: the crucial mating pheromone of male Queen Butterflies, for instance, is produced only when the males have fed at certain plants.
13:6 And vibrant colors can signal younger, healthier individuals.
(27) According to the article, which one of the following statements does not reflect the role of chemical signals?
1. Male butterflies can identify sex by aroma.
2. Compounds from males increase or decrease female sexual interest.
3. Females can determine the health of males by their aroma.
4. The age and health of males can be determined by sight and smell.

■第7段落
7:1 The best-understood case of (10) (1. visual 2. nonvisual 3. acoustic) butterfly communication involves the Queen butterfly.
7:2 Males of this species produce pheromones, compounds designed to elicit specific reactions — of sexual interest in this case from other butterflies.
7:3 These pheromones disseminate from brush like structures, called hair pencils, found at the end of the abdomen in males only.
7:4 Hair pencils have a particularly large surface area for their small volume and are thus highly efficient at distributing chemicals.
7:5 As a male flies up and down in front of a female, he touches her antennae with his protruding hair pencils, thereby depositing pheromones.
7:6 The female responds to this chemical signal by alighting and remaining still while the male copulates with her.

■第5段落
5:1 The next phase of the experiment showed that color was (6) (1. negligible 2. responsible 3. eligible) for this choice.
5:2 I prepared a card with two sets of male wings.
5:3 A quartz slide that transmits both visible and ultraviolet light covered one set of wings, and a filter that blocks ultraviolet wavelengths overlaid the other.
5:4 Males now attempted to mate with the male wings under the filter — wings that appeared to be female.
5:5 This species displays a sexual difference in ultraviolet reflectance*, and after a male’s ultraviolet reflectance is (7) (1. deleted 2. enhanced 3. alleviated) other males treat him like a female.

■第11段落
11:1 Early in the day the males perch on the ground in open, sunny spaces near the trees.
11:2 This early-morning sunbathing probably allows them to keep an eye out for other butterflies while keeping their bodies warm enough to give chase.
11:3 Because they cannot regulate body temperature internally, butterflies grow (14) (1. restless 2. impatient 3. sluggish) if the environment is too cold.
11:4 Later in the morning the males move up into the trees to exactly the average plane of flight of females, about one meter above the ground.
11:5 My students and I have observed that even when the male butterflies are perched at a tilt, they hold their heads so that their eyes are looking horizontally out of the tree.
11:6 This (15) (1.change 2. structure 3. orientation) seems to ensure that their area of greatest visual clearness — which lies in a band at the equator of the visual field coincides with the plane of likeliest female flight.

■第6段落
6:1 Once a male and a female butterfly have noticed one another, courtship begins in earnest.
6:2 The male’s goal is to (8) (1. indulge 2. induce 3. infer) the female to alight and remain still for mating, which sometimes lasts an hour or more.
6:3 In some species the female must also move her abdomen out from between her hindwings to grant the male access.
6:4 Butterfly biologists have studied the ritual that precedes actual copulation in only a few dozen of the roughly 12,000 species of butterfly, but it seems (9) (1. unexpected 2. reliable 3. clear) that, for butterflies, what humans might think of as scent can be a language of love.
6:5 The vocabulary of this language is chemical.
(23)According to the author, which one of the following statements about butterflies is true?
1. Pheromones from male’s hair pencils excite a female to continue to move.
2. Butterflies use the ultraviolet light to determine the physical condition of potential mates.
3. Butterflies are not so sensitive to the temperature when mating.
4. Chemical signals play a key role in courtship in butterflies.

(24)Which of the following would make the most suitable title of this article?
1. Mating Strategies in Butterflies
2. The Evolution of Butterflies
3. Darwin’s Contribution to the Study of Butterflies 4 . Human and Butterfly Mating Patterns

■第1段落
1:1 For more than 500 years, the bulk of human knowledge and information has been stored as paper documents.
1:2 You’ve got one in your hands right now (unless you’re reading this from a CD-ROM or a future on-line edition).
1:3 Paper will be with us for the foreseeable future, but its importance as a medium for finding, preserving, and distributing information is already (1)( 1. expanding 2. diminishing 3. stabilizing).

■第2段落
2:1 When you think of a “document,” you probably visualize one or more pieces of paper with print on them, but that’s a narrow definition.
2:2 A document can be any body of information.
2:3 A newspaper article is a document, but the broadest definition of the word includes a Web page, a TV show, a song, or an interactive video game.
2:4 Because all kinds of information can be stored in digital form, documents containing all kinds of information will get easier and easier to find, store, and send across a network.
2:5 Paper is more (2) (1. suitable 2. reliable 3. awkward) to store and transmit, and its content is pretty much limited to text with drawings and images.
2:6 A digitally stored document can be made (3) (1. out with 2. up with 3. up of) photos, video, audio, programming instructions for interactivity, animation, or a combination of these elements and others.

■第4段落
4:1 But let’s not sell paper documents short.
4:2 The paper-based book, magazine, or newspaper still has a lot of advantages (5)(1. upon 2. over 3. with) its digital counterpart.
4:3 A newspaper offers a wide field of vision, good resolution, portability, and ease of use.
4:4 A book is small, lightweight, high-resolution, and inexpensive compared to the cost of a computer or some other information appliance you need to read a digital document.
4:5 For at least a decade, it won’t be as convenient to read a long, sequential document on a computer screen as on paper.
4:6 {I’ll admit that I’ve done a lot of the editing of this book with a pen on paper.
4:7 I like reading text on paper.}
4:8 The first digital documents that achieve widespread use will offer new (6) (1. functionality 2. productivity 3. reliability) rather than simply duplicate the older medium.
4:9 After all, a television set is larger, more expensive, and (7) (1. more cumbersome 2. more widespread 3. more convenient) and offers lower resolution than a book or a magazine, but that hasn’t limited TV’s popularity.
4:10 Television brought video entertainment into our homes, and it was so (8) (1. aggravating 2. enduring 3. compelling) that television sets found their place alongside our books and magazines.

■第5段落
5:1 Ultimately (9)(1. implicit 2. incremental 3. incidental) improvements in computer and screen technology will give us a lightweight, universal electronic book, or “e-book,” that will approximate today’s paper book.
5:2 Inside a case roughly the same size and weight as today’s hardcover or paperback book, you’ll have a display for high-resolution text, pictures, and video.
5:3 You’ll be able to (10)(1. write 2. flip 3. edit) pages with your finger or use voice commands to search for the passages you want.
5:4 Any document on the network will be accessible from such a device.
(21) The author claims that
1. paper is currently better than digital documents for handling and storing information.
2. paper will be quickly replaced by digital documents.
3. e-books will one day function like conventional books as a result of continuous advances in computer and screen technology.
4. within ten years a long, sequential document will be as convenient to read in digital form as on paper.

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