慶應義塾大学SFC 英語 内容一致テクニック 『特定段落の内容から類推する選択肢を選ぶ問題』

内容一致四択問題

■ 第1段落
1:1 For all of measurable human history up until the year 1750, nothing happened that mattered.

■ 第2段落
2:1 This isn’t to say history was stagnant, or that life was only grim and blank, but the well-being of average people did not perceptibly improve.
2:2 All of the wars, literature, empires, and exploration took place on a scale too small to register, too minor too much improve the lot of ordinary human beings.
2:3 In England before the middle of the eighteenth century, where industrialization first began, the pace of progress was so slow that it took 350 years for a family to double its standard of living.
2:4 By the middle of the eighteenth century, the state of technology and the luxury and quality of life afforded the average individual were little better than they had been two millennia earlier, in ancient Rome.

[51]As used in the 1st paragraph, “nothing happened that mattered.” is referring to
1. artistic development.
2. population increase.
3. quality of life.
4. fair trade.

■ 第4段落
4:1 At some point in the late sixties or early seventies, though, this great acceleration began to taper off.

4:2 The shift was modest at first, and it was concealed in the hectic up-and-down of yearly data.
4:3 [34](1. So 2. But 3. Or) if you examine the growth data since the early seventies, and if you are mathematically astute enough to fit a curve to it, you can see a clear trend: The rate at which life is improving has slowed.

[52] Why wasn’t the socioeconomic slowdown of the late sixties or early seventies noticed originally according to the 4th paragraph?
1. Society was in a state of upheaval.
2. Technological advancement continued unabated.
3. Annual fluctuations in growth statistics are to be expected.
4. Computational technology was not sufficiently advanced to model the data.

■ 第7段落
7:1 “Some things,” Gordon says, “can happen only once.”

■ 第8段落
8:1 Gordon’s [39](1. complaint 2. argument 3. rebuttal) is that the forces of the second industrial revolution were so powerful and so unique that they will not be repeated.
8:2 The consequences of that breakthrough took a century to be fully realized, and as the internal combustion engine gave [40](1. rise 2. lift 3. height) to the car and eventually the airplane, and electricity to radio and the telephone and then mass media, they came to [41](1. restrict 2. retrench 3. rearrange) social forces and transform everyday lives.
8:3 Mechanized farm equipment permitted people to stay in school longer and to leave rural areas and move to cities.
8:4 Electrical appliances allowed women of all social classes to leave behind housework for more productive jobs.
8:5 The introduction of public sewers and water sanitation reduced illness and infant mortality.
8:6 The car, mass media, and commercial aircraft led to a liberation from the [42](1. wide expanses
2. narrow confines 3. unbound spaces) of geography and an introduction to a far broader and richer world.
8:7 Education beyond high school was made accessible to the middle and working classes.

[53] Why does Robert Gordon believe that another industrial revolution is unlikely? 1 We have already experienced two in the history of mankind.
2. The population is no longer at the ideal density.
3. Automation is unable to replace a sufficient portion of the workforce.
4. Increased global connectedness hampers competition.

[54] Which of the following is the reason for listing inventions such as airplanes and the mass media in the 8th paragraph?
1. They demonstrate the influence of American ingenuity.
2. They illustrate the problems associated with mechanization.
3. To argue that they were the natural result of the second industrial revolution.
4. To argue that these seemingly positive developments have actually harmed society.

[55] According to the article, what was the effect of women joining the workforce?
1. Development of the home-appliance market.
2. An increase in women’s sense of fulfillment.
3. Reduced dependency on unskilled male labor.
4. Increased economic productivity.

■ 第12段落
12:1 I called Erik Brynjolfsson, an expert in the economics of technology and an optimist about future breakthroughs, at his office at MIT to try to get a better sense of what a robotized society might look like.
12:2 It turns out the optimist’s case is darker than I expected.
12:3 “The problem is jobs,” he said.
12:4 Sixty-five percent of workers occupy jobs whose basic tasks can be classified as information processing.
12:5 If you are trying to find a competitive advantage for people over machines, this does not [47] (1. bode 2. bid 3. bide) well: “The human mind did not evolve to multiply triple-digit numbers,” he told me.
12:6 The robot mind has.
12:7 In other words, the long history of Marx-inflected literature and film that claims that office work is dehumanizing may have been [48](1. into 2. onto 3. up to) something.
12:8 Those jobs were never really designed for the human mind.
12:9 They were designed for robots.
12:10 The existing robots just weren’t good enough to take them.
12:11At first.

[59] Which of the following groups seem to be most worried about the prospect of roboticization?
1. Those who believe that economic growth has peaked.
2. Those who believe that technological advances will preserve growth.
3. Those who are employed as skilled craftspeople.
4. Those whose jobs involve the management of workers.

■ 第13段落
13:1 At opposite ends of the pay scale, however, there are jobs that seem safe from the robot menace, Brynjolfsson said―high-paying creative and managerial work, and non-routine physical work, like gardening.
13:2 As for the 65 percent of us who are employed in “information processing” jobs, Brynjolfsson said, the challenge is for us to integrate human skills with machine capacities―his phrase is “racing with machines.”

■ 第14段落
14:1 There is a whole set of behaviors that depends upon an expectation that things will always get better: our laissez-faire-ism, our can-do-ism, our cult of the individual.
14:2 For that reason, we think of the darkening social [49](1, spin 2. curve 3. turn) that happened in the early 1970s as having something to do only with the social energies of the sixties collapsing in on them.
14:3 In Gordon’s description, however, something more mechanistic was happening: the second industrial revolution had simply [50](1. run 2. plotted. served) its course, and so, in many ways, had its social implications.

■ 第15段落
15:1 It is at about this point in the discussion that Gordon will grin mischievously and say: “So, how do you like your smartphone now”?

[60] Why does Gordon ask the author of the article if he likes his smartphone in the final paragraph?
1. He wants to call attention to how far we have come since the 1970s.
2. He is joking that the smartphone may become the author’s competition.
3. He is implying that there will be no better smartphones in the future.
4. He is suggesting that consumer demand may be the key to restarting growth.

■ 第6段落
6:1 In hundreds of these experiments conducted in industrialized societies, researchers had already demonstrated that most players propose a fifty-fifty split, and offers of less than $30 are typically rejected.
6:2 Economists find this behavior surprising because it [7]([1. agrees 2. conflicts 3. coincides) with their standard notion of economic rationality.
6:3 Even a single dollar, the reasoning goes, is better than nothing at all, so from a strictly rational perspective, recipients ought to accept any offer above zero.
6:4 And knowing this, rational “proposers” ought to offer the [8](1. least 2. most 3. less) they can get away with―namely, one dollar.
6:5 Of course, a moment’s thought suggests why people play the way they do―namely that it doesn’t seem fair to [9](1. damage 2. jeopardize 3. exploit) a situation just because you can.
6:6 Recipients being offered less than a third, therefore, feel taken advantage of and so opt to walk away from even a substantial sum of money in order to teach miserly proposers a [10](1. reason 2. lesson 3. fact).
6:7 And anticipating this response, proposers tend to offer what they assume the recipient will consider a fair split.

[24] Which of the following best characterizes the behavior of the people in industrialized societies when playing the ultimatum game?
1. Their behavior is based on the standard notion of economic rationality.
2. They are most likely to reject even a fifty-fifty split just to be mean to the proposer.
3. Proposers take into account what the recipient will regard as a fair deal.
4. Recipients are usually satisfied with whatever amount of money they might receive.

■ 第7段落
7:1 If your reaction to this insight is that economists need to get out a little more, then you’re not alone.
7:2 If anything seems like common sense, it’s that people care about fairness as well as money.
7:3 But when the experimenters replicated the game in fifteen preindustrial societies across five continents, they found that people in different societies have very different ideas about what [11](1. reveals 2. counts 3. exhibits) as fair.
7:4 At one extreme, the Machiguenga tribe of Peru tended to offer only about a quarter of the total amount, and virtually no offers were refused.
7:5 At the other extreme, the Gnau tribe of Papua New Guinea tended to make offers that were even better than fifty fifty, but [12](1. logically 2. Obviously 3 . surprisingly) these “ hyper fair” offers tended to get rejected just as frequently as unfair offers.

[25] In the 7th paragraph, the author discusses the way the Machiguenga tribe and the Gnau tribe play the ultimatum game in order to show that
1. the concept of fairness is different in different cultures.
2. people in preindustrial societies tend to be more generous than those in industrial societies.
3. it is impossible to make sense of the behavior of those in preindustrial societies
4. people in preindustrial societies enjoy the ultimatum game just as much as those in Industrial societies.

[27] Which of the following would be the most likely behavior of the Machiguenga when they are playing the ultimatum game with a stranger?
1. they would be easily offended if they were offered an uneven split.
2. they would accept whatever small amount they might be offered.
3. they would do the best they could in order to be loyal to the stranger.
4. they would feel obliged to offer a fifty-fifty split.

■ 第11段落
11:1 One of the most important consequences of the socially [19](1. demanded 2. employed 3. embedded) nature of common sense is that disagreements over matters of common sense can be extremely difficult to resolve.
11:2 The American anthropologist Clifford Geertz noted in his study of witchcraft in Java that “when the whole family of a Javanese boy tells me that the reason he has fallen out of a tree and broken his leg is that the spirit of his deceased grandfather pushed him out because some ritual duty has been inadvertently overlooked, it is precisely what they think has occurred, it is all they think has occurred, and they are puzzled only at my puzzlement at their lack of puzzlement.”
11:3 Disagreements over matters of common sense, [20](1. however 2, in other words 3, by the way), are hard to resolve because its unclear to either side on what grounds one can even conduct a reasonable argument.

[29] In the 11th paragraph, the author quotes Geertz’s words about a Javanese boy in order to show
1. how difficult it is to resolved disagreements over maters of common sense.
2. that people in preindustrial societies are well aware of the kind of “collective tacit knowledge” they have accumulated over a lifetime.
3. that “collective tacit knowledge” often enhances understanding of a different culture.
4. how incompetent Geertz was in understanding Javanese culture.

[30] Given the nature of Common sense as discussed in the article, we can safely infer that
1. our assumptions about the world are generally shared by different cultures.
2. commonsense knowledge can easily be turned into formal knowledge.
3. our shared common sense should be the foundation of international policy.
4. it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to replicate commonsense knowledge in computers.

■ 第2段落
2:1 Research proves global warming exists and scientists typically point to results from independent studies and meta-analyses to try to sway people’s views.
2:2 But people seem to rely on factors other than data to inform themselves about the likelihood of global warming.
2:3 “Data cannot move people to imagine.” says professor Jane Risen.
2:4 Her research Suggests that it is people’s ability to imagine the [2](1.affects 2. effects 3. efforts)of global warming, not the statistics or data, that determine belief in global warming.

[22] Which of the following is included among the “factors other than data” as mentioned in the 2nd paragraph?

1 Imaginative capacity.
2 Numerical inconsistency.
3. Statistical accuracy.
4. Temperature fluctuation.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Physical sensations of warmth, hunger, or thirst can influence people’s beliefs by helping them form clear mental images [4](1. in 2. of 3. on)a world where those sensations are more common.
4:2 The results of the Study Suggest that ordinary people―including bright and educated ones―may think of global warming and other pressing environmental and social concerns in intuitive rather than [5](1.intelectual 2.interpretive 3.inteligible) ways.
4:3 Scientists maybe more successful in communicating their findings about climate change if they make it easier for people to imagine the urgency and consequences of this issue.

[23] What would be a logical application of the findings of Risen and Critcher to effectively change people’s opinions about world hunger?
1. Produce documentary films that graphically show the difficulties of poverty.
2. Create situations wherein participants are hungry while learning about the issue.
3. Separate liberals and conservatives into different groups with different presentations.
4. Quickly flash words such as “hunger,” “famine,” “poverty,” and “deprivation” in between slides.

■ 第5段落
5:1 In an experiment, Students were taken outside on different days and asked questions, one of which [6](1.fabricated 2.mirored 3.solicited) the strength of their views on global warming.
5:2 Risen and Critter found that students tended to believe more in global warming when it was hotter outside.
5:3 Of course, their answers may have been related to factors other than their mental images of a hotter planet.
5:4 [7](1. Blemishing 2. Bruising 3.Blistering) heat outdoors could lead people to think that the earth’s average surface temperature is indeed rising.
5:5 They may think it reasonable to [8](1.imply 2.infer 3.induce) that the global climate is changing, for getting that global warming actually entails a gradual elevation in the earth’s average temperature.

[24] Why did the researchers move the experiment indoors as mentioned in the 6th paragraph?
1. To avoid unforeseen circumstances.
2. To increase the number of eligible participants.
3. To control for the rapid increase of external temperature.
4. To clarify the results of the earlier experiment.

■ 第9段落
9:1 To test the idea that feeling warm leads people to form sharper mental images of a world becoming hotter Risen and Critcherused a new technique that measured how easily participants in a warm room imagined a picture of a hot landscape.
9:2 Students who participated in this experiment were randomly assigned to heated or room- temperature cubicles.
9:3 [14](1.As 2.Though 3.While) in the cubicles, they were first shown a series of pictures on a computer screen that included hot and cold outdoor scenes.
9:4 The hot scenes with yellow and red tones, showed parched landscapes that depicted the world as affected by global warming.
9:5 Using Microsoft Office’s picture editing features the researchers had adjusted each image’s clarity so that the pictures were semitransparent and somewhat blurry.

[28] What is the purpose of asking students to adjust the transparency of photos in the 9th, 10th, and 11th paragraphs?
1. To incorporate a common indoor activity into the study.
2. To investigate the connection between heat and human vision.
3. To understand how much the heat is affecting their recollections.
4. To explore how the clarity of photos determines the accuracy of memory.

■ 第12段落
12:1 In all of these experiments, Risen and Critter found that regardless of participants’ political views, participants believed more in global warming when asked about their views in a warm environment.
12:2 In other words, although political [18](1. funding 2.orientation 3. ecology) predicted people’s beliefs on global warming (liberals were more likely than conservatives to believe in global warming), feeling warm still had a significant impact on their beliefs.
12:3 Both liberals and conservatives were better able to imagine global warming occurring when they felt warm.

[29] Politics is included as a variable in the discussion in the 12th and 13th paragraphs because it is generally understood that
1. belief in global warming falls along political lines.
2. political debate shifts as science proves new things.
3. collaboration between political groups leads to solutions for global warming.
4. liberals want to convince conservatives of the dangers of global warming.

■ 第3段落
3:1 For most political ecologists, this approach is somewhat too sharp a double-edged sword.
3:2 While it [34](1. defies 2 undergoes 3. allows) a critical examination of how politically empowered environmental science has influenced and created the environments of the world around us, which is an important political ecological project, this approach does not allow us to make [35](1. adaptations 2 contributions 3. references) to non-human actors and processes (like soil, trees, and climate) In explaining outcomes.
3:3 This makes hard constructivism unattractive to many researchers.
3:4 while producing a valuable open space for accepting and appreciating alternative constructions of the environment held by other social communities, like forest dwellers, nomadic herders, and religious philosophers, this approach makes the symbolic systems of humans [36](1. sovereign 2. go 3. carry) over all other reality, apparently disabling empirical Investigation In traditional environmental science.

■ 第11段落
11:1 This approach is a pragmatic compromise but is troubling for many observers of science and politics.
11:2 From a philosophical and historical point of view, it is some what unconvincing and
asymmetrical; social institutional constructivism Insists that only falsehoods, those situations where
scientific facts are wrong, can be explained socially, whereas facts and true understandings of nature have no social component.

[51] Which of the following best represents the author’s position about the constructivist approach or constructivism in political ecology?
1. Whatever type of constructivism is used, studying the construction of nature is difficult and presents complex methodological problems.
2. The constructivist approach is more viable than orthodox scientific approaches to account for ecological problems.

  1. The scientific approach should be improved to minimize the impact of the constructivist approach in the field.
    4. A clear line needs to be drawn between the constructivist approach and the scientific investigation, because there is no compromise.

■ 第2段落
2:1 In its most radical form, “hard” constructivism[31](1. takes 2. puts 3. gets) this symbolic and ideational character of environmental knowledge extremely seriously.
2:2 It insists that it is social context alone that conditions and determines our concepts for understanding the world, and [32』(1. here 2. so 3. there) creates the world, at least effectively, in the process.
2:3 This position suggests that things are true because they are held to be true by the socially powerful and influential, because they are true on television, and because they are true In our minds.
2:4 As philosopher of science Steve Woogar insists, “nature and reality are the by-product rather than the pre-determinants of scientific activity.”
2:5 Environmental confects are, therefore, struggles [33](1. over 2. without 3. around) ideas about nature, in which one group prevails, not because they hold a better or more accurate account of a process―soil erosion, global warming, ozone depletion―but because they access and mobilize social power to create consensus on the truth.

[52] What does Steve Woolgar mean by “nature and reality are the by-product rather than the pre- determinants of scientific activity” in the 2nd paragraph?
1. Science deals with nature independently, but reality is not the same as nature.
2. Nature and reality are the objective targets of scientific Investigation.
3. Neither nature nor reality exists as an objective entity.
4. Scientific studies distinguish what is real from what is merely conceptual.

■ 第3段落
3:1 For most political ecologists, this approach is somewhat too sharp a double-edged sword.
3:2 While it [34](1. defies 2 undergoes 3. allows) a critical examination of how politically empowered environmental science has influenced and created the environments of the world around us, which is an important political ecological project, this approach does not allow us to make [35](1. adaptations 2 contributions 3. references) to non-human actors and processes (like soil, trees, and climate) In explaining outcomes.
3:3 This makes hard constructivism unattractive to many researchers.
3:4 while producing a valuable open space for accepting and appreciating alternative constructions of the environment held by other social communities, like forest dwellers, nomadic herders, and religious philosophers, this approach makes the symbolic systems of humans [36](1. sovereign 2. go 3. carry) over all other reality, apparently disabling empirical Investigation In traditional environmental science.

[53] With reference to the 2nd and the 3rd paragraphs, the author uses the term “politically empowered environmental science” to mean that
1. politicians support environmental science in order to give power to it.
2. environmental science is not immune to power structure.
3. politics makes environmental science more powerful.
4. environmental science is politically influential.

■ 第5段落
5:1 In the first case, false and socially biased categories of the world like “race,” are important to understand and explore even while their reality―consistent, racially-differentiated genetic differences―does not objectively exist.
5:2 Since people hold them [39](1. importantly 2. experimentally 3. experientially), these concepts or social constructions make a difference In the world, often with harmful effects and therefore need to be understood.
5:3 This “social object” approach to nature is attractive for political ecologists, who are able to assume that ecological science can reveal real environmental trends, like soil erosion, while social investigation can show how ignorant people can create false pictures of the world through power- laden social processes.
5:4 This approach is satisfactory for most researchers since they consider themselves scientists.
5:5 They can insist that their way of seeing the problem, using the tools of science, helps to unmask biased and incorrect views of nature.

[55]Which of the following best summarizes the 5th paragraph?
1. political ecologists have to be careful about false understandings of our reality brought by the “social object” approach. Otherwise, their scientific study can be misled.
2. The “social object” approach shows that people can have an erroneous conception of the world. It is the tools of science that give us true understandings of the world

  1. The “social object” approach is effective in dealing with social concepts such as “race,” but it does not hold in the area of political ecology.
    4. Political ecologists are aware that ecological science must be at the heart of their research, but people’s false understandings of the world make their scientific research difficult to carry out.

■ 第7段落
7:1 The history of ecology is revealing in this respect.
7:2 The dominant theories of the operation of natural systems have consistently reflected the prevailing social languages and assumptions of their times.
7:3 [41] (1. Underachieving 2. Culminating 3. Emerging) during the high Industrial age, the science of ecology came to depend heavily on metaphors and concepts from mechanical engineering, with orderly, cyclical processes structured around balance and symmetry.
7:4 It also [42](1. laid 2 drew 3. carried) heavily, and somewhat contradictorily, upon philosophical Romanticism and the obsession with holism and interdependence, as is found in Romantic writers like Henry David Thoreau.
7:5 These metaphors, on which science depends, became unsatisfactory in recent years, either because they reflected reality poorly, or didn’t fit changing social and cultural codes and now are In a state of [43](1. satisfaction 2. agreement 3. upheaval).

[56]In the 7th paragraph, the author refers to “metaphors” to illustrate that
1. theoretical creativity and originality come from interesting metaphors as revealed by careful studies of metaphors in science.
2. theories based on metaphors do not have solid empirical ground and should not be accepted unconditionally.

  1. if the prevailing metaphor changes, then the scientific community must fight against it.
    4. the history of ecology has been influenced by the dominant metaphors of the times.

■ 第8段落
8:1 This should be in no way surprising, ecologist Daniel Botkin Insists: Previous views of nature, either as an organic [44](1. food 2 element 3. whole) or as a divinely ordered house, clearly reflected the social languages available to those who sought to explain nature’s order.
8:2 So too, the history of primatology,* studied In careful detail by Donna Haraway, shows similar socially-bounded evolution; the changing topics of explorations and experiments on chimpanzees and gorillas (maternal instinct, aggression, competition) reflect the social concerns of their historical moment.
8:3 It reads more like a history of contemporary American culture than orderly evolution of animal ethology.

8:4 Our scientific ideas of nature inevitably reflect the social conditions and dominant metaphors in which they were formed.
8:5 This is not necessarily bad.
8:6 With changing metaphors come emerging ways of thinking about and [45] (1. reproducing 2. reinventing g 3. reaching) the world.
8:7 Science is not free of “social objects.”

[57] The history of primatology is mentioned in the 8th paragraph in order to illustrate that

  1. the scientific study of gorillas and chimpanzees has followed a socially conditioned path similar to the case of political ecology.
    2. the topics of exploration in primatology have been discussed within the framework of cultural studies.
    3. primatology and political ecology have used semantically similar metaphors when framing theories in their respective fields.
    4. primatology has given political ecologists insightful ideas when they develop their thinking about the world.

■ 第9段落
9:1 An alternative soft constructivist approach, “social institutional constructivism,” allows that such biases are a structural par t of scientific practice, but that they nevertheless do not solely determine the conditions of the objective material world.
9:2 [46](1. Rather 2 Moreover 3. Hence) these conceptual biases in science help to explain why science some times gets facts wrong.
9:3 For social institutional constructivists, wrong ideas about nature are a product of the inevitable “socialness” of scientific communities.
9:4 Overtime, however, and through progressive experimentation and refutation the “social” ideas are purged from our understanding of nature, moving towards a true understanding of the objects of the natural world.
9:5 This is especially true, a social institutional constructivist might argue, as contemporary ecology and life sciences become more and more reflexive about the metaphors that [47](1. understand 2. underpin 3. underestimate) their analysis of objective systems.

[58] The phrase “the inevitable ‘socialness’ of scientific communities” in the 9th paragraph means that when they develop their theories, scientists
1. can escape from the reality of being members of a social community.
2. must become aware of the social power over their communities.
3. must emphasize the roles of as society in which they live.
4. cannot be free from the influence of social construction.

■ 第10段落
10:1 As an approach to political ecology, this is perhaps the most common and attractive compromise.
10:2 Knowledges are all different, most researchers maintain, and different experiences, like those of biologists, herders, historians, famers, and foresters, [48』(1. counter-intuitively 2 are unlikely to
3. do indeed) produce extremely different categorical structures for interpreting the objective realities of the natural world.
10:3 Even so, these knowledges can be examined by incorporating local ways of knowing into a flexible but rigorous scientific framework, which will distill myths from realities and produce better, more emancipatory knowledge.
10:4 [49](1. Acknowledging 2. Refuting 3. Reinforcing) the socially situated character of science, the method can still be used to test contested claims.

[59] Which of the following is stated in the 9th and 10th paragraphs as a claim of “social institutional constructivism”?
1. People categorize the world according to their own interests, and scientific knowledge is one type of categorization.
2. Science and social constructivism are essentially different practices, and do not permit a compromise between the two.
3. Life science and contemporary ecology are the areas of investigation which are socially institutionalized.

  1. Due to its conceptual biases, social institutional constructivism cannot attain a true understanding of nature.

■ 第12段落
12:1 For some political ecologists who are most definitely interested in how environmental concepts become powerful and true, this might be quite unsatisfactory.
12:2 Such an approach only functions to explain things that we believe to be “wrong” including the dominant account of nature, and only if we are [50] (1. already 2. still 3. far from ) confident that whatever the claims are, they are wrong, and scientifically untrue.
12:3 Generally this means that the claims of others (“enemies” like state oil conservationists, World Bank officers, or seed company representatives) can be disposed of as “constructions,” while the claims of other parties (“allies” like local herders or fishermen) are held up as environmental “knowledge.”
12:4 Where even those allies’ knowledges fail the practical tests of science―whatever that is taken to mean―they too become constructions.

[60] The main idea of the 12th paragraph is that the constructivist approach
1. lacks a set of solid criteria to differentiate scientific facts from social constructions, and hence can be used arbitrarily.
2. highlights the social aspect of knowledge more strongly than the scientific aspect of knowledge, and thus produce social biases.
3. operates In such away as to rationalize the claims of those who do not maintain the dominant account of nature, and thus encourages a power struggle.
4. has an important function of telling what is wrong from what is right in a variety of claims about ecological concerns, thus functioning as Occam’s razor.

■ 第5段落
5:1 [34](1. As regards 2. Despite 3. In addition to) accidental malfunctions, wireless and networked medical devices are also vulnerable to attacks by malicious hackers.
5:2 Dr. Fu and his colleagues showed how an implantable cardioverter defibrillator could be remotely reprogrammed either to withhold therapy when it is needed or, [35](1. as if 2. even worse
3. if so), to deliver unnecessary shocks.
5:3 Dr. Fu says that when it comes to testing their software, device manufacturers lack the safety culture found in other high-risk industries such as aviation, and are failing to keep up with the latest advances in software engineering.
5:4 Insup Lee, professor of computer science at the University of Pennsylvania, agrees:
5:5 “Many manufacturers do not have the expertise or the willingness to utilize new tools

[51] In the 5th paragraph, what does “safety culture” refer to? 1 National training for dangerous situations.
2. A culture in which medical safety laws are especially strong.
3. Countries with low levels of crime, like Denmark and Canada. 4 An organizational situation in which safety is of first importance.

■ 第14段落

14:1 Others are skirting America’s regulatory system altogether.
14:2 The Raven surgical robot is intended for research use on animals, while the Open Source Medical Device scanner will be large enough only to [47](1. accommodate 2. eradicate 3. relocate) rats and rabbits.
14:3 However, says Dr. Mackie, there is nothing to stop anyone taking the design and putting it through a regulatory process in another country.
14:4 “It may even happen that the device will be used on humans in parts of the world where strict regulation does not exist,” he says.
14:5 “We would hope that if it is used in such a way, it will be well-enough-designed not to hurt anybody.”

[53] What does the quotation in the last two sentences of the 14th paragraph indicate?
1. The belief of the speaker that the regulations for open-source medical equipment should be less strict.
2. An admission that if not used correctly, the technology could be dangerous.
3. The possibility that foreign countries are more advanced in the design of open-source devices. 4 Only through internationalization can open-source technologies become readily available.

■ 第18段落
18:1 Such changes cannot happen too soon.
18:2 “When a plane falls out of the sky, people notice,” says Dr. Fu. “But when one or two people are hurt by a medical device, or even if hundreds are hurt in different parts of the country, nobody notices.”
18:3 With ever more complex devices, opening up the hidden heart of medical technology makes a great deal of sense.

[56] In the last paragraph, Dr. Fu’s comment, “When a plane falls out of the sky, people notice,” can be taken to mean that
1. the dramatic nature of airplane failures bring more attention and faster change than medical software failures.
2. people are more likely to notice very dramatic events, so only when someone dies from medical software, will change occur.
3. the medical industry has nothing to learn from the aviation industry. 4 aviation disasters are more important than medical disasters.

■ 第1段落
1:1 Three men serving time in Israeli prisons recently appeared before a Jewish Israeli parole judge.
1:2 The three prisoners had completed at least two-thirds of their sentences, but the parole board granted freedom to only one of them.
1:3 Guess which one:
1:4 Case 1 (heard at 8:50 a.m.): An Arab Israeli serving a 30 month sentence for fraud.
1:5 Case 2 (heard at 3:10 p.m.): A Jewish Israeli serving a 16 month sentence for assault.
1:6 Case 3 (heard at 4:25 p.m.): An Arab Israeli serving a 30 month sentence for fraud.

■ 第2段落
2:1 There was a pattern to the judge’s decisions, but it wasn’t related to the men’s [1] (] 1. educational 2. ethnic 3. employment) backgrounds, crimes or sentences.
2:2 It was all about timing, as researchers discovered by analyzing more than 1,100 parole decisions.
2:3 Judges approved parole in about a third of the cases, but the probability of being paroled fluctuated [2] (1. minimally 2. wildly. randomly) throughout the day.
2:4 Prisoners who appeared early in the morning received parole about 70 percent of the time, while those who appeared late in the day were paroled less than 10 percent of the time.
2:5 As a result, it was only the man at 8:50 a.m. who was set free that day, even though the man at 4:25 p.m. had committed the same crime with the Same Sentence.

[21] Why does the 1st paragraph make note of whether the men were Jewish Israeli or Arab Israeli?
1. To add human interest to the article.
2. It might adversely affect the judge’s ruling.
3. To show that some of the men were foreigners.
4. Jewish and Arab cultures “ink about time differently.

■ 第12段落
12:1 The benefits of glucose were [18] (1. unmistakable 2. inconsequential. unobservable) in the study of the Israeli parole board mentioned at the beginning of this article.
12:2 In midmorning, the parole board would take a break, and the judges would be served a sandwich and a piece of fruit.
12:3 The prisoners who appeared just before the break had only about a 20 percent chance of getting parole, but the ones appearing right after had around a 65 percent chance.
12:4 The odds dropped again as the morning wore on, and prisoners really didn’t want to appear just before lunch: the chance of getting parole at that time was only 10 percent.
12:5 After lunch it soared up to 60 percent, but only [19] (1. somewhat 2. briefly. nominally).
12:6 Remember that Jewish Israeli prisoner who appeared at 3:10 p.m. and was denied parole from his sentence for assault?
12:7 He had the misfortune of being the sixth case heard after lunch.
12:8 But another Jewish Israeli prisoner serving the same sentence for the same crime was lucky enough to appear at 1:27 p.m., the first case after lunch, and he was rewarded with parole.
12:9 It must have seemed to him like a fine example of the justice system at work, but [20](1. in addition 2. in actuality 3 . In sum,) it probably had more to do with the judge’s glucose levels than the details of his case.

[22] What reason does the article suggest for the man from Case 2 being denied parole?
1. He had not completed enough of his sentence.
2. He was the victim of ethnic discrimination.
3. He had his hearing at the wrong time.
4. He was a dangerous violent of ender.

■ 第6段落
6:1 By the end, you could have [6] (1. changed 2. talked. 3. invited) me into anything,” Twinge told her new colleagues.
6:2 The symptoms sounded familiar to them too, and gave them an idea.
6:3 They purchased a range of simple products and presented them to their experimental subjects.
6:4 The subjects were told that, in return for doing the experiment, they would [7] (1. have 2. expect. 3. get) to keep one item at the end of the experiment, but first they had to make a series of choices.
6:5 Would they prefer a pen or a candle?
6:6 A vanilla scented candle or an almond scented one?

6:7 A candle or a T-shirt?
6:8 A black T-shirt or a red T-shirt?
6:9 [8](1. Meanwhile 2. Furthermore 3. All the same), a control group of “nondeciders” spent an equally long period contemplating all these same products without having to make any choices.
6:10 Afterward, all the participants were given a common test of self-control: holding your hand in ice water for as long as you can.
6:11 The impulse is to pull your hand out, so self-discipline is needed to keep the hand underwater.
6:12 The deciders gave up much faster; they lasted 28 seconds, less than half the 67-second average of the nondeciders.
6:13 Making all those choices had apparently [9] (1. bolstered 2. restored 3. sapped) their willpower.
6:14 They had decision fatigue.

[24] Why did the “nondeciders” discussed in the 6th paragraph find it easier to keep their hands in the ice water?
1. They were naturally more strong-willed
2. They had not made any decisions.
3. They were reluctant to make any trade-offs
4. They were not trying to keep any products

■ 第7段落
7:1 It turns out that once you’re mentally depleted, you become reluctant to make trade-offs.
7:2 If you’re shopping, you’re liable to look at only one dimension, like price: “just give me the cheapest.”
7:3 Or you indulge yourself by looking at quality: “I want the very best.”
7:4 Decision fatigue leaves you [10] (1. indifferent 2. vulnerable. resistant) to marketers who know how to time their sales.

[25] Using the phenomenon described in the article, how could marketers take advantage of customers?
1. By announcing a surprise early-morning sale.
2. By emphasizing the trade-offs between price and quality.
3. By beginning an unannounced sale late in the day.
4. By offering expensive products at low prices.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Shopping can be especially tiring for the poor, who have to struggle continually with trade-offs.
8:2 Most of us in developed countries won’t spend a lot of time agonizing over whether we can afford to buy soap, but it can be a depleting choice in rural India.
8:3 An economist offered people in 20 villages in northwestern India the chance to buy a couple of bars of brand-name soap for the equivalent of less than 20 US cents.
8:4 It was a [11] (1. scant 2. shallow 3. steep) discount off the regular price, yet even that sum was a strain for the people in the 10 poorest villages.
8:5 Whether or not they bought the soap, the act of making the decision left them with less willpower, as measured afterward in a test of how long they could squeeze a hand grip.
8:6 In the slightly more [12] (1. sanitary 2. affluent 3. determined) villages, peoples willpower wasn’t affected significantly.

8:7 Because they had more money, they didn’t have to spend as much effort weighing the merits of the soap versus, say, food or medicine.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Researchers argue that this sort of decision fatigue is a major factor trapping people in poverty.
9:2 [13](1. Although 2. Until 3. Because) their financial situation forces them to make so many trade-offs, they have less willpower to devote to school, work and other activities that might get them into the middle class.
9:3 Study after study has shown that low self-control correlates with low income as well as with a host of other problems. Lapses in self-control have led to the notion of the “undeserving poor”―epitomized by the image of the welfare mom using food stamps to buy junk food―but researchers urge sympathy for someone who makes decisions all day on a [14](1. tight 2. narrow
3. tense) budget.
9:4 In one study, it was found that when the poor and the rich go shopping, the poor are much more likely to eat during the shopping trip.
9:5 This might seem like confirmation of their weak character, but if a trip to the supermarket induces more decision fatigue in the poor than in the rich―because each purchase requires more mental trade-offs by the time they reach the cash register, they’ll have less willpower left to resist the chocolate bars and candies displayed there.
9:6 Not for [15] (1. anything2. something. nothing) are these items called “impulse purchases.”

[26]Which of the following is the best summary of the problem addressed in the 8th and 9th paragraphs?
1. Rich people often look down on poor people for their poor hygiene without appreciating the cost of toiletries.
2. Rich people often look down on poor people, thinking that they simply lack willpower, without understanding their difficult lives.
3. Poor people are poor because they have weak characters, which causes many problems in their personal and financial lives.
4. Poor people have less willpower due to the strain of living in poverty which makes it difficult to succeed.

■ 第10段落
10:1 This isn’t the only reason that sweet snacks are featured prominently at the cash register.
10:2 With their willpower reduced, people are especially vulnerable to anything offering a quick hit of sugar.
10:3 While supermarkets figured this out a long time ago, only recently did researchers discover [16] (1. how 2. why. when).

[27]Which of the following is NOT a reason that supermarkets place chocolate and candy near the cash register according to the article?
1. People with decision fatigue will be enticed in to buying them.
2. Decisive people will be enticed in to buying them.
3. People often crave sugar when they are mentally depleted.
4. Supermarkets have many years of experience recommending this.

■ 第12段落
12:1 The benefits of glucose were [18] (1. unmistakable 2. inconsequential. unobservable) in the study of the Israeli parole board mentioned at the beginning of this article.
12:2 In midmorning, the parole board would take a break, and the judges would be served a sandwich and a piece of fruit.
12:3 The prisoners who appeared just before the break had only about a 20 percent chance of getting parole, but the ones appearing right after had around a 65 percent chance.
12:4 The odds dropped again as the morning wore on, and prisoners really didn’t want to appear just before lunch: the chance of getting parole at that time was only 10 percent.
12:5 After lunch it soared up to 60 percent, but only [19] (1. somewhat 2. briefly. nominally).
12:6 Remember that Jewish Israeli prisoner who appeared at 3:10 p.m. and was denied parole from his sentence for assault?
12:7 He had the misfortune of being the sixth case heard after lunch.
12:8 But another Jewish Israeli prisoner serving the same sentence for the same crime was lucky enough to appear at 1:27 p.m., the first case after lunch, and he was rewarded with parole.
12:9 It must have seemed to him like a fine example of the justice system at work, but [20](1. in addition 2. in actuality 3 . In sum,) it probably had more to do with the judge’s glucose levels than the details of his case.

[29] What did the author mean in the 12th paragraph when he suggested that “prisoners really didn’t want to appear just before lunch”?
1. The judge was getting hungry and likely looking forward to his midmorning snack.
2. The judge’s glucose levels were low and he was less likely to make good decisions.
3. The probability of being found guilty at that time was very high.
4. The probability of being denied parole at that time was very low.

■ 第5段落
5:1 Facebook’s share-based self is more aspirational:
5:2 Facebook takes you more at your word, presenting you as you’d like to be seen by others.
5:3 Your Facebook self is more of a performance, less of a metaphorical black box, and ultimately it may be more prosocial than the bundle of signals Google tracks.
5:4 But the Facebook approach has its downsides as well―to the extent that Facebook draws on the more public self, it necessarily has [8](1. no rooms 2. less room 3. a tiny room) for private interests and concerns.
5:5 The same closeted gay teenager’s information environment on Facebook remains [9](1 inhuman 2, incomplete . indifferent).

[23] Which of the following would be closest in meaning to the phrase “more of a performance, less of a metaphorical black box” as mentioned in the 5th paragraph?
1. Facebook is concerned with what you show, rather than what you click.
2. You are more of what you do than what you feel.
3. Treat others as you would like to be treated.
4. You hide what people want to see rather than what you want to show.

■ 第7段落
7:1 Robotics engineers frequently run [11](1. down 2. into 3. over) problems when attempting to create realistic reflections of life.

7:2 There can actually be an uncomfortable sense of disconnect that one feels when looking at imperfectly animated humans or plastic-looking, human-faced robots―the so-called “uncanny valley.”
7:3 The problem is that the data do not necessarily represent reality.
7:4 We can say that Facebook and Google are in fact experiencing similar problems in their efforts to capture individual personalities.
7:5 With Facebook, users are actually creating a mask to show the world, but at the moment it is an imperfect and unconvincing one.
7:6 With the Google paradigm, the personality sketch created of users is also flawed, albeit differently.
7:7 This is due to misinterpreting aspects of a given customer’s online behavior as being indicative of his or her identity.
7:8 It could be said that rather than a good representation of self, right now the Internet can only provide a shoddy doppelganger.

[24] Which of the following is claimed by the 7th paragraph?
1. Facebook encourages users to put up a façade to hide their true identities on the Internet.
2. Neither robotics engineering nor social networking has solved the problem of the “uncanny valley”
3. With Google’s personality profile method, you show the world an imperfect version of yourself.
4. Internet services can learn from other technological fields to overcome the problems of online identity.

■ 第8段落

8:1 Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook, claims that we have “one identity”, a claim that has become the foundation of the Facebook personalization model.
8:2 Psychologists, however, warn us against this misconception.
8:3 We tend to explain people’s behavior in terms of their unchanging inner traits rather than the situations in which they’re placed.
8:4 Even in situations where the context clearly plays a major role, we find it hard to separate [12] (1. how 2. when 3.where) someone behaves from who she is.

[25] In order to avoid the misconception discussed in the 8th paragraph, it would be necessary to
1. take into consideration people’s psychological factors as well as behavioral patterns.
2. regard people’s personality based on various behaviors in different situations.
3. distinguish behaviors visible from the outside from feelings buried inside the heart.
4. realize there is no consistency to be found when you observe someone’s behaviors.

■ 第11段落
11:1 The one-identity problem illustrates one of the dangers of [17](1. running 2. turning 3. getting) over your most personal details to companies who have a skewed view of what identity is.
11:2 And when we’re aware that everything we do enters a permanent, pervasive online record, another problem emerges:
11:3 The knowledge that what we do affects what we see and how companies see us can create a chilling effect.
11:4 Genetic privacy expert Mark Rothstein describes how lax regulations around genetic data can actually reduce the number of people willing to be tested for certain diseases:
11:5 If you might be discriminated against or denied insurance for having a gene linked to Parkinson’s disease, it’s not unreasonable just to skip the test and the troubling knowledge that might result.

[27] Which of the following is another example of a “chilling effect” as it is used in the 11th paragraph?
1. If regulations are not strict enough, personal records of diseases may leak out to the public causing distrust in authority.
2. When a large number of people skip medical tests, there will be an increased chance of infectious diseases going rampant.
3. Once people know you have a gene linked to a specific disease, there will be no way to avoid their discrimination against you.
4. If you work in a hospital with an incompetent doctor, you do not report him because you are afraid you will be fired.

■ 第12段落
12:1 However, the one-identity problem isn’t a fundamental flaw.
12:2 It’s more of a [18] (1. bug 2. bit 3. virus):
12:3 Because Facebook thinks you have one identity and you don’t, it will do a worse job of personalizing your information environment.
12:4 As a friend of mine told me, “We’re so far away from the nuances of what it means to be human, as reflected in the nuances of the technology.”
12:5 People don’t have a single, tidy identity in all contexts, and every [19] (1. increasing 2. dropping 3.passing) fancy is not demonstrative of some core desire or interest.
12:6 In theory, however, the one-identity, context-blind problem isn’t impossible to fix.
12:7 Personalization will undoubtedly get better at sensing context, and, in fact, people in the field are working on it.
12:8 They might even be able to better balance long-term and short-term interests.
12:9 But when they do―when they are able to accurately [20](1. dial 2. gauge 3. switch) the workings of your psyche―things will get even more uncomfortable.

[28] The statement “people in the field are working on it” in the 12th paragraph means that they are trying to
1. strike a balance between leaving users unknown to each other and requiring them to maintain a single identity.
2. incorporate Facebook’s sharing functions into Google search functions.
3. better personalize search results by making personalization more context-sensitive.
4. help Facebook improve the way they personalize the type of information users access on the Internet.

[29] Which of the following phrases from the article best corresponds to the phrase “a single, tidy identity” as used in the 12th paragraph?
1. unchanging inner traits
2. a mask
3. the public self
4. a shoddy doppelganger

■ 第4段落
4:1 Both ways of thinking have their benefits and drawbacks.
4:2 With Google’s click-based self, the gay teenager who hasn’t [5](1. run up 2. come out .3 looked up) to his parents can still get a personalized Google News feed with pieces from the broader gay community that affirm that he’s not alone.
4:3 But at the same time, a self built on clicks will tend to draw us even more toward the items we’re [6]1, predisposed 2. entitled 3. embarrassed) to look at already.
4:4 Your perusal of an article on a celebrity gossip site is [7]1.filed 2. thrown 3. given) away and the next time you’re looking at the news, you are more likely to find salacious details about an actor’s infidelity on the screen.

[30] Which of the following can be inferred from this article?
1. Personalization on the web makes you look multi-dimensional, although in reality your full personality is hard to pinpoint.
2. Invisible filtering of web content via personalization may threaten to limit your exposure to different thoughts and ideas.
3. As a Facebook user, you might feel like sharing any kind of news with your friends, whether it is favorable or unfavorable to your self-image.
4. Two people in different regions with different interests will receive identical Google results when typing in the same search phrase.

■ 第1段落
1:1 If a campaign volunteer shows up at your door, urging you to vote in an upcoming election, you are 10 percent more likely to go to the poll―sand others in your household are 6 percent more likely to vote.
1:2 When you try to recall an unfamiliar word, the [31](1.fact 2. assumption 3. likelihood) you’ll remember it depends partly on its position in a network of words that sound similar.
1:3 And when a cell in your body develops a cancerous mutation*, its daughter cells** will carry that mutation; whether you get cancer depends largely on that cell’s position in the network of cellular reproduction.

■ 第2段落
2:1 [2](1. However 2. Despite 3. Whatever) unrelated these phenomena may seem, a single scholarly field has helped illuminate all of them.
2:2 The study of networks can illustrate how viruses, opinions, and news spread from person to person and can make it possible to track the spread of obesity, suicide, and back pain.
2:3 Network science points toward tools for predicting stock-price trends, designing transportation systems, and detecting cancer.

[51] Why does the author introduce three different examples (voting, word recall, and cancerous mutation) in the 1st paragraph?
1. To show that the problem explored in this article is complicated.
2. To suggest that seemingly different phenomena can be guided by a similar principle.
3. To propose that different academic fields should collaborate to solve human problems.
4. To demonstrate that human behaviors are beyond explanation.

■ 第3段落
3:1 It [33](1. often is 2. used to be 3. never could be) that sociologists studied networks of people, while physicists and computer scientists studied different kinds of networks in their own fields.
3:2 But [34](1. as 2. though 3. unless) social scientists sought to understand larger, more sophisticated networks, they looked to physics for methods suited to this [35](1. flexibility 2. complexity 3. equality).
Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives.

[52] The phrase “two-way street” as used in the 3rd paragraph is closest in meaning to

  1. divergence.
    2. reciprocity.
    3. monoculture.
    4. rapidity.
[53] Network science is described as one of the rare areas in the 3rd paragraph because
1. social scientists, physicists, and molecular biologists compete against each other to develop a strong theory.
2. social scientists find it difficult to use ideas borrowed from the field of molecular biology to account for the complexity of human behavior.
3. researchers in social science and molecular biology look to each other crossing disciplinary boundaries to approach network issues.
4. molecular biologists think that ideas in social science are more powerful and persuasive than those in their own field.

■ 第4段落
4:1 The basic elements of a network are simple: it consists of nodes*** connected by links (also called “ties”).
4:2 But as the numbers of nodes and links increase, the number of possible forms of the network grows dramatically.
4:3 [36](1. Conversely 2. Otherwise 3. Likewise), there are innumerable possibilities for what a node and a link can represent.

4:4 Structurally simple, yet analytically incredibly complex, networks hold the answers to so many questions that at Harvard alone, the number of researchers studying them may reach three digits.

4:5 Here is a sampling of the newest work in this [37](1. unchanging 2. unfashionable 3. dynamic) field.

[54] What is meant by “structurally simple, yet analytically incredibly complex” in the 4th paragraph?
1. Nodes and links in a network are simple in structure, but one cannot make a scientific analysis of the structure.
2. The basic structure of a network is simple, but what nodes and links can represent is virtually unlimited.
3. The theory of social networks has simple parts and components, but one cannot analyze their functions because of the great number of nodes and links.
4. The phenomenon under consideration is simple, but the number of researchers makes it complicated with their own interpretations of nodes and links.

■ 第2段落
2:1 [31](1. Unless 2. As 3. Far from) indispensable as these social networking tools have become to many of us, they also call up fears of spying, excessive government monitoring, stalking, crooked business dealings, and other illegal, antisocial, unethical, and otherwise destructive behaviors.

2:2 The fields of law, ethics, sociology, psychology and many others will no doubt be [32](1. asked after 2. called upon 3. taken over) over time to help us better understand the full potential, and manage the risks, of these new modes of technology-based communication.
2:3 In this article, we will look at one small but central issue currently [33](1. facing 2. heading 3. backing) us, namely, the evolution of the concept of surveillance” in the Internet age.

[52] According to the article, which of the following will be needed to have a clearer view of the strengths and drawbacks of online social networking?
1. An economic viewpoint.
2. A political perspective.
3. Expertise in computer science.
4. An approach from multiple disciplines.

■ 第4段落
4:1 There are few who would deny that the development of the Internet has drastically changed the way that we see the world.
4:2 Perhaps of equal importance for us to note, however, is how the Internet has changed the way that the world sees us―for good and bad.
4:3 With news stories about hacking, identity theft, online financial scams, as well as other cyber crimes and misdemeanors, it is easy for us to grow [37](1. doubtful 2. anxious 3. contented) that using the Internet constantly puts us at risk of unwanted surveillance.
4:4 You might feel that you are constantly being watched, that your movements are being logged, and that you may be [38](1. longing for 2. particular about 3. susceptible to) possible attacks from strangers.
4:5 That feeling is worsened by technologies such as Google Street View or location-tagged photographs, which may reveal information about peoples physical movements from their cyber activities, often without their knowledge or consent.

[54] The author of the article refers to Google Street View in the 4th paragraph in order to
1. illustrate how modern web technologies can make people feel insecure.
2. explain technically how individual movements are recorded online.
3. complain of the quality of service this online technology provides.
4. suggest that we should be more knowledgeable about the merits of new technologies.

■ 第5段落
5:1 Some people fear that the Internet and related forms of interconnected information technology may potentially lead to a complete loss of privacy, [39](1. in the manner of 2. at the rate of 3. in the name of) the writings of George Orwell.
5:2 In his masterpiece, 1984, he describes a society where the government controls the people by constantly spying on them.
5:3 This type of round-the-clock surveillance without peoples consent would be totally destructive to a free society.

[55] Which of the following most closely represents the fictional surveillance system as mentioned in the 5th paragraph?
1. The government is under public surveillance 24 hours a day.

  1. The government watches the people’s behavior 24 hours a day.
    3. The people are forced to labor all day under government surveillance.
    4. The people have no privacy except when they use their personal computers.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Albrechtslund’s concept of “participatory surveillance” is so radically different from the standard meaning of surveillance, however, that it may require an entirely new term.
9:2 As technology develops and culture changes, language cannot always [49](1. keep pace 2. make haste . fall behind).
9:3 New kinds of human interaction require new ways of thinking about them, as well as new words to [50](1.go along with 2. put up with 3. do away with) them.
9:4 It is, perhaps, a task for this and future generations to invent a new vocabulary for a new world.

[60] The author of the article feels that the phrase “participatory surveillance” as suggested by Albrechtslund
1. fails to stress the importance of strict regulations on social networking services.
2. correctly captures both the positive and negative sides of social networking services.
3. should be replaced immediately with a new phrase which does not involve the distortion of the standard meaning of “participatory.”
4. has not quite succeeded in reconciling the positive meaning of “participatory” with the negative meaning of “surveillance” in its standard usage.

■ 第2段落
2:1 I call the first of these shifts “power transition” and the second,”power diffusion.”
2:2 The issue of power transition is sometimes called the rise of Asia, but it should more properly be called the recovery of Asia.
2:3 If one looked at the world in 1750, one would see that Asia had more than half of the world’s population, and represented more than half of the world’s products.
2:4 By 1900, Asia still had more than half of the world’s population, [1](1. but 2. so 3. for) it had declined to only 20 percent of the world’s products.
2:5 What we have been seeing, and what we will see in the 21st century, is the recovery of Asia to its normal proportions, with more than half of the world’s population and more than half of the world’s products.
2:6 This started, of course, with Japan after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, and it [2](1. coincided 2. worked 3. continued) with smaller countries like Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, and so forth.
2:7 Now the trend has spread to China, but it is also going to include India.
2:8 India now has growth rates of 8 to 9 percent a year.

2:9 During the course of the century, we should [3](1. see 2. understand 3. recognize) Asia as a whole recovering to about what one would think would be normal proportions.
2:10 And that is power transition.

[21] The author of the article assumes that
1. power transition has never happened in international politics.
2. power diffusion has never happened in international politics.
3. power transition is now centered in Asia.
4. power diffusion is now centered in Asia.

[22] The phrase “normal proportions” in the 2nd paragraph means more or less the same share of power
1. as that of other countries.
2. as that of the United States and Europe.
3. as was held in the 18century.
4. as was held in the past century.

■ 第4段落
4:1 So that means that things that were previously restricted to very large organizations like governments or corporations are now [8](1. meaningful 2. useless . available) to anyone.
4:2 And this has a significant impact on world politics.

4:3 It does not mean that governments are being replaced or that the nation-state is obsolete.
4:4 What it [9](1. does 2. does not . could not) mean is that the stage on which governments act is now crowded with many more, smaller actors.
4:5 Some of those smaller actors are good―lets take Oxfam International, an NPO which serves to relieve poverty―and some of them are bad―lets take Al Qaeda, which is obviously trying to kill people.
4:6 But the main point is that it is a new type of international politics and we have [10](1. already 2. often 3. not yet) come to terms with how to think about this.
4:7 So, for example, we need to realize that in an age in which information technology is so powerful and important, it may often be the case that it is not only whose army wins, but whose story wins.
4:8 The ability to tell an effective story is [11](1. persuasive 2. crucial 3. risky).

[24] In the 4th paragraph, the phrase “a new type of international politics” is used in the sense that
1. governments or big corporations play a bigger role in world politics.
2. smaller actors play a bigger role in world politics.
3. information technology has become more important than governments.
4. information technology has become more accessible to everyone.

■ 第6段落
6:1 It is very important to have accurate perceptions about the transition of power.
6:2 And the reason is that when people are too worried about power, they may overreact or follow strategies that are [16](1. relevant 2. meaningful 3. dangerous).

6:3 When you look back in history, there is the famous case of the Peloponnesian War, in which the Greek city-state system tore itself apart.
6:4 Thucydides, the ancient Greek historian, said the reason for this war was the rise in the power of Athens and the fear it created in Sparta.
6:5 [17](1. Contrarily 2. Similarly 3. Paradoxically), if you look at World War I, which destroyed the centrality of the European state system in the world, it is often said it was caused by the rise in power of Germany and the fear that it created in Britain.

[26] According to the 6th paragraph, the author seems to believe that
1. Thucydides wrongly predicted the transition of power in ancient Greece.
2. Thucydides correctly predicted the transition of power in ancient Greece.
3. people in Athens reacted too strongly.
4. people in Sparta reacted too strongly.

■ 第7段落
7:1 It is equally important not to be too fearful of the diffusion of power.
7:2 What we are seeing is that both China and the United States, and of course Japan and Europe and others, will be facing a new set of transnational challenges, including climate change, transnational terrorism, cyber insecurity, and pandemics.
7:3 All these issues, which are going to be increasing in the future, are going to require cooperation.
7:4 They cannot be solved by any one country alone.
7:5 Many of these new transnational issues that we face are areas where we have to get away from just thinking about power over others and think about power [18](1. with 2. without 3. under) others.

[27] According to the article, the author suspects that
1. climate change might be worsened by power diffusion.
2. transnational terrorism will not be feared in the future.
3. cyber insecurity might get worse in the future.
4. pandemics will be worsened by power transition.

[28] It can be inferred from the article that the author is
1. equally concerned with power transition and power diffusion.
2. more concerned with power transition than power diffusion.
3. more concerned with power diffusion than power transition.
4. fearful of both power transition and power diffusion.

■ 第6段落
6:1 MS: I mean the excessive parental management and molding of children.
6:2 The danger of using genetic technologies to get “designer children” is that it will [6](1. distrust
2. forget 3. reinforce) the tendency of hyperparents to see their children as instruments of their own ambition.
6:3 It’s this aspect of the drive for perfection that worries me.

6:4 The risk is that we will turn children into objects of manufacture, into commodities to be purchased, picking and choosing the traits we want in our children, rather than viewing them as independent persons.
6:5 There is the risk, too, of undermining the [7](1. unconditional 2. unexpected 3. uninformed) love parents have for their children, if we begin to specify hair color, eye color, height, sex, and intelligence, before they are even born.
6:6 There is the risk of turning parenting into an extension of the consumer society.
6:7 And that could [8](1. erode 2. subtract 3. extract) the love of parents for their children.

[21] The term “hyperparenting” is used in the article in reference to those cases in which
1. parents care enough about their children.
2. parents try to excessively manipulate their children’s lives.
3. parents resort to genetic technologies for medical purposes.
4. the government takes control of parenting, education, and healthcare.

[22] According to the 6th paragraph, what are “designer children”?
1. Children who are well cared for by their parents and society.
2. Children who are overly competitive, and overly controlling.
3. Children whose high intelligence leads to a strong interest in design.
4. Children whose traits are preselected by their parents.

[23] In the 6th paragraph, Sandel explains his opinion that genetic engineering may
1. make children dislike their parents.
2. discourage racism and advance freedom.
3. make children into products.
4. allow everyone to have perfect lives.

■ 第8段落

8:1 MS: It would be dishonest to claim that I am [9](1. indebted 2. immune 3. obliged) to this urge.
8:2 I think everyone has experienced the inclination to hyperparent.
8:3 We must not be overly controlling when raising children, though hyperparenting is [10](1. an outdated 2. an annoying 3. a tempting) thing to do, especially these days.
8:4 Today, parents look around, especially in affluent suburban schools, and feel that there’s a kind of arms-race [11](1. compromise 2. mentality 3. reduction).
8:5 Since everyone else is taking college prep courses, not to do so seems to be [12](1. depriving
2. accusing . informing) one’s child of a competitive advantage.
8:6 The real danger of hyperparenting will come when parents feel pressured to resort to genetic engineering for the sake of giving their children a competitive [13](1. wedge 2. edge 3. pledge).
8:7 We see this already in a limited way with the use of human growth hormone, which can increase the height of children.
8:8 It was introduced to help children with a hormonal deficiency, but it also works with short, but otherwise healthy, children.

[24] According to the 8th paragraph, we can assume that Sandel thinks that the use of human growth hormone
1. can be problematic when it is extended to non-medical purposes.
2. should be limited because it can cause severe medical problems.
3. should be promoted because it enables the creation of “designer children.”
4. should be allowed for everyone who wishes to be tall and handsome.

■ 第10段落
10:1 MS: What worries me are not the genetic technologies by themselves but the availability of new genetic technologies together with social and cultural attitudes in an increasingly competitive society.
10:2 It is this combination that is so troubling.
10:3 I should emphasize that I consider breakthroughs in genetics a great blessing for medicine and for the relief of [14](1. debt 2. suffering 3. oppression).
10:4 My concern is with non-medical uses of genetic technologies.
10:5 I would not want to restrain research and breakthroughs in genetics.
10:6 [15](1. Likewise 2. In the meantime 3. On the contrary), they are crucially important for health.
10:7 My concern is when technologies that were designed for promoting health are used for non- medical purposes, and are turned into instruments of competition in a consumer-driven society.
10:8 These moral concerns go back to the history of eugenics in Nazi Germany.
10:9 Eugenics was then associated with coercion and state control of reproduction.

10:10 Today it is making a comeback, but without state coercion.
10:11 It’s now in the form of privatized, free-market eugenics.
10:12 I think that eugenics is morally troubling even without the state coercion because now the eugenic [16](1. completion 2. prohibition 3. ambition) is connected to consumerism in a competitive society.
10:13 So, parents will feel increasing pressures to resort to genetic engineering in order to give their children a leg up in a
competitive society.
10:14 It’s this combination that worries me.

[26] The term “a leg up” in the 10th paragraph can be taken to mean
1. a competition.
2. an advantage.
3. a higher purpose.
4. a medical condition.

[28] In the 12th paragraph, Sandel states that “the gap between rich and poor will be genetically reinforced.” What does he mean?
1. Rich people can receive proper medical care, whereas poor people cannot, but this situation will change in the future.
2. Both rich and poor will be able to take advantage of genetic technologies in the future, thus bridging the gap between them.
3. Rich people are genetically stronger and healthier than poor people, and the difference between them will increase in the future.
4. Rich people will remain rich, and poor people will remain poor, because only the former can afford genetic enhancement for their children.

■ 第14段落
14:1 MS: In my view, the idea of giftedness goes along with a willingness to be open to the unpredictability of life.
14:2 To appreciate children as gifts is to accept them as they come, not as we might “design” them.
14:3 It involves a certain [17](1. humility 2. desirability . offense) and restraint, and it seems to me to not only be important morally, but to also have civic consequences.
14:4 As for solidarity, just think, “Why do the fortunate owe anything to the less fortunate in a society?”
14:5 One answer to that question depends [18](1. lightly 2. densely . heavily) on the idea of giftedness.
14:6 Some people are fortunate or gifted by chance.
14:7 If many of our advantages can’t be said to be our own [19](1. showing 2. doing 3. playing), then that gives a powerful drive to solidarity, to feelings of togetherness and shared experience with those less fortunate than us.
14:8 If in the future certain people use genetic technologies to control all aspects of human development, those people may feel [20](1. in no way 2. by all means 3. to some extent) connected to the difficulties of others.

[29] According to Sandel, we feel a sense of solidarity when we realize that
1. genetic technologies make life more predictable.
2. people around us are more gifted and fortunate than we are.
3. we owe what we are to our own efforts and hard work.
4. the difference between the fortunate and the less fortunate is simply by chance.

■ 第1段落
1:1 Since the middle of the twentieth century, there has been a revolution in the job market.
1:2 Women have entered the paid workforce in unprecedented numbers.
1:3 In 1950, for example, only about one-third of working-age women were in the paid workforce; today, some 61 percent are.
1:4 There has also been an overwhelming change in the nature of paid work done by women.
1:5 Fifty years ago, professional careers for women [31] (1. apropos 2. out 3. outside) of nursing or teaching were unusual.
1:6 Today, women comprise nearly half of the newly minted attorneys and physicians starting work each year.
1:7 Over the same fifty-year period, there has been a transformation of wages, too.
1:8 In 1950, median earnings of women were only two-thirds those of men.
1:9 Today, women earn 80 percent of what men are paid.

[51] In the 1st paragraph, the author uses the expression a revolution in the job market” with respect to
1. the number of women in the paid workforce, the type of paid work women are engaged in, and the earnings of women.
2. the nature of the paid workforce, the number of female attorneys and physicians, and a transformation of wages.
3. professional careers for women, a change in the wage rate for women, and the number of attorneys and physicians.
4. the contribution to the labor force, diversity of professional skills, and wealth accumulated by women.

■ 第2段落
2:1 Reread that last sentence.
2:2 On average, for every dollar a man earns, a woman gets paid 80 cents.
2:3 Can this possibly be true?
2:4 Consider this fact: Nearly 70 percent of employers’ costs are accounted for by labor.
2:5 An employer who hired only women at 80 cents on the dollar could cut labor costs by 20 percent [32] (1. in spite of 2. relative to 3. similar to) an employer who hires only men.
2:6 This would yield added profits of about 14 percent of sales―which would triple the profit earned by the typical firm.
2:7 If women are paid 20 percent less than men, how could any employer possibly [33] (1. expect
2. afford 3. refuse) to hire anyone but women?

[52] What is the main point of the 2nd paragraph?
1. Companies should hire more women than men because it can cut labor costs by 20%.
2. Hypothetically, hiring women would bring in more profit to the employer, but the reality is not as simple as that.
3. Due to lower earnings, an increasing number of companies are hiring more women than in the past.
4. The claim that women earn 80 percent of what men earn has no supporting evidence.

■ 第4段落
4:1 The widespread opinion of many observers is that the unexplained gap between the pay of men and women is chiefly the result of discrimination against women.
4:2 The reasoning is simple.
4:3 Most business owners or senior managers are men, and [35] (1. over 2. for 3. given) a choice between hiring a man or a woman, the “old-boy network” operates in favor of the man.
4:4 According to this view, women can get the job only if they agree to accept lower wages.

[54]. Which of the following best represents the concept of the “old-boy network” as used in the 4th paragraph?
1. A democratic system of within-company communication which exclusively consists of aged colleagues.
2. A predisposition of the male employer which influences his decision of hiring a male or a female.
3. A theory of communication which explains the old-men-flock together phenomenon in a company.
4. A wisdom of human experience which directs human reasoning in the right direction.

■ 第10段落
10:1 The third key factor influencing pay is hours of work.
10:2 Men are more than twice as likely as women to work in excess of fifty hours a week in paid employment.
10:3 Overall, the average paid workweek for men is about 15 percent longer than it is for women.

10:4 Men are also more likely than women to be in full-time, rather than part-time, paid employment, and the wage differences here can be huge.

10:5 Working an average of forty-four hours per week versus thirty-four hours per week, for example, yields more than twice the pay, [48] (1. sensitive to 2. considering 3. regardless of) gender.
10:6 This substantial gender gap in hours of paid work is due in part to the “mommy track” phenomenon, but the question that remains is, does this constitute discrimination on the part of employers, or is it the result of choices by women?

[59] The “mommy track” phenomenon is mentioned to explain gender differences in terms of hours of paid work. It refers to
1. a working condition under which women with children can continue working with less required hours of work.
2. a work-sharing system for women who would rather cut their own hours than see a friend lose her job.
3. a career course for women who want to work on schedules adjustable according to their own need.
4. a type of work designed for mothers who want to take their children to their workplaces.

■ 第1段落
1:1 When I consider the effect of the Internet on my thought, I keep coming back to the same metaphor.
1:2 What makes the Internet a fundamentally new human communication system is the many-to- many connections it allows: suddenly any two Internet-equipped humans can transfer essentially any information, flexibly and efficiently.
1:3 We can transfer words, code, equations, music or video anytime to anyone, essentially for free.

1:4 We are no longer dependent on publishers or media producers to connect us.
1:5 This [31] (1. parallels 2. contradicts 3. supports) what happened in animal evolution, as we evolved complex brains controlling our behavior, partially displacing the basically hormonal, one-to- many systems that came before.
1:6 So let’s consider this new mode of communication from the long evolutionary viewpoint, by [32] ( 1. adding 2. comparing 3. subordinating) it to the information revolution that occurred during animal evolution over the last half-billion years: the evolution of brains.

[51] In the 1st paragraph, words, code, equations, music and videos are offered as examples of information that
1. are created by publishers for global readers.
2. can flow without restriction.
3. displace hormonal communications.
4. are part of the animal evolutionary process.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Nonetheless, being “jacks of all trades”, such cells were [36] ( 1. rulers 2. dictators 3. masters) of none.
4:2 Cooperative multi-cellularity allowed cells to specialize, focusing on the individual tasks of support, feeding, and reproduction.
4:3 Specialization and division of labor allowed teams of cells to vastly outclass their single-celled ancestors in terms of size, efficiency, and complexity, leading to a whole new class of organisms.

4:4 But this new organization created its own problems of communication: how to [37l ( 1. empower 2. ensure 3. entitle) smooth, effective cooperation among all of these independent cells.
4:5 This question directly parallels the origin of societies of specialized humans.

[52] The metaphor of the evolutionary specialization of cells is intended to portray
l. the demand for division of labor as society grows more complex.
2. the relationship between evolution and reproduction.
3. the complexity of the human evolutionary story.
4. the need for masters and subordinates in class-based societies.

■ 第7段落
7:1 In humans, language provided the beginnings of a communicative organizational system, [41] (1. identifying 2. unifying 3. categorizing) individuals into larger, organized collectives.
7:2 Although all animals communicate, their channels are typically narrow and do not [42] (1. receive 2. support 3. broadcast) expression of any and all thoughts.
7:3 Language enables humans to move arbitrary thoughts from one mind to another, creating a new, cultural level of group organization.
7:4 For most of human evolution, this system was very local, allowing small bands of people to form local clusters of organization.
7:5 Spoken language allowed hunter-gatherers to organize their foraging efforts, or small farming communities their harvest, but not much more.

[53] According to the 7th paragraph, why is communication among animals other than humans limited ?
1. Other animals do not possess a verbal communication system.
2. Other animals do not possess culture.
3. Other animals do not possess minds.
4. Other animals do not possess organizational skills.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Since Gutenberg, human society has slowly groped its way towards a new organizational principle.
9:2 Literacy, mail, telegraphs and democracy were steps along the way to a new organizational metaphor, more like the nervous system than hormones.
9:3 The Internet completes the process: now [46] (1. necessarily 2. slightly 3. arbitrarily) far-flung individuals can link, share information, and base their decisions upon this new, shared source of meaning.
9:4 [47] (1. Like 2. As for 3. As in) individual neurons in our brain, each human can potentially influence and be influenced, rapidly, by information from anyone, anywhere.
9:5 We, the metaphoric neurons of the global brain, are on the brink of a wholly new system of societal organization, one spanning the globe with the metaphoric axons** of the Internet linking us together.

[57] In the 9th paragraph, the author suggests that the Internet society allows people to influence each other and
1. a person in power can dominate the relationship.
2. people tend to move in the direction of democratization.
3. one cannot predict how and where one will be influenced by others.
4. people can base their decisions on the structure of the Internet.

[58] According to the article, which of the following is true?
l. The Internet, like the nervous system, requires the coordination of its components.
2. Internet connections, like signals on the nervous system, are restricted to limited distances.
3. The Internet, like the nervous system, has many specialized communication mechanisms.
4. Individuals on the Internet, like parts of the nervous system, can be connected one-to-one.

■ 第11段落
11:1 Two main problems mar this “global brain” metaphor.
11:2 First, the current global brain is only weakly linked to the organs of international power.
11:3 Political, economic and military power remains insulated from the global brain, and powerful individuals can be expected to cling tightly to the [50] (1. hormonal 2. neuronal 3. collective) model of control and information exchange.
11:4 Second, our nervous systems evolved over 400 million years of natural selection, during which billions of competing false starts and miswired individuals were ruthlessly weeded out.
11:5 But there is only one global brain today, and no trial and error process to extract a functional configuration from the trillions of possible configurations.
11:6 This formidable design task is left up to us.

[60] According to the author, what are the two problems with the “global brain” metaphor referred to in the last paragraph?
l. The Internet is strongly connected to society, and trial and error will force it to evolve.
2. The Internet is not used by the military, but there are too many choices for configuring the global brain.
3. Some holders of power protect themselves from the Internet, and the design configuration is left open.
4. The Internet has no internal organs, and is not a natural phenomenon.

■ 第1段落
1:1 The issues related to global governance have assumed an increasing importance in our world as human populations attempt to deal with a variety of issues, from world trade to human security.
1:2 The current growing usage of such terms as “global economy,” “global society” and “global warming” is a sign of the increasing engagement of expert opinion-makers with these issues.
1:3 Ordinary opinion-makers have also engaged with these issues, as demonstrated by such sites as the Global Governance Page on Facebook.
1:4 Recently, these large issues have come into [1] (1. action 2. shape 3. focus) in a relatively small section of our globe, the Canary Islands.

[21] Which of the following best explains the purpose of comparing the interest of “expert opinion- makers” and “ordinary opinion-makers” in the issues of global governance mentioned in the 1st paragraph?
1. To demonstrate that intellectual elites are better qualified to deal with global issues than the average user of the World Wide Web.
2. To demonstrate that the average user of the World Wide Web can use technology to solve global problems better than experts.
3. To demonstrate the democratic nature of Facebook as a global network.
4. To demonstrate that all levels of people are taking part in the solution of global issues.

■ 第2段落
2:1 The Canary Islands are an archipelago located in the Atlantic off the west coast of Africa.

2:2 Formerly one of Spain’s oldest colonies, they became a Spanish Autonomous Community in 1978.
2:3 When Spain joined the European Union, or the EU (at that time known as the European Communities), in 1986, they [2] ( 1. subordinated 2. qualified 3. modified) as an Outermost Region of the Union.
2:4 The Outermost Regions are nine regions of EU member states which, though not geographically part of Europe, are considered part of the EU.
2:5 The EU is generally considered a prime example of supranational* governance.
2:6 A growing scandal covering issues of financial regulation, environmental protection and regulatory jurisdiction has come to [3] (1. light 2. pass 3. an end) in these islands.

[22] Which of the following best expresses the concept of the EU as “a prime example of supranational governance” as mentioned in the 2nd paragraph?
1. The EU has increased membership since the fall of the Soviet Union.
2. The EU has created the strong euro trading bloc among its members.
3. The EU has many member nations within its governance network.
4. The EU has assisted the development of smaller members within the group.

■ 第8段落
8:1 A UNESCO spokesperson was quoted in the Financial Times article as saying, “Lanzarote had a very good application. Mass tourism was not something they were developing. They [15] ( 1. prompted 2. promoted 3. proclaimed) sustainable tourism that was more respectful to the environment.”
8:2 In fact, the 1995 World Conference on Sustainable Tourism was held in Lanzarote.
8:3 In light of the 16] (1. speculations 2. allegations 3. expectations) reported by the BIJ and the Financial Times, the conference theme, “Towards a New Tourist Culture,” sounds particularly ironic.

[26] Which of the following best explains the irony of the tourism conference mentioned in the 8th paragraph?
1. It is ironic that such an important conference took place on a small island.
2. It is ironic that the conference would combine the concept of culture with an industry like tourism.
3. It is ironic that a conference on tourism issues took place in a location that is a focus of a scandal.
4. It is ironic that sustainability is a key component of eco-tourism.

■ 第10段落
10:1 The BIJ has found that 19 million euros has been recovered so far, but this has been achieved by withholding those funds from the EU subsidies [18] ( 1. due 2. according 3. Owing) to Spain.
10:2 The involvement of the Spanish national government raises the issue of responsibility.
10:3 The Spanish national “Coastal Law” of 1988, drawn up [19] (1. in association with 2. in response to 3. without regard to) the uncontrolled development of Spain’s Mediterranean coast, nationalized the entire Spanish coastline and vested control in local governmental bodies.
10:4 In 1991, the Lanzarote local government drew up a progressive land use plan, which gained world recognition as a model for sustainable development and safeguarding the ecosystem.
10:5 [20] (1. Hence 2. Therefore . In fact), it was on the basis of this plan that UNESCO initially awarded Lanzarote its Biosphere Status.

[28] Which of the following best paraphrases the meaning of the phrase “symbolic of the pitfalls of global governance” as used in the last paragraph?
1. Lanzarote has become an international example of economic corruption.
2. Lanzarote is representative of the complexities in global society.
3. Lanzarote has become a logo for the development of tourism economies.
4. Lanzarote is a sign of flaws in EU funding.

■ 第11段落
11:1 It is the meeting of policy and jurisdiction, regulation and responsibility that has made the case of Lanzarote symbolic of the pitfalls of global governance.
11:2 If the global organizations which are set up to address issues such as support for developing regions and protection of the world’s biosphere are to be truly effective, then the first requirement is transparency at all levels of governance, local, national and supranational.

[29] Which of the following would be the best definition of the term “tansparency” as it is used in the last paragraph?
1. Transferring the jurisdiction from a local authority to a global System.
2. Being able to see all the rules and functions of a given system.
3. Transferring monitoring power of local economies to a regulatory agency.
4. Being able to see the various results of sustainable development.

[30] Which of the following would best summarize the key issue of this article?
1. Conflicts between expert and web opinions on global governance.
2. The problems of tourism economy as a development plan.
3. The negative effects of EU governance on global business promotion.
4. The problems of sustainability and transparency in global tourism.

■ 第3段落
3:1 According to an article in the British newspaper, the Financial Times, the focus of the scandal is eight luxury hotels on Lanzarote, the easternmost of the Canary Islands.
3:2 Because of its remote geography and its overdependence on tourism, Lanzarote was [4] (1. provided 2. accounted 3. eligible), under the EU treaty, for a variety of European and national subsidies.
3:3 Fuelled by the expanding economy of the 1990s, tourism, which had been the mainstay of the islands economy for the past 40 years, [5] (1. boomed 2. bubbled 3. banged).
3:4 Hotels were built, and the islands airfield was expanded in 1999 to handle the [6] (1. intrusion 2. influence 3. inflow) of tourist flights from EU countries.
3:5 In 2008, more than five million passengers travelled to Lanzarote.
3:6 Commenting on this development, the Financial Times article states, “The rapid growth of the tourism industry has crowded out agriculture and fishing from the local economy and [7] (1. undermined 2. strengthened 3. demonstrated) the sustainability of an island.”

■ 第5段落
5:1 The Canary Islands High Court has annulled 22 building licenses for various projects on Lanzarote.
5:2 It is this relationship between development and environmental issues that has added aspects of political corruption to the financial [9] (1. assistance 2. award 3. fraud) case.
5:3 The Financial Times reported that more than 30 public officials and businessmen have been arrested on allegations of corruption regarding illegal building and operating [10] (1.. systems 2. principles 3. permits).
5:4 These charges transcend local political issues and involve major international organizations on the questions of policy and responsibility.

■ 第6段落
6:1 In preparing the background research for the article, the Financial Times collaborated with the London-based NPO, the Bureau of Investigative Journalism (BIJ).
6:2 On its web site, the BIJ states that its goal is “to bolster original journalism by producing high- quality investigations, and to explore new ways of conducting and funding investigative journalism.”
6:3 By working in collaboration with other news groups, it aims to [11] ( 1. call 2. address 3. support) the difficulty that national and international media often face in [12] (1. funding 2. avoiding
3. finding) expensive long-term investigations.
6:4 The joint investigation by the Financial Times and the BIJ alleges that eight large hotels used a special environmental status to promote their business and to help [13] (1. clarify 2. qualify . exemplify) for the 23.6 million euros in loans to help generate employment in the area.

6:5 According to their research, before the development boom Lanzarote received a “Reservation of the Biosphere” status (hereafter called Biosphere status) in 1993 under the UNESCO “Man and the Biosphere” (MAB) Program.
6:6 This status helped the island win special funding for sustainable development.

■ 第9段落
9:1 As UNESCO reviews Lanzarote’s Biosphere status, EU officials have begun to consider the implications of member states’ money being involved in political corruption.
9:2 The European Anti-Fraud Office has been charged with ensuring the [17] (1. recovery 2. expenditure 3. loss) of any EU subsidies used to finance illegal construction.

[24] Which of the following best paraphrases the goal of the BIJ mentioned in the 6th paragraph?
1. To attempt to expose fraud and mismanagement in the EU jurisdiction.
2. To attempt to provide original journalistic coverage for the EU on its web site.
3. To provide an alternative for funding and conducting long-term investigations for various media.
4. To provide non-governmental information for press and broad cast media outlets.

[25] According to the article, which of the following is the problem with Lanzarote’s Biosphere status?
1. Lanzarote is the only entire island to apply for Biosphere status.
2. Lanzarote failed to build a sufficient number of sustainable tourism hotels.
3. Lanzarote used its Biosphere status to gain funding for luxury tourism hotels.
4. Lanzarote failed to share their experience with the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

■ 第2段落
2:1 In one experiment, for example, a group of people are told to watch two similarly talented sets of basketball players, the first of whom are shooting baskets in a well-lighted gym and the second of whom are shooting baskets in a badly lighted gym, and obviously missing a lot of shots.
2:2 Then they are asked to judge how good the players were.
2:3 The players in the well-lighted gym were considered superior.

■ 第3段落
3:1 In another example, a group of people are brought in for an experiment and told they are going to play a quiz game.
3:2 They are [5](1. carried away 2. paired off 3. handed of) and they draw lots.
3:3 One person gets a card that says he or she is going to be the “Contestant.”
3:4 The other is told he or she is going to be the “Questioner.”
3:5 The Questioner is then asked to draw up a list of ten “challenging but not impossible” questions based on his or her own areas of particular interest or expertise, so someone who is into Ukrainian folk music might [6](1. come up with 2. go together with 3. come down with) a series of questions based on Ukrainian folk music.
3:6 The questions are posed to the Contestant, and after the quiz is over, both parties are asked to estimate the level of general knowledge of the other.
3:7 [7](1. Indiscreetly 2. Unexpectedly . Invariably), the Contestants rated the Questioners as being a lot Smarter than they themselves are.

[23] According to the article, people tend to make a mistake in judging character by
1. over-relying on perceived stable traits rather than on observation.
2. underestimating nurture rather than nature.
3. attributing errors to unstable character traits.
4. attributing errors to stable character traits.

■ 第5段落
5:1 We do this because we are a lot more [10](1. responsible for 2. independent of 3. attuned to) personal cues than contextual cues.
5:2 The FAE also makes the world a much simpler and more understandable place.
5:3 In recent years, for example, there has been much interest in the idea that one of the fundamental factors in explaining personality is birth order: older siblings are domineering and conservative: younger siblings are more creative and rebellious.
5:4 Psychologists actually tried to [11](1. verify 2. hypothesize 3. resolve) this claim and showed that we do reflect the influences of birth order.
5:5 However, as the psychologist Judith Harris points out in The Nurture Assumption, this character [12](1. modifies 2. applies 3. notifies) only within family situations, and not once the children are in independent situations.

[24] Which of the following best matches the statement, “The FAE also makes the world a much simpler and more understandable place” in the 5th paragraph?
1. You can simplify your life by not judging people by their personalities.
2. Considering every possible contextual factor would make life rather complicated.
3. Innocuous errors people make don’t affect society in any significant way.
4. It would be simpler to deal with basic errors than critical ones.

■ 第7段落
7:1 The psychologist Walter Mischel argues that the human mind has a kind of “reducing valve” that creates and maintains the perception of [16](1. interval 2. modification 3. continuity) even in the face of perpetual observed changes in actual behavior.
7:2 He writes:
7:3 “When we observe a woman who seems hostile and fiercely independent some of the time but passive, dependent and feminine on other occasions, our reducing valve usually makes us choose between the two patterns.
7:4 We decide that one pattern is in the service of the other, or that both are in the service of a third motive.
7:5 She must be a really ruthless lady with a façade of passivity―or perhaps she is a warm, passive-dependent woman with a surface [17](1. trickery 2. defense 3. offense) of aggressiveness.

7:6 But perhaps nature is bigger than our concepts and it is possible for the lady to be an intimidating, fiercely independent, passive, dependent, feminine, aggressive, warm, brutal person [18](1. nothing-but-one 2. all-in-one 3. One-for-all.
7:7 Of course which of these she is at any particular moment would not be random―it would depend on who she is with, when, how, and much, much more.
7:8 But each of these aspects of herself may be a quite genuine and real aspect of her total being.”

[26] In the 7th paragraph, Walter Mischel proposes the image of the “reducing valve” in order to illustrate how the mind prefers
1. character over inherent traits.
2. situations over complex flows.
3. stable categories over daily flux.
4. stable observation over stereotypes.

[27] In the quote by Walter Mischel, we find the statement, “We decide that one pattern is in the service of the other.” What does that mean?
1. We maintain a façade in public to protect our inner character.
2. We tend to use aggressiveness to serve our goals in work situations.
3. When faced with multiple motives for a persons behavior, we choose one as a primary motive.
4. When faced with multiple motives for a persons behavior, we give equal weight to all.

[28] Which of the following best expresses the meaning of the phrase “perhaps nature is bigger than our concepts” in the quote by Walter Mischel?
l. Human concepts cannot capture the totality of nature.
2. Nature should be appreciated more than the human mind.
3. Conceptual thinking conquers all.
4. Humans are children of nature.

■ 第8段落
8:1 This illustrates that character is not something which is stable across different situations.
8:2 It is more like a bundle [19] (1. of 2. with 3. in) habits and tendencies and interests, loosely bound together and dependent, at certain times, on circumstance and context.
8:3 Once we understand the effect of context on our assessment of character, it is possible to consider teaching about the power of context in educational settings.
8:4 This may help reduce our tendency to judge people inaccurately, which can lead to prejudice.
8:5 The challenge of [20] (1. forcing 2. turning 3. breaking) the concept of FAE into a practical educational tool is enormous, but the benefits to our society could make this challenge worth attempting.

[29] According to the last paragraph, an implication of the theory of FAE for education is that it may be possible
1. to change ones identity according to context.
2. to help people to judge others without bias.
3. to give people power to control others.
4. to help people to behave themselves.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Given the success and popularity of art museums there is a certain irony that their credibility is now being questioned.

4:2 [36] (1. As long as 2. As far as 3. As) art museums dramatically increased their audiences, adopted marketing strategies from the business world, and began demonstrating that they could generate substantial economic returns for their communities, the public and the media started to take a much closer look at their operations.
4:3 And with this attention came an [37] ( 1. awareness 2. attack 3. anticipation) that art museums, like other institutions, are not perfect, that they occasionally engage in questionable practices, whether allowing a sponsor to effectively buy an exhibition, or giving control of exhibition content to a donor or collector, or programming exhibitions solely to generate income, or entering into arrangements that involve real or perceived conflicts of interest.

[51] Which of the following examples represents the concept of irony discussed in the 4th paragraph?
1. Museums, funded by people’s generosity, have become profit-oriented.
2. As museums attract more visitors, they get fewer donations from corporations.
3. As museums become more popular, they become less credible.
4. Museums emphasize beauty, but their management is dirty.

[52] Which of the following hypothetical cases parallels the phrase “conflict of interest” as applied to museums in the 4th paragraph?
1. Superhighways reduce traffic jams, but they create noise and pollution.
2. Popular products are not always profitable for the company.
3. Social welfare for all requires higher taxes for some.
4. Doctors prescribe more medicine than patients need in order to make more money.

■ 第7段落
7:1 What the Times and other papers criticized repeatedly was Brooklyn’s apparently intentional misleading of the public over the way in which the exhibition was financed.
7:2 Having promoted Sensation with a highly [40] (1. inflammatory 2. nostalgic 3. authoritative) advertising campaign that centered on the slogan, “Health Warning: the contents of this exhibition may cause shock and vomiting,” and deployed the marketing tactics of a major movie studio, the museum discovered that it was now the subject of the very attention it had generated.
7:3 The media, not to mention the public, did not like what it [41] (1. saw 2. promoted 3. constructed).
7:4 The museum’s programs and practices were scrutinized and its [42] (1. ethics 2. attendants 3. securities) were questioned, and even its most ardent supporters wearied of defending the institution against the constant barrage of accusations that came from the press and the public at large.

[53] The Brooklyn museum jeopardized its credibility by
1. running an ad campaign that was more sensational than the content of the exhibition.

  1. trying to hide the fact that Charles Saatchi financed the exhibition.
    3. not sincerely listening to the mayors criticism.
    4. criticizing The New York Times for not supporting the museums freedom of exhibition.

■ 第9段落
9:1 Public trust is a term that implies both a set of responsibilities to preserve, protect, and enhance property held [44] (1. on top of 2. on behalf of 3. in addition to) the public and a code of conduct to ensure that this responsibility is discharged with the highest degree of skill and diligence.
9:2 As public institutions, museums are expected to act and behave in a way that is in keeping with the perceived [45] ( 1. thoughts 2. values 3. politics) they embody.
9:3 This is true regardless of whether they are privately or publicly funded, civic or state institutions.

■ 第11段落
11:1 The key term here is moral authority, which brings us back to the issue of responsibility and where we began.
11:2 If art museums are to continue [47l (1. thriving 2. sliding 3. revolving) they must recognize that their moral authority derives from the trust the public invests in them because the public believes they are acting responsibly and for the common good.
11:3 Lessening of trust is ultimately a loss of a museum’s authority and credibility, and once lost, that trust is very difficult to [48] ( 1. sustain 2. regain 3. refrain).
11:4 The question, however, is not whether art museums can find a way to embrace commercial culture but whether they can demonstrate that there is a clear and discernible difference between art and commerce that is worth preserving.
11:5 This is not an easy task in a world where art and commerce can, and often do, merge seamlessly into each other, where museums can become part of vast entertainment complexes, and where museums are compelled to act more and more like commercial enterprises.

[56] Which of the following would be the author’s interpretation of the Brooklyn Museum controversy?
1. Museums should be quiet abodes of the muses for contemplation.
2. Museums should use business strategies to become more accessible to the public.
3. Museums should be judicious in deploying modern marketing while maintaining their institutional purpose.
4. Museums should avoid commercialism and have more scholarly exhibits.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Indeed, this scrutiny was so intense, and its implications for other museums so potentially damaging, that the American Association of Museums took the unusual step in the aftermath of Sensation of adopting new guidelines concerning the financing of exhibitions and the avoidance of conflicts of interest in order to bolster public confidence in museums and demonstrate to lawmakers that museums are capable of policing themselves.
8:2 Whatever gains the museum may have had in attendance and profile were more than [43] (1. multiplied 2. repaid 3. offset) by the fact that this came at the cost of public trust in the institution.

■ 第9段落

9:1 Public trust is a term that implies both a set of responsibilities to preserve, protect, and enhance property held [44] (1. on top of 2. on behalf of 3. in addition to) the public and a code of conduct to ensure that this responsibility is discharged with the highest degree of skill and diligence.
9:2 As public institutions, museums are expected to act and behave in a way that is in keeping with the perceived [45] ( 1. thoughts 2. values 3. politics) they embody.
9:3 This is true regardless of whether they are privately or publicly funded, civic or state institutions.

[57] Which opinion might the author hold about government-owned museums?
1. They should be privatized to be more open and efficient.
2. They should be based on public trust, not on government authority.
3. Shielding museums’ governance from political interference reduces public trust.
4. They are a legacy of old Europe and cannot survive in American democracy.

■ 第7段落
7:1 What the Times and other papers criticized repeatedly was Brooklyn’s apparently intentional misleading of the public over the way in which the exhibition was financed.
7:2 Having promoted Sensation with a highly [40] (1. inflammatory 2. nostalgic 3. authoritative) advertising campaign that centered on the slogan, “Health Warning: the contents of this exhibition may cause shock and vomiting,” and deployed the marketing tactics of a major movie studio, the museum discovered that it was now the subject of the very attention it had generated.
7:3 The media, not to mention the public, did not like what it [41] (1. saw 2. promoted 3. constructed).
7:4 The museum’s programs and practices were scrutinized and its [42] (1. ethics 2. attendants 3. securities) were questioned, and even its most ardent supporters wearied of defending the institution against the constant barrage of accusations that came from the press and the public at large.

[58] What was the Brooklyn Museums intention in using the slogan, “Health Warning: the contents of this exhibition may cause shock and vomiting” as shown in the 7th paragraph?
1. To discourage the mayor from visiting the museum.
2. To summarize the critical response to Charles Saatchis art collection.
3. To warn parents not to bring their small children.
4. To capture the attention of the public.

■ 第11段落
11:1 The key term here is moral authority, which brings us back to the issue of responsibility and where we began.
11:2 If art museums are to continue [47l (1. thriving 2. sliding 3. revolving) they must recognize that their moral authority derives from the trust the public invests in them because the public believes they are acting responsibly and for the common good.
11:3 Lessening of trust is ultimately a loss of a museum’s authority and credibility, and once lost, that trust is very difficult to [48] ( 1. sustain 2. regain 3. refrain).
11:4 The question, however, is not whether art museums can find a way to embrace commercial culture but whether they can demonstrate that there is a clear and discernible difference between art and commerce that is worth preserving.
11:5 This is not an easy task in a world where art and commerce can, and often do, merge seamlessly into each other, where museums can become part of vast entertainment complexes, and where museums are compelled to act more and more like commercial enterprises.

[60] The moral authority of museums depends on the trust the public bestows upon museums in that
1. there is a consensus that the public has the ultimate right to distinguish what is right from what is wrong.
2. there is a shared perception among the public that museums are acting for the common good.
3. there is an intricate relationship between the public support of museums and the number of visitors.
4. the culture of the Enlightenment is generally considered to be the height of public morality.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Indeed, this scrutiny was so intense, and its implications for other museums so potentially damaging, that the American Association of Museums took the unusual step in the aftermath of Sensation of adopting new guidelines concerning the financing of exhibitions and the avoidance of conflicts of interest in order to bolster public confidence in museums and demonstrate to lawmakers that museums are capable of policing themselves.
8:2 Whatever gains the museum may have had in attendance and profile were more than [43] (1. multiplied 2. repaid 3. offset) by the fact that this came at the cost of public trust in the institution.

[54] According to the 8th paragraph, which of the following explains the motive of the American Association of the Museums when it stepped into the Brooklyn Museum controversy?
1. To prevent the federal government from stepping into the fight in question.
2. To protect the reputation of American museums by setting higher professional standards.
3. To save the Brooklyn Museum of Art from attack by the mayor and the press.
4. To bolster public interest in museum management.

■ 第2段落
2:1 In this book, Erasmus set out to popularize the concept of “civilité.”
2:2 Although often translated as politeness, Erasmus used the term to [32] ( 1. create 2. devise 3. represent) an approach to life, a way of carrying one’s self, of speaking and relating to others that would enable all to live together harmoniously.
2:3 Erasmus saw “civilité,” from which the modern word “civility” is descended, as the basis for civilization.
2:4 Those who acted without concern for others were considered “un-civilized,” destructive barbarians.
2:5 Civility, which is [33] (1. far from 2. the Same as 3. more than) simple politeness, is an important component of human society by which we show respect for each other.
2:6 It is an old and nearly universal ethical imperative.
2:7 In the ancient world, both Aristotle in classical Greece and Confucius in pre-imperial China held that a good man had to have good manners.
2:8 However, concern with public civility is not simply an ancient tradition.

[51] The implication of the phrase “an old and nearly universal ethical imperative” as used in the 2nd paragraph is that
l. everybody everywhere should follow the same guidelines to good manners or else we will face chaos.
2. the idea of good manners is old-fashioned and should not be used as an universal imperative.
3. good manners are the best letter of introduction and it is imperative to have politeness to join high society.
4. a similar concept of manners as an ethical act towards society can be found in many cultures throughout history.

■ 第3段落
3:1 In 1997, the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Southern California published a study in which people were asked to [34] (1. evaluate 2. explain 3. upgrade) the public civility of different groups in American society.
3:2 The group that was rated the lowest on the scale of politeness was politicians.
3:3 A congressional commission concluded that civility in debate had reached the lowest level [35] (1. by 2. around 3. since) 1935.
3:4 Members of both parties, [36] (1. impressed by 2. repressed by 3. worried about) the effects of the report and their public image, held a retreat in Hershey, Pennsylvania.
3:5 The stated purpose of the retreat was: “To seek a greater degree of civility among members of the House of Representatives in order to foster an environment in which vigorous debate and mutual respect can coexist.”
3:6 This event illustrates that civility was, has been, and can again become an important social “tool” for interacting with others.

[52] In the 3rd paragraph, the example of the Congressional retreat is mentioned in order to illustrate
l. the need for politicians to be concerned about the public perception of their image.
2. the need to eliminate good manners in partisan political debate in order to facilitate governance.
3. the general lack of common civility in contemporary society.
4. the general lack of etiquette education in government circles.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Yet, [37] (1. all 2. not all 3. no) people are ready to accept civility.
4:2 In fact, some members of Congress refused to participate in the civility retreat mentioned above.
4:3 From both Republicans and Democrats, the same objection was raised―there is no need to be civil with those whose ideas we oppose.
4:4 Indeed, honesty requires that we should not hide real disagreements under the [38] (1. cover 2. function 3. structure) of social manners.
4:5 This was the argument of a much discussed essay by Benjamin DeMott entitled “Seduced by Civility.”
4:6 Published in The Nation in 1996, the article proposed that too much civility might [39] ( 1. deepen 2. mask 3. minimize) deep social conflict.
4:7 The demand for society to conform to the rules of civility, said DeMott, is how people [40] (1. in
2. Of 3. for) power avoid criticism.
4:8 In other words, civility and its related concepts are a gross hypocrisy meant to further oppress the disenfranchised in our society.
4:9 It is easy to “feel” the strength of this argument; after all, who has not felt like yelling at injustice or tearing down the walls of prejudice?
4:10 This argument is not, however, borne out historically.
4:11 It is, in fact, contradicted by recent social struggles.

[53] Which of the following statements is closest to the key concept of Benjamin DeMott’s article mentioned in the 4th paragraph?

  1. Republicans and Democrats need to agree on better rules for polite debate.
    2. Republicans and Democrats need to revive traditional manners for better governance.
    3. Adherence to the code of civility helps social bonding by promoting kind manners toward the weak.
    4. Adherence to the code of civility hides social problems by promoting manners above honesty.

■ 第7段落
7:1 We began this essay by looking at a 500-yearold call for a more civil society, for a world in which respect for one another [47] (1.. outweighs 2. effaces 3. contrasts) any differences in opinion or belief.
7:2 But do we behave any better today than the violent barbarians of Erasmus’ day ?
7:3 We squabble over our rights, and ignore our obligations.
7:4 We believe the function of government is to give us the things we desire, prosperity, peace and progress, but we fail to volunteer for those non-governmental organizations, from hospitals to museums, that make civil society function.
7:5 We rarely [48] (1. fail 2. wish 3. bother) to follow our own codes of civil behavior even when they are clearly posted on trains, buses or planes.

7:6 We seem to be indulging in a collective act of [49] (1. forgetting 2. forging 3. restructuring) all of our manners and becoming the very barbarians Erasmus worried about.

7:7 The problem lies in the process by which the values of the market, which are characterized by emphasis on getting what we want, have been [50] (1. allowed 2. conditioned 3. blocked) to move into the social life of our communities where we have traditionally engaged in a discourse to help us decide what we should want.
7:8 However, it is not too late to rediscover civility, and thus preserve both our humanity and our civilization.
7:9 The key to reconstructing civility lies in our learning anew the virtue of acting towards our neighbors with kindness and concern, and to value the means of our achievements as well as the ends of our desires.

[58] In the last paragraph of this article, the contrast between the phrases “values of the market” and “the social life of our communities” is meant to illustrate that
1. socialism represents the only form of ethical governance.
2. capitalism cannot function in small communities.
3. free market consumerism represents the best source for determining our social values.
4. social values need to be considered from the perspective of personal duty, not desire.

[59] The word “discourse” in the last paragraph can best be replaced by
1. political debate.
2. public discussion.
3. ethical education.
4. moral dilemma.

■ 第2段落
2:1 In this book, Erasmus set out to popularize the concept of “civilité.”
2:2 Although often translated as politeness, Erasmus used the term to [32] ( 1. create 2. devise 3. represent) an approach to life, a way of carrying one’s self, of speaking and relating to others that would enable all to live together harmoniously.
2:3 Erasmus saw “civilité,” from which the modern word “civility” is descended, as the basis for civilization.
2:4 Those who acted without concern for others were considered “un-civilized,” destructive barbarians.
2:5 Civility, which is [33] (1. far from 2. the Same as 3. more than) simple politeness, is an important component of human society by which we show respect for each other.
2:6 It is an old and nearly universal ethical imperative.
2:7 In the ancient world, both Aristotle in classical Greece and Confucius in pre-imperial China held that a good man had to have good manners.
2:8 However, concern with public civility is not simply an ancient tradition.

■ 第1段落
1:1 About 500 years ago, the Renaissance scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam was deeply concerned with the manners of his students.
1:2 He was worried because all of his life he had believed in communication through letters and books, conversation and teaching, and now his world had become divided on issues such as religion, governance and even scholarship―so divided that any discourse seemed impossible.

1:3 At the beginning of his career, Erasmus had been a teacher at Cambridge and some of his most popular writings were textbooks concerned [31] (1. for 2. about 3. with) using classical knowledge to train students to act correctly―with modesty, kindness and wisdom towards all in society, high and low.
1:4 Thus, he wrote one more book, On Teaching Civility for Children, which he hoped might solve the problems that his society faced.

■ 第4段落
4:1 Yet, [37] (1. all 2. not all 3. no) people are ready to accept civility.
4:2 In fact, some members of Congress refused to participate in the civility retreat mentioned above.
4:3 From both Republicans and Democrats, the same objection was raised―there is no need to be civil with those whose ideas we oppose.
4:4 Indeed, honesty requires that we should not hide real disagreements under the [38] (1. cover 2. function 3. structure) of social manners.
4:5 This was the argument of a much discussed essay by Benjamin DeMott entitled “Seduced by Civility.”
4:6 Published in The Nation in 1996, the article proposed that too much civility might [39] ( 1. deepen 2. mask 3. minimize) deep social conflict.
4:7 The demand for society to conform to the rules of civility, said DeMott, is how people [40] (1. in
2. Of 3. for) power avoid criticism.
4:8 In other words, civility and its related concepts are a gross hypocrisy meant to further oppress the disenfranchised in our society.
4:9 It is easy to “feel” the strength of this argument; after all, who has not felt like yelling at injustice or tearing down the walls of prejudice?
4:10 This argument is not, however, borne out historically.
4:11 It is, in fact, contradicted by recent social struggles.

■ 第6段落
6:1 From this experience we can not only observe the fallacy of Mr. DeMott’s anti-civility argument, but we can also sense an important social implication of civility―that civil discourse makes for a civil society.
6:2 Without a common sense of manners, we have no common [46] (1. property 2. link 3. factor).
6:3 Civility acts as a tie that binds us all together in a great democratic dialog.
6:4 As the historian Arthur Schlesinger observed, civility acts as “a letter of introduction” to assure strangers that despite apparent differences of ethnicity, belief or socio-economic status, we are one community linked by shared practices of politeness and a belief in civility as a code of conduct.

[56] Which of following people would the author of this article most likely not agree with ?
l. The scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam, who felt that unless we teach students the rules of civility we will all become barbarians.
2. The historian Arthur Schlesinger, who wrote that civility acts as “a letter of introduction” to assure strangers that despite our differences we are one community linked by shared practices of politeness.
3. The philosopher Confucius, who believed that the ethically good man had to be a civil and polite man.
4. The writer Benjamin DeMott, who said that civility can act as a tool of oppression hiding social conflict under the cover of good manners.

[57] Which of the following is closest in meaning to the expression “civil discourse makes for a civil society” as used in the 6th paragraph?
1. Good manners will open doors that the best education cannot.
2. Civility costs nothing and buys everything.
3. Its nice to be important, but more important to be nice.
4. Consideration for others is the basis of a good life and a good society.

■ 第1段落
1;1 Over the recent decades, a vast and diverse flock of parenting experts has arisen.
1:2 Anyone who tries even casually to follow their advice may be stymied, for the conventional wisdom on parenting seems to shift by the hour.
1:3 Sometimes it is a case of one expert differing from another.
1:4 At other times, the most vocal experts suddenly agree en masse that the old wisdom was wrong and that the new wisdom is, for a little while at least, irrefutably right.
1:5 The typical parenting expert, like experts in other fields, is [1] (1. prone 2. unlikely 3. afraid) to sound exceedingly sure of himself.
1:6 An expert doesn’t so much argue the various sides of an issue as plant his flag firmly on one side.
1:7 That’s because an expert whose argument reeks of restraint or nuance often doesn’t get much attention.
1:8 An expert must be bold if he hopes to alchemize his homespun theory into conventional wisdom.
1:9 His best chance of doing so is to [2] (1. dispute 2. ignore 3. engage) the publics emotions, for emotion is the enemy of rational argument.
1:10 And as emotions go, one of them―fear―is more potent than the rest.
1:11 Mad-cow disease, crib death, avian flu―how can we fail to heed the expert’s advice on these horrors when, like that mean uncle telling too-scary stories to too-young children, he has reduced us to quivers?

[21] According to the 1st paragraph, parenting experts tend to
1. be indecisive when discussing controversial issues on parenting.
2. firmly stand by their views on parenting in order to attract public attention.
3. disregard the publics emotional side, as emotions run counter to logical theory.
4. put forward conservative views since they want to be well received by the public at large.

■ 第3段落
3:1 The problem is that they are often scared of the wrong things.
3:2 It’s not their fault, really.
3:3 Separating facts from rumors is always [5] (1. hard work 2. hard-line 3. hard luck), especially for a busy parent.
3:4 And the white noise generated by the experts―to say nothing of the pressure exerted by fellow parents is―so [6] (1. overwhelmed 2. overwhelming 3. being overwhelmed) that they can barely think for themselves.
3:5 The facts they do manage to glean have usually been varnished or exaggerated or otherwise taken [7] (1. into consideration 2. out of context 3. by surprise) to serve an agenda that isn’t their own.

[22] In the 3rd paragraph, the expression “white noise” is used as a metaphor for
1. a storm of severe criticism.
2. a cascade of diverse opinions.
3. a shower of little white lies.
4. a torrent of abusive commentary.

■ 第7段落
7:1 Sandman’s “control” [10] ( 1. predicament 2. contradiction 3. principle) might also explain why most people are more scared of flying in an airplane than driving a car.
7:2 Their thinking [11] ( 1. goes like 2. disagrees with 3. passes judgment on) this; since I control the car, I am the one keeping myself safe; since I have no control of the airplane, I am at the mercy of myriad [12] (1. external 2. internal 3. undisputed) factors.

■ 第1段落
1;1 Over the recent decades, a vast and diverse flock of parenting experts has arisen.
1:2 Anyone who tries even casually to follow their advice may be stymied, for the conventional wisdom on parenting seems to shift by the hour.
1:3 Sometimes it is a case of one expert differing from another.
1:4 At other times, the most vocal experts suddenly agree en masse that the old wisdom was wrong and that the new wisdom is, for a little while at least, irrefutably right.
1:5 The typical parenting expert, like experts in other fields, is [1] (1. prone 2. unlikely 3. afraid) to sound exceedingly sure of himself.

1:6 An expert doesn’t so much argue the various sides of an issue as plant his flag firmly on one side.
1:7 That’s because an expert whose argument reeks of restraint or nuance often doesn’t get much attention.
1:8 An expert must be bold if he hopes to alchemize his homespun theory into conventional wisdom.
1:9 His best chance of doing so is to [2] (1. dispute 2. ignore 3. engage) the publics emotions, for emotion is the enemy of rational argument.
1:10 And as emotions go, one of them―fear―is more potent than the rest.
1:11 Mad-cow disease, crib death, avian flu―how can we fail to heed the expert’s advice on these horrors when, like that mean uncle telling too-scary stories to too-young children, he has reduced us to quivers?

■ 第2段落
2:1 No one is more [3] (1. indifferent to 2. suspicious of 3. susceptible to) an expert’s fear- mongering than a parent.
2:2 Fear is, in fact, a major component of the act of parenting.
2:3 A parent, after all, is the [4] (1. beneficiary 2. steward 3. successor) of another creature’s life, a creature who in the beginning is more helpless than the newborn of nearly any other species.
2:4 This leads a lot of parents to spend a lot of their parenting energy simply being scared.

[25] Which of the following sets of adjectives best expresses the author’s attitude toward parenting experts?
1. Skeptical, doubtful, and dubious.
2. Sympathetic, friendly, and warm.
3. Respectful, admiring, and supporting.
4. Unbiased, objective, and fair.

[27] According to this article, which of the following statements about parenting is true?
1. Rumors are just as relevant as facts in evaluating risks.
2. Experts’ opinions are more valuable than parental instincts in making choices in child rearing.
3. Parents should be overprotective when it comes to the safety of their children.
4. Parents should weigh data on risks when considering how to keep their children safe.

■ 第11段落
11:1 If every parent followed these precautions, the lives of perhaps four hundred young children could be saved each year.
11:2 That would [19] ( 1. outnumber 2. succeed 3. proceed) the lives saved by two of the most widely promoted inventions in recent memory: safer cribs and child car seats.
11:3 The data show that car seats are, [20] ( 1. in the least 2. for the most . at best), nominally helpful.
11:4 It is certainly safer to keep a child in the rear seat than sitting on a lap in the front seat, where in the event of an accident he essentially becomes a projectile.
11:5 But the safety to be gained here is from preventing the kids from sitting in the front seat, not from strapping them into a 200 car seat.
11:5 Nevertheless, many parents so magnify the benefit of a car seat that they trek to the local police station or firehouse to have it installed just right.
11:6 Theirs is a gesture of love, surely, but also a gesture of what might be called obsessive parenting.

[29] What does the author mean by “a gesture of love” in the last paragraph?
1. A way of showing love.
2. A physical demonstration of love.
3. An attempt at obtaining love.
4. Pretense of love.

内容一致問題
■第2段落
2:1 One of the critical stages occurs at about the age of two years and can be very [31] (1. trying 2. satisfying 3. obliging) to a parent, tempting him to resolve the situation in a decisive manner which is not conducive to the growth of competence in the child.
2:2 Most children go through a stage of experimentation and exploration of feeding, for example, in which the child [32] (1. frowns upon 2. insists upon 3. attempts to avoid) doing it himself and brooks no interference or suggestion from parents.
2:3 Often the child’s activity seems inefficient and time-consuming to the parent, who in exasperation finally intervenes or [33](1. takes over 2. holds in 3. gives out, wrests the spoon from the child and shovels the mashed and scattered food in his mouth.

2:4 Ideally, the parent would allow the child to gain coordination and competency through manipulating his utensils and feeding himself.
2:5 Similarly, the teacher may later discourage the autonomy strivings of the young child who is fumbling with words, trying to make a circuit with the batteries upside down, or [34] (1. technically
2. also 3. otherwise) engaged in awkward or inefficient behavior, by taking over and doing for the youngster what he wishes and should be allowed to do for himself.

[52] What implication can be drawn from the 2paragraph of this article in order for the parent and teacher to encourage the child’s growth of competence?
1. The parent and teacher should be ready to offer aid when necessary.
2. The parent and teacher should test the child’s innate competence.
3. The parent and teacher should bear with the child’s effort.
4. The parent and teacher should be compassionate and cooperative.

■第3段落
3:1 The time of school entrance is another of the critical stages in the growth of competence.
3:2 Ideally, the home situation will have provided opportunities for the child to deal successfully with his environment.
3:3 Thus, the child comes to school expecting further opportunities for new explorations and learning experiences.
3:4 Erikson points out: “Many a child’s development is disrupted when family life may not have prepared him for school life, or when school life may fail to sustain the promises of earlier.”
3:5 It is at this stage of school entrance that the child experiences, often for the first time, the full weight of the world outside his family.
3:6 The ideal situation will provide an initial confrontation that allows the child opportunities to succeed, thereby strengthening his skills and confirming his status in his own eyes as a worthy and competent individual.
3:7 The [35] (1. implication 2. danger 3. conflict), as Erikson warns, lies in a sense of inadequacy and inferiority which the child may gain if his initial efforts in school result in consistent failure.

3:8 It does not take long for the child who is not learning to read to recognize his failure and to develop feelings of inadequacy about his ability, feelings which often [36](1. come from 2. are caused by 3. result in) a failure syndrome. Failure becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.

3:9 The child fails, [37](1. leads 2. to lead 3. leading) him to expect failure which, in turn, produces further failure.
3:10 Thus, early School experiences are crucial in the determination of competence or incompetence, and the teacher is a prime determinant of the child’s sense of accomplishment or defeat.
[53] What does the expression “the promises of earlier” in the 3rd paragraph probably refer to?
1. The child’s potential for success as expected at School entrance.
2. The child’s successful performance during the early stages of Schooling.
3. The teacher’s periodic estimation of the child’s ability.
4. The school’s manifesto given at the beginning of the school year.
[54] According to this article, if a child experienced consistent failure in the early stages of school life, he would
1. overcome a challenging situation by strengthening his coping skills.
2. develop a sense of inadequacy, which hinders the growth of competence. 3. regard failure as an opportunity to become a worthy and competent individual.
4. experience the full weight of the harsh world through a series of confrontations.

[55] The expression “a self fulfilling prophecy” in the 3rd paragraph is used in order to illustrate that
1. one has a hidden ability to make a prophecy which will eventually lead to self actualization.
2. one makes a plausible prophecy about a future event in order to avoid unnecessary confrontation.
3. One can obtain the power of making a valid prediction about the future through a series of failures.
4. ones assessment of a situation can change ones behavior and eventually make the reality match that assessment.

■第4段落
4:1 In the ideal development of competence, the child tests his abilities in a range of areas and, by observing the results of his efforts, acquires an accurate [38] (1. figure 2. estimate. function) of his capabilities.
4:2 However, it is often the case that the misguided efforts of adults seriously interfere with growth in competence and cause lasting damage.
4:3 Adults often create competitive situations for children on the assumption that competition will act as a stimulus or perhaps [39](1. a goad 2. a wheel 3. a mirror) spurring the child on to greater efforts.
4:4 Competition, if channeled and controlled, may result in behavior which contributes to gaining mastery by inspiring the individual to exert that little extra something that makes a [40](1. usual 2. superior 3. competitive) performance possible.

4:5 However, competitive situations also can result in the child’s acquiring a crippling feeling of inadequacy and despair if he continually loses, especially to his peers.
4:6 The competition may in reality be unfair;
4:7 that is, the child may be [41](1. pitted against 2. counted as 3. cooperative with) a larger, more mature, more popular, or more intelligent peer so that his defeat is almost assured from the beginning.
4:8 Usually the child will not perceive the competition as unequal or realize that he may have made a good showing, all things considered.
4:9 He may mutter that it isn’t fair,” but the anger, hurt, and discouragement [42](1. on 2. against 3. at) being a constant loser, always being chosen last, or being in the slow reading group may create attitudes and patterns of behavior that tend to enhance continued failure.
4:10 Failure in competition thus may discourage a child from additional attempts at mastering the environment.
4:11 Persistent failure may lead to anxiety and failure avoidance patterns of effort in which the child simply refuses to try or else selects a task so difficult that no one will expect him to succeed and hence will not condemn him for failing.
[56] According to this article, what is the main reason that competition can be unfair if practiced in school?
1. Some children are well motivated by competition, but others are not.
2. Some children are placed in a disadvantaged position from the beginning.
3. Some children reinforce a sense of despair by constantly choosing impossible challenges.
4. Some introverted children find it threatening to compete against their peers.

[57] Which of the following statements seems to best capture the nature of the self concept developed by a constant loser?
1. “I’m OK and you’re OK.”
2. “I’m not wrong.”
3. “I’m not good enough.”
4. “I am what I am.”

■第5段落
5:1 A teacher who sets a common standard of performance for the whole class will inevitably contribute to the failure of some children to develop competence.
5:2 One fact of life that faces the teacher is that children enter school with varying degrees of competencies and proceed to develop at uneven rates, with the result that divergence increases with each [43](1. preceding 2. passing 3. follow-up) year.
5:3 A teacher who grades the class on a sliding scale with A’s going to the children who complete the most problems correctly or write the most imaginative or sophisticated papers and B’s, C’s, and D’s awarded to the other children [44] (1. in 2. for 3. as) their work compares to that of the A children, is setting up a competitive situation that will defeat some children all of the time.
5:4 A child whose mind is not as agile as that of the best student, or whose personality or approach is different from that which the teacher favors or ranks as most desirable, is doomed to spend six hours a day, week after week, in a failure situation.

5:5 Interestingly, some of the children who appear as mediocre or even as slow in one setting may show too much greater advantage when placed in a different class or school.
5:6 Thus, a child who is rated as a C student in an elite private school whose entrance exams have eliminated [45](1. all but 2. some of 3. none of) the brightest children may be rated as a B child or even as an A child in a school with a more normal distribution.
5:7 A child who does not excel in this group might have been one of the pacesetters of the class [46](1. had 2. only if 3. unless) he just come along one year sooner or later and had lesser or different competition.
5:8 The child does not change;
5:9 only the context in which he appears determines whether he is to be an A, B, or C child.
5:10 Yet this child placed in a context where he is rated as C will think of himself as mediocre, and his further performances will probably reflect his attitude and his [47](1.degraded 2.heightend 3.defended) self-concept.
[58] What is one problem with a common standard of performance if used for the whole class?
1. The standard can ignore tremendous individual variations in developing competence.
2. The standard has a coarse scale, which is not fine enough to assess the advanced learner’s ability.
3. The standard is an unfair device, with the teacher grading his “favorite” children highly.
4. The standard appears objective, but in fact, is highly subjective as a scale of assessment.

■第6段落
6:1 What of the child who is in fact a slow or below average learner?
6:2 This child faces the continual discouragement of always finding himself at the bottom of the academic heap.
6:3 The child is not developing competency according to the teachers judgment as [48] (1. opposed to 2. reflected in 3. compared with) his grades and feelings about his ability and his motivation to stand on his own feet.
6:4 The first grade teacher, in an attempt to save some degree of self-respect for the low ability child, may have appointed him chief chalkboard eraser clapper, but such a distinction hardly balances the realization of academic no achievement and recognition of intellectual incompetency that the child sees in his marks.
6:5 For this child, school is probably a maintenance situation at best and perhaps [49] (1. more of 2. less than 3. nothing against) a treadmill on which his in competencies and the resultant feelings of defeat increase as he marks time and stays in place.

[59] What does the expression “school is probably a maintenance situation” in the paragraph mean?
1. In school, any child somehow finds a place for himself
2. School makes it possible for a child to keep his academic and intellectual level high.
3. School provides a situation in which any child can save some degree of self respect.
4. A slow child will remain a slow one as long as he stays in school.

■第7段落
7:1 The process of competence training and growth is delicate and complex.
7:2 The task of setting adequate performance levels and healthy expectations for individual children is very difficult, and to do so the teacher must come to know each child well enough to encourage him and demand that he do [50](1. more than 2. as well as 3. rather than) he can, without imposing unrealistic expectations.
7:3 The line between wasting a child’s potential through under expectancy and destroying self- confidence through over expectancy is a fine distinction indeed, one which can be drawn only by a teacher highly sensitive to the performance and confidence levels of the children in his classroom.

7:4 Paradoxically, the criterion of ultimate success for the teacher is a child who is competent to direct his own learning with minimal guidance and help from the teacher.
[60] What would be the implication the author is trying to suggest in the last paragraph?
1. Often the quality of success is more important than the quantity of success.
2. Overexpectancy is generally better than underexpectancy.
3. A good teacher is a facilitator who helps children become independent learners.
4. Some children need support from the teacher, and others do not.

■第1段落
1:1 The twin towers of democracy – individual political liberty and self-interested market economics took root in the 18th and 19th centuries.

1:2 The market democracies rise from the works authored by Thomas Jefferson and Adam Smith in 1776.
1:3 That year The Declaration of Independence and The Wealth of Nations launched humanity on a journey toward “I’s” and “we’s” who could fulfill the best in our natures.

■第2段落
2:1 That path is now gravely threatened.
2:2 An extreme individualism equating happiness [31] (1. for 2. with 3. as) “value” alone now trumps choices and policies made in markets of all kinds, political and otherwise.
2:3 “Value” and “I” can never migrate back into a sustainable blend with values” and “we must think differently about the real “we’s” of our lives – especially our organizations – and [32] (1. purposefully 2. accidentally 3. incidentally) blend “value” and “values” in those “we’s.”

[51] According to the author, which of the following is the most serious threat to democracy? 1 . The decline of communities and the world of places.
2. Pursuit of common goals with no regard to the individual’s rights
3. Extreme pursuit of self interest and the separation of “I’s” from “we’s.”
4. Friction between various types of “values” in such areas as ecology, religion and race.
[52] Which of the following is most probably the authors view about market economics ?
1. Equal distribution of wealth is more important than economic growth.
2. Market economics is important for democracy.
3. The intrusion of market economics into politics is a natural evolution of democracy.
4. In a democratic society, government and organizations should control market economics in order to protect values.

■第3段落
3:1 It is to be noted here that people use the words “value” and “values” in different ways.

3:2 On the one hand, the singular “value” arises in conversations about economics, finance, business, and markets.
3:3 Value connotes a pointed [33] (1. estimation 2. escalation 3. investment) of current or anticipated worth not distant from monetary equivalence.
3:4 On the other hand, the plural term ”values” crops up when people talk about beliefs and behaviors regarding how human beings do or do not get along with one another and with gods, spirits, and nature.

3:5 Values” is a noun, but a noun concerned with attitude and action.
3:6 Values are sorted into several categories: social values, political values, family and religious values, and environmental values.
3:7 Unlike value, talk of values [34] (1.increases 2. incorporates 3. ignores) money.
3:8 There is a deep, backward and forward-looking quality to values.
3:9 If value makes us wealthy, values make us human.
[53] What makes “values” different from “value”?
1. “Values” is actually the same as “value” at the end of one’s life.
2. “Values” means our attitude toward non economic aspects of life, while “value” basically means money.
3. “Values”means a lot of donations that solve various Social issues. 4. “Values” means a dream or aspiration, while “value” means its achievement.

[54] Which of the following cases exemplifies “values” overriding “value”?
1. This shop provides the best value in the neighborhood.
2. In the tourism industry, a good smile is as important as a good price.
3. The railway labor union decided to stop a strike on Mondays so that patients could go to the hospital.
4. To recruit managers, interviewing is more reliable than paper based examination.

■第5段落
5:1 In our placeless world, our dominant shared role in relation to government is consumer, not citizen.
5:2 Citizenship becomes [37] (1. no less than 2. no more than 3. as little as) a nostalgically shared idea.
5:3 We experience the self-governance historically linked to the role of citizen in organizations, not places.
5:4 If we find the meaning of community, we do so in organizations and among friends, not places.

5:5 We can vote.
5:6 But voting is a single thread of democracy.
5:7 In the [38] (1. event 2. absence 3. institution) of accompanying political and social values, voting is a specialized currency for consumption in political markets.

■第6段落
6:1 In worlds where people share ideas, roles, resources, purposes, and fates because of places, shared paths weave into the larger was” of town and neighborhood, city, and state.
6:2 Place blends religious, ethnic, national, political, and other values to [39] (1. forbid 2. forsake 3.forge) “thick we’s.”
6:3 In a world of purposes, the inescapable shared fates necessary to “thick we’s” occur among friends and families, and in organizations.
6:4 Our cares and animosities arise in them.
6:5 We know that Germany and France were mortal enemies many times in the olden days.

6:6 But we do not [40] (1. allow 2. expect 3. implore) them to go to war ever again.
6:7 In a world of purposes, we do not hate people in the “thick we’s” of other organizations.
[55] Which of the following opinions will most probably be supported by the author?
1. Organizations are more important than friends or families to keep democracy vital.
2. Communism is one effective method to maintain “thick we’s”.
3. Individual voting through the Internet on policy and budget is a solution for revitalizing democracy.
4. Organizations are incubators for creating values and “thick we’s” in our society.

[56] Which of the following would most likely be used by the author as an example to emphasize his main point?
1. The UN is a good case of an organization which has realized values across national boundaries.
2. Finding a solution for class conflict is a key for todays democracy in developing countries.
3. Conflict among regional organizations will be dangerous because it destroys democratic society.
4. Each country needs to be independent and autonomous to solve global issues.

内容一致問題

■第1段落
1:1 The twin towers of democracy – individual political liberty and self-interested market economics took root in the 18th and 19th centuries.
1:2 The market democracies rise from the works authored by Thomas Jefferson and Adam Smith in 1776.
1:3 That year The Declaration of Independence and The Wealth of Nations launched humanity on a journey toward “I’s” and “we’s” who could fulfill the best in our natures.

■第2段落
2:1 That path is now gravely threatened.
2:2 An extreme individualism equating happiness [31] (1. for 2. with 3. as) “value” alone now trumps choices and policies made in markets of all kinds, political and otherwise.
2:3 “Value” and “I” can never migrate back into a sustainable blend with values” and “we must think differently about the real “we’s” of our lives – especially our organizations – and [32] (1. purposefully 2. accidentally 3. incidentally) blend “value” and “values” in those “we’s.”

[51] According to the author, which of the following is the most serious threat to democracy? 1 . The decline of communities and the world of places.
2. Pursuit of common goals with no regard to the individual’s rights
3. Extreme pursuit of self interest and the separation of “I’s” from “we’s.”
4. Friction between various types of “values” in such areas as ecology, religion and race.
[52] Which of the following is most probably the authors view about market economics ?
1. Equal distribution of wealth is more important than economic growth.
2. Market economics is important for democracy.
3. The intrusion of market economics into politics is a natural evolution of democracy.
4. In a democratic society, government and organizations should control market economics in order to protect values.

■第3段落
3:1 It is to be noted here that people use the words “value” and “values” in different ways.

3:2 On the one hand, the singular “value” arises in conversations about economics, finance, business, and markets.
3:3 Value connotes a pointed [33] (1. estimation 2. escalation 3. investment) of current or anticipated worth not distant from monetary equivalence.
3:4 On the other hand, the plural term ”values” crops up when people talk about beliefs and behaviors regarding how human beings do or do not get along with one another and with gods, spirits, and nature.

3:5 Values” is a noun, but a noun concerned with attitude and action.
3:6 Values are sorted into several categories: social values, political values, family and religious values, and environmental values.
3:7 Unlike value, talk of values [34] (1.increases 2. incorporates 3. ignores) money.
3:8 There is a deep, backward and forward-looking quality to values.
3:9 If value makes us wealthy, values make us human.
[53] What makes “values” different from “value”?
1. “Values” is actually the same as “value” at the end of one’s life.
2. “Values” means our attitude toward non economic aspects of life, while “value” basically means money.
3. “Values”means a lot of donations that solve various Social issues.
4. “Values” means a dream or aspiration, while “value” means its achievement.
[54] Which of the following cases exemplifies “values” overriding “value”?
1. This shop provides the best value in the neighborhood.
2. In the tourism industry, a good smile is as important as a good price.
3. The railway labor union decided to stop a strike on Mondays so that patients could go to the hospital.
4. To recruit managers, interviewing is more reliable than paper based examination.

■第5段落
5:1 In our placeless world, our dominant shared role in relation to government is consumer, not citizen.
5:2 Citizenship becomes [37] (1. no less than 2. no more than 3. as little as) a nostalgically shared idea.
5:3 We experience the self-governance historically linked to the role of citizen in organizations, not places.
5:4 If we find the meaning of community, we do so in organizations and among friends, not places.

5:5 We can vote.
5:6 But voting is a single thread of democracy.
5:7 In the [38] (1. event 2. absence 3. institution) of accompanying political and social values, voting is a specialized currency for consumption in political markets.

■第6段落
6:1 In worlds where people share ideas, roles, resources, purposes, and fates because of places, shared paths weave into the larger was” of town and neighborhood, city, and state.
6:2 Place blends religious, ethnic, national, political, and other values to [39] (1. forbid 2. forsake 3.forge) “thick we’s.”
6:3 In a world of purposes, the inescapable shared fates necessary to “thick we’s” occur among friends and families, and in organizations.

6:4 Our cares and animosities arise in them.
6:5 We know that Germany and France were mortal enemies many times in the olden days.

6:6 But we do not [40] (1. allow 2. expect 3. implore) them to go to war ever again.
6:7 In a world of purposes, we do not hate people in the “thick we’s” of other organizations.
[55] Which of the following opinions will most probably be supported by the author?
1. Organizations are more important than friends or families to keep democracy vital.
2. Communism is one effective method to maintain “thick we’s”.
3. Individual voting through the Internet on policy and budget is a solution for revitalizing democracy.
4. Organizations are incubators for creating values and “thick we’s” in our society.

[56] Which of the following would most likely be used by the author as an example to emphasize his main point?
1. The UN is a good case of an organization which has realized values across national boundaries.
2. Finding a solution for class conflict is a key for todays democracy in developing countries.
3. Conflict among regional organizations will be dangerous because it destroys democratic society.
4. Each country needs to be independent and autonomous to solve global issues.

■第6段落
6:1 The picture looks bleak, but experts point out that Bangladesh is, in some ways, a victim of its own success.
6:2 Given the hydrological hand they were dealt, the inhabitants of the Bengal Delta traditionally grew low-yielding but flood tolerant rice, and fished wetlands and pools that were recharged by annual floods.
6:3 This could support a modest population at [8](1. Flat 2. Similar 3. Subsistence) levels, but no more.
6:4 Since the late 1950s, however, aid donor-backed irrigation schemes, later incorporating groundwater pumping, have opened up vast areas of fertile delta soil to the plough.
6:4 Now almost all of the land in Bangladesh that is suitable for agriculture is in use.
6:5 High-yielding rice varieties have boosted productivity hugely, while the development of coastal areas for shrimp farming has also provided further food and revenue.

■第9段落
9:1 If only things were that simple:
9:2 the tragedy that has subsequently unfolded reveals in stark terms how “solutions” to water resource problems can go astray if our knowledge of a region’s hydrology and geology is [14] (1. incomplete 2. sufficient 3. accumulated).
9:3 It was Dipankar Chakraborty, an epidemiologist, who first raised the alarm.

9:4 In 1988, on a visit to his Bengali parents’ rural village, Chakraborty noticed that many local people were suffering from skin lesions and cancers that seemed to be [15] (1. independent of 2. causing 3. consistent with) arsenic poisoning.
9:5 When he tested samples of well water in his laboratory at Jabalpur University in Calcutta, it became clear why:
9:6 the villagers’ water supply was massively tainted with the metal.
[25] According to this article, sinking tube wells into underground reservoirs
1. caused the sinking of the ground level.
2. decreased the amount of arable land.
3. increased the damage caused by the annual monsoons.
4. made the name Devils Water” unfortunately appropriate.

■第8段落
8:1 By the 1970s, it was clear that something had to be done, and aid agencies ― led by the World Bank and UNICEF ― [12] ( 1. caught up with 2. hit on 3. got away with) the idea of sinking tube wells into the underground water reservoirs that lie beneath the deltas surface.
8:2 Local people, [13](1. dependent on 2. fearful of 3. indifferent to) this subterranean source, initially called it the Devils water.”

8:3 But when rates of diarrheal disease halved, the programmer was deemed an unqualified success.
8:4 By the 1990s, as many as 10 million wells had been sunk, many of them by local companies.

[26] The statement “the programme was deemed an unqualified success” in the 8th paragraph means that
1. the programme was considered a complete success.
2. the programme was considered a partial success.
3. the programme was considered a conditional success.
4. the programme was considered an unjustifiable success.

■第12段落
12:1 But recent research from a team led by Shaniqua Islam, a Bangladeshi hydrologist, suggests that the pumping of groundwater for irrigation seems to be drawing arsenic into deeper wells.
12:2 The mechanism remains [18] (1. unclear 2. transparent 3. simple, but Islam suspects that deep groundwater is being replaced by surface water that is rich in organic material, which then mobilizes previously insoluble arsenic.
12:3 Chakraborty has also found that wells that his group tested and marked as safe had become dangerous when surveyed again a few years later.
[29] What is the implication of Chakraborti’s finding mentioned in the 12th paragraph?
1. It contradicts previous research findings.
2. It opens up a new interpretation of the behavior of arsenic.
3. It rejects Shafiqul Islams theory about arsenic.
4. It supports Shafiqul Islams theory about arsenic.

■第3段落
3:1 His greatest failure was his 1914-1916 Endurance expedition.
3:2 He lost his ship before even [5] (1. touching 2. abandoning 3. leaving) Antarctica.
3:3 But he reached a new pinnacle in leadership when he successfully led all the members of his crew to safety after an agonizing two-year fight for their lives.

[22] In the 3rd paragraph, the expression “he reached a new pinnacle in leadership” refers to the fact that
1. Shackleton crossed a high mountain range on South Georgia Island.
2. Shackleton can be seen as one of the best leaders in history.
3. Shackleton’s men admired him because of the success of his Endurance expedition.
4. Shackleton’s men felt high emotions toward him during their

■第5段落
5:1 Sir Ernest set out at age forty on an independent voyage to make what he considered the last great expedition [7] ( 1. accomplished 2. left 3. devoted) on earth: an eighteen-hundredmile crossing of Antarctica on foot.
5:2 The expedition ship, named the Endurance after the Shackleton family motto Fortitude Vicious, By Endurance We Conquer,” set sail in August 1914 at the dawn of World War I and [8] (1. made up with 2. made its way to 3. made off with) Buenos Aires, to South Georgia Island, and eventually to the Antarctic Circle, where it plowed through one thousand miles of ice-Encrusted waters.

5:3 Just one days sail [9] (1. from 2. beyond 3. near) its destination in Vassal Bay on the Antarctic coast, the ship got stuck like an almond in a chocolate bar” as it was later described, in the polar ice of the Weddell Sea.
[24] Which of the following is true with regard to the expression “By Endurance We Conquer” in the 5th paragraph?
1. It was made the Shackleton family motto after Sir Ernest’s return from the Endurance expedition.
2. It means that an army can be beaten by waiting for the opportunity to attack.
3. It was selected by Shackleton’s grandfather to be the family motto.
4. It proved to be an extremely apt description of the Endurance expedition.

[25] In the 5th paragraph, what does the expression “like an almond in a chocolate bar” mean?
1. The ice around the ship held it firmly in place.
2. The ship got stuck because it was carrying so much chocolate.
3. The ice was the color of chocolate.
4. The ice flowed and covered the ship entirely.

■第7段落
7:1 When the weather was its most brutal, the men endured temperatures that were so low they could hear the water freeze.
7:2 The bitter cold froze their garments [13] (1. sharp 2. fragile 3. solid) and burned their hands and feet.
7:3 They slept in tents so flimsy they could see the moon through them.
7:4 They spent nearly four months in the frigid darkness of the long polar night.
7:5 When the Antarctic summer finally brought warmer temperatures and the [14] (1.protection 2. promise 3. progress) of some relief, the men awoke every morning in cold puddles of water as their body heat melted the icy floor of their tents.
7:6 They subsisted on a [15] (1. diet 2. feast 3. recipe) of mostly penguin, seal, and sometimes dog.

■第10段落
10:1 According to Napoleon, a leader is a dealer in hope.”

10:2 Shackleton knew how to keep hope in plentiful supply – during the 1907–1909 Nimrod expedition to the Pole when death was nearer to the men than their waiting ship, and during the long hardship of the Endurance expedition.
10:3 When it was preposterous to think they could get out alive, he convinced his men that only a fool would say they wouldn’t.
10:4 “We were in a mess, and the Boss was the man who could get us out.
10:5 It is a measure of his leadership that this seemed almost axiomatic,” said Reginald W. James, physicist on the Endurance.
[27] Which of the following is closest to the meaning of the expression “a leader is a dealer in hope” in the 10th paragraph?
1. A good leader makes people happy behind the scenes.
2. A good leader inspires people to think positively about their destiny.
3. A good leader is good at solving conflicts among his men.
4. A good leader is an opportunist who takes advantage of people.
[28] In the 10th paragraph, what does the author mean when he states “It is a measure of his leadership that this seemed almost axiomatic”?
1. Shackleton’s leadership was so great that his men were certain that they would survive.
2. Shackleton’s leadership was too great to be appreciated by his men.
3. Shackleton’s leadership should be evaluated on the basis of his success as an explorer.
4. Shackleton’s leadership was so great that it didn’t require any proof.

内容一致問題
■第1段落
1:1 In 1996, the World Food Summit set a goal of halving the number of hungry people worldwide by 2015.
1:2 In 2000, the United Nations as a whole adopted a set of goals which included halving poverty and hunger by the year 2015.
1:3 The world came together in order to tackle the hunger problem.
1:4 And yet, conditions have [31] (1.deteriorated 2. rebounded 3. developed) in many places.
1:5 Indeed, according to The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2003, the annual hunger report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the number of people suffering from hunger worldwide has begun to rise once more.
[51] According to the article, world hunger has been on the increase despite
1. the United Nations having set out to cut it in half within the next several years.
2. the efforts of First-World countries to pour economic aid into the least-developed countries.
3. the remarkable improvements in agriculture and public health throughout developing countries.
4. the World Food Summit having provided relief assistance to famine plagued areas.

■第2段落
2:1 With a view to identifying the causes of this failure, the report begins with an analysis of countries that have, [32] (1. deceptively 2. naturally 3. on the contrary), been successful in dealing with hunger.

2:2 In Brazil and in China, rapid overall economic growth has led to significant growth of agriculture in particular.
2:3 Both countries have made an [33] (1. obligation 2. illustration 3. effort) to control population growth and develop human resources, and have relatively low rates of HIV infection.
[52] According to the article, those countries that have lowered their rate of hunger have
1. increased the supply of jobs, educational opportunities, and health facilities.
2. halved the number of people who are forced to live on less than $1 per day.
3. halved the number of people who must depend on external sources for food.
4. increased agricultural production and controlled the rate of HIV infection.

■第3段落
3:1 Nevertheless, the number of hungry people has grown in many other regions.
3:2 Drought, civil war and growing numbers of AIDS patients have led to stagnation in agricultural food production.
3:3 HIV/AIDS has [34] (1. robbed 2. attacked 3. downgraded) many developing countries of valuable labor, leading to poverty and hunger.
3:4 In some developing countries, on the other hand, agricultural production has been expanded to an [35] (1. unreasonable 2. appropriate 3.accumulated) level to support population growth, leading to environmental problems.
[53] According to the article, some causes of the growing rate of hunger in certain countries include
1. economic policies that control the prices of goods.
2. drought, civil war, and an increasing number of AIDS patients.
3. lack of anti poverty measures along with unfair trade balances.
4. interventions by governments to stop new initiatives to provide food.

■第4段落
4:1 Subsequently, in September of 2006, there was a meeting at the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome to identify ways to achieve the U. N. goal of halving hunger by 2015.

4:2 At the meeting, all of the participants were asked how the pace of reducing hunger could be accelerated, [36] (1. even though 2. Since 3. While) a 2005 review showed that progress was poor in most developing countries.
4:3 Almost all the participants felt that the greatest threats to food security in the future come, first, from climate change (potential adverse changes in temperature, rainfall, and sea level) l, and, second, from the loss of biodiversity.

4:4 There was a great deal of consensus on this issue among the diverse groups of representatives, including a farmer from Senegal, leaders of Oxfam and other non-governmental organizations, agricultural scientists, and food security specialists.
4:5 The suggested ways to go forward [37] (1. ranged 2. Sprang. Diverged) from faithful implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to acting on the provisions of biodiversity, climate, and the prevention of the spread of deserts.
[54] Which of the following were identified as the most dangerous threats to food security by those present at the 2006 meeting of the Food and Agriculture Organization?
1. Climate change and loss of biodiversity.
2. Continuing external and internal conflicts.
3. Lack of means to develop human resources.
4. The existence of barriers to free trade.

■第5段落
5:1 The growing awareness of the impact of climate change and biodiversity on food security and hunger has produced some interesting approaches to the issue.

5:2 M. S. Swami Nathan, the Chair for Eco technology in U.N.E.S.C.O., described what he considers to be a way to turn awareness into action.
5:3 Speaking on Agriculture on Our Spaceship Earth” in 1973, he proposed a strategy called do ecology” to deal with problems in developing countries.
5:4 The “do ecology” strategy revolves around activities which will 38] (1. generate 2. curtail 3. conceal) an awareness of the economic possibilities of conservation and will thus help to reduce poverty.
5:5 Two recent examples of “do ecology” below show its great potential.
[55] U.N.E.S.C.O. expert M.S. Swaminathan coined the term “Do ecology” to describe a set of activities that attempt to
1. improve productivity in the agricultural sector of developing countries.
2. improve our ability to predict and prevent natural disasters.
3. reconcile environmental conservation with practices that lead to economic advantage.
4. reduce unacceptable levels of emissions of pollutants and toxic wasters.

■第6段落
6:1 First, the tsunami of December 2004 resulted in a severe loss of life and property along coastal Tamil Nadu in southern India, which is where Mr. Swami Nathan lives.
6:2 For 15 years [39] (1. previously 2. Since then 3. Now, many residents of that district have been trying to persuade coastal communities not to destroy the mangrove forests along the coast.
6:3 But the coastal people’s preoccupations with their livelihood did not allow them to heed that request.
6:4 The tsunami miraculously changed their outlook.

6:5 Villages adjoining thick mangrove forests were saved from the fury of the tsunami because of the wave breaking [40] (1. impact 2. role 3. force) played by the mangroves.
6:6 But in nearby villages, where mangroves had been destroyed either for fuel wood or to create fishponds, several hundred fishermen died.
6:7 This area is near the temple town of Chidambaram, [41] (1which. 2. Where 3. When) centuries ago the temple builders had chosen a mangrove species as the temple tree.
6:8 Following the tsunami there was a sudden awareness of the reason for this choice, and local people now refer to mangrove trees as “life savers.”

6:9 What the residents could not achieve in 15 years by arguing that mangroves would serve as a natural, biological shield in the event of a flood was thus achieved in a day.
[56] According to Swaminathan, the main activities of “Don’t ecology” should be
1. reducing consumption and pollution by industrialized countries.
2. reducing the use of harmful agricultural pesticides and fertilizers.
3. increasing the use of natural products and ingredients in developing countries.
4. enhancing awareness of the benefits of natural, organic products in industrialized countries.
[57] Farmers in southern India who were impacted by the tsunami of 2004 realized that mangroves
1. would have disappeared entirely, had they not built a seawall to protect them.
2. could not survive unless humans used more environmentally sound techniques.
3. had been objects of religious veneration as well as sources of food for their ancestors.
4. had traditionally been appreciated for a very practical reason.

■第7段落
7:1 The same tsunami [42] (1. dictated to 2. concealed from 3. demonstrated to) farmers living near the shoreline the importance of conserving local varieties of rice.
7:2 Several thousand hectares of rice fields along the coast became flooded with sea water.
7:3 Most varieties of rice [43] (1. survived 2. perished 3. mutated), but a few salt resistant ones withstood the flood.
7:4 This disaster, however, greatly helped to promote the conservation of local biodiversity, and now every farmer wishes to maintain a “seed bank” for the preservation of seeds belonging to diverse varieties.
7:5 The disaster became an opportunity to prepare both fishing and farming communities to meet the [44] (1. challenges 2. demands 3. diseases) that are directly linked to a rise in sea level.
7:6 The biodiversity conservation movements in this area have now become community driven.
[58] As a result of the tsunami, many farmers in India now want to
1. conserve the remaining rice stocks to produce a surplus for the next disaster.
2. maintain a degree of diversity in their stocks of rice and rice seeds.
3. gradually expose the rice to seawater to increase its resistance to salt.
4. mix the old rice with new breeds that are brought in from outside.

■第10段落
10:1 Indeed, the practice of “do ecology” can be [47] (1. triggered 2. followed 3. symbolized) by an ecological disaster.
10:2 Preaching does not help.
10:3 We see this being demonstrated in areas of the Punjab too.
10:4 Thirty years ago, when it was pointed out to Punjab farmers that their livelihoods would be threatened by the [48] (1. modest 2. specified 3. excessive) use of chemical fertilizers and the overexploitation of ground water, they listened politely, but did not change course.
10:5 Now, in a despairing mood, they are ready to change.
10:6 The adverse economics of unsustainable farming has led to indebtedness and occasional suicides.
10:7 The timing has become [49] (1. inappropriate 2. tricky. opportune) for farmers to take to conservation farming.
[59] In the 10th paragraph, what is the example of the Punjab farmers mainly being used to illustrate ?
1. It is important to alert local people to the future consequences of their ecological choices.
2. Sometimes an ecological problem can motivate people to change their attitudes toward agricultural practices.
3. Chemical fertilizers and overexploitation of groundwater can lead to indebtedness.
4. Changing from unsustainable practices to conservation can take decades for some villages.
[60] Which of the following is closest to the idea of “adverse” economics mentioned in the article?
1. People will insist on their traditional ways of doing things even when those ways are unprofitable.
2. Misuse of the natural environment will eventually have negative consequences for the local economy.
3. Countries that do not safeguard their natural resources will be burdened with a “don’t ecology.”
4. Countries that do not have organic agriculture will not be able to participate in the green revolution.”

■第2段落
2:1 The volunteers’ sacrifices were symbolic of an underappreciated force in modern Asia:
2:2 that of groups formed to address social and economic issues.
2:3 Time and again, the region’s youth are portrayed as money grubbing “me-firsters”― that is, the 21st century’s version of Americas post World War II “baby boomers.”
2:4 In Japan, leaders criticize “parasite singles,” people over age 25 who live at home with their parents in [32] (1. suspended 2. accelerated 3. hostile) adolescence;

2:5 in Singapore, they fret about the younger generation’s tendency to avoid the costs and cares of childrearing.
2:6 Everywhere the premise that an Asian “me generation” has [33] (1. succeeded 2. receded 3. emerged) is seldom if ever challenged.
2:7 After all, study after study has plotted the rise of millions of new consumers across the region, noting that global economic growth is increasingly driven by the buying power of [34](1. afflicted 2. affiliated 3. affluent) households in places like Shanghai, Jakarta and Mumbai.
2:8 One would think that all they want to do – and all the world wants them to do – is spend, spend, spend.
[52] The “me-first” image of globalized youth in modern Asia is
1. fitting.
2. lacking depth or scope.
3. false.
4. often challenged.

■第3段落
3:1 Such observations aren’t so much wrong as one dimensional.
3:2 History shows that industrializing societies evolve – often radically – with each successive generation.
3:3 So in light of Asia’s [35](1. breakneck 2. uncharted 3. sluggish) modernization, it is little wonder that values are changing fast.
3:4 But alongside the spread of capitalism and conspicuous consumption, the region is also experiencing a profusion of new nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), a religious resurgence and rising nationalism.
3:5 There are an estimated 2 million NGOs in India, and China now has 2,000 [36](1. unwelcome
2. banned 3. registered) “green” groups – up from zero in the early 1990s.
3:6 In Indonesia, students from the top three universities in the country were surveyed on their career plans in 2004.
3:7 An astonishing 73 percent said they would prefer to work for an NGO rather than for the government, and about the same number said civic organizations could do more than the government to improve the country.
3:8 In these Asian countries and others, the operative pronoun is “we” – the power of groups to enhance the [37] (1. common 2. political 3. commercial) good.
[53] According to the article, the proliferation of NGOs in Asia is associated with
1. a resurgence of socialism.
2. capitalism and conspicuous consumption.
3. a spirit of altruism.
4. egocentric behavior.

■第11段落
11:1 But at least the passion shows that Asians have more on their minds than just making money.

11:2 Take the Muslim Student Association at the University of the Philippines in Manila, an elite training ground for future business and political leaders.
11:3 Its members, many of them from impoverished Mindanao province, are [49](1. promoted 2. 2verse 3. eager) to serve their home communities.
11:4 Association President Abdel Jamal Disangcopan, 22, is the son of two doctors.
11:5 He attends law school but doesn’t dream of becoming a highly paid corporate lawyer.
11:6 “Money is just a plus. Fulfillment is first,” he says.
11:7 “I don’t want to be stuck in a life where… I’m not helping anybody.”
11:8 He aims to return to Mindanao and become a much needed public attorney for low-income residents.
11:9 Another student in the Muslim Student Association says she wants to return to Mindanao to practice medicine after she earns her degrees, and a third [50](1. plan 2. plans 3. planning) to return to become a teacher.
11:10 All are likely to make good on their pledges making small but invaluable contributions to the societies in which they live.
[59] Which of the following is closest in meaning to the passage beginning with “Money is just a plus” in the final paragraph?
1. There is nothing intrinsically wrong with making money.
2. Money alone cannot solve social and economic problems.
3. Earning a great deal of money is not the main goal of life.
4. Money does not have a negative image among the younger generation.

■第4段落
4:1 The use of the hypothesis in scientific investigation is similar to playing a game of chance.
4:2 The rules of the game are [8] ( 1. held forth 2.Set up 3. taken over, and bets are made, in advance.
4:3 One cannot change the rules after an outcome,[9] ( 1. seldom 2. Never 3. Nor) can one change ones bet after making it.
4:4 That would not be fair.
4:5 One cannot throw the dice first and then bet.
4:6 Similarly, if one gathers data first, then [10] (1. selects 2. throws 3. spares) only a few data and comes to a conclusion on the basis of those few data, one has violated the rules of the scientific game.
4:7 The game would not be fair because the investigator could easily [11] (1. capitalize on 2. take over 3. give in), say, two significant relations out of five tested.
4:8 What happens to the other three?
4:9 They might be forgotten.
4:10 But in a fair game every throw of the dice is counted, in the [12] (1. game 2. hypothesis 3. sense) that one either wins or does not win on the basis of the outcome of each throw.
4:11 The main point is that the purpose of hypotheses is to direct inquiry.
4:12 As Darwin pointed out long ago, all observations have to be for or against some view, if they are to be of any U1Se.

[21] In the article, the main point of comparing the use of a hypothesis to a game is to show that both of them
1. involve the risk of being wrong.
2. follow the rules of the game.
3. deal with random phenomena.
4. involve a zero sum game.

■第2段落
2:1 Secondly, the scientist systematically and empirically tests her hypotheses.
2:2 The man in the street certainly tests his “hypotheses,” too, but he tests them in what might be [4] (1. defined 2. assumed 3. called) a selective fashion.
2:3 He often “selects” evidence simply because it is consistent with his hypothesis.
2:4 Take the stereotype: Fast food is bad for you.
2:5 If some people believe this, they can easily “verify” their belief by noting that many kinds of fast food are unhealthy.
2:6 [5] (1. Exceptions 2. Rules 3. Objectives) to the stereotype, such as healthy or low-fat fast foods, are not taken into account.
2:7 The true social scientist, knowing this “selection tendency” to be a common psychological phenomenon, carefully guards her research against her own preconceptions and predilections, and avoids selecting only the kinds of data that support her hypotheses.
2:8 Most importantly, she is not content with an armchair exploration of a relation;
2:9 she feels it [6] ( 1. uncomfortable 2. obligatory 3. stressful) to test her hypothesis against empirical reality.
2:10 She thus emphasizes the importance of systematic, controlled, and empirical testing of her hypotheses.
[22] The “selection tendency” is mentioned in the 2nd paragraph to explain the fact that
1. Scientists select the data that support their hypothesis based on their predictions.
2. scientists select the best data because the data collected include a variety of uncontrolled factors.
3. people are affected by their pre existing knowledge when interpreting things around them.
4. lay persons as well as scientists intentionally select certain data because they fit their intuitions.

■第6段落
6:1 Hypotheses are important in scientific investigation in that they can be tested and shown to be probably true or probably false.
6:2 Isolated facts are not tested;
6:3 only relations are tested.
6:4 The fact that hypotheses are relational propositions is the main [17] (1. way 2. reason 3. argument) they are used in scientific inquiry.
6:5 They are, in essence, predictions of the form, “If A, then B” which we set up to test the relation between A and B.
6:6 We [18] (1. let 2. make 3. see) the facts have a chance to establish the probable truth or falsity of the hypothesis.
6:7 A hypothesis is a prediction.
6:8 It says that if x occurs, y will also occur.
6:9 That is, y is predicted from x.
6:10 If, then, x is made to occur, and it is observed that y also occurs, then the hypothesis is confirmed.
6:11 This is more powerful evidence than simply observing, [19] (1. with reservations 2. within the limit 3. without prediction), the covering of x and y.
6:12 The scientist makes a bet that x leads to y.
6:13 If, in an experiment, x does lead to y, then she wins the bet.
6:14 She cannot just enter the game at any point and pick a perhaps accidental common occurrence of x and y.
6:15 Games are not played this way.
6:16 She must play according to the rules, and the rules in science are made to minimize error.
[23] What is meant by the statement “The scientist makes a bet that x leads to y” in the 6th paragraph?
1. The scientist sometimes enjoys playing a game of chance.
2. The scientist cannot always determine which is the cause and which is the effect.
3. The scientist makes a prediction in the form of the hypothesis “if X, then y.”
4. The scientist makes a guess about the values of x and y.

■第3段落
3:1 There is little doubt that hypotheses are important and indispensable tools for scientific research.
3:2 Indeed you can call hypotheses the[7] ( 1. working 2. Newly-devised 3. Easy-to access) instruments of theory.
3:3 Hypotheses can be deduced from theory.

3:4 If, for instance, we are working on a theory of aggression, we are presumably looking for causes and effects of aggressive behavior.
3:5 We might have observed cases of aggressive behavior occurring after frustrating circumstances.
3:6 The theory, then, might include the following proposition: Frustration produces aggression.
3:7 From this proposition, we may deduce more specific hypotheses, such as the following:
3:8 Preventing children from reaching goals they find desirable (thus causing frustration) will result in their fighting with each other (i.e., aggression);

3:9 If children are deprived of parental love (causing frustration), they will react, in part, with aggressive behavior.
[25] In the 3rd paragraph, the relationship between frustration and aggression is used as an example to show that
1. a theory provides a framework for making hypotheses.
2. a hypothesis guides how a theory is constructed.
3. a proposition is different from a hypothesis.
4. a hypothesis is a statement about the results of a phenomenon.

■第5段落
5:1 Hypotheses are derived from theory.
5:2 A good theory produces good hypotheses.
5:3 And yet, it is also hypotheses that make theories better and sounder.
5:4 There are two aspects to handling hypotheses: hypothesis making and hypothesis testing.
5:5 [13] (1. Distinguishing 2. Discounting 3. Defending) these aspects are the key to seeing how hypotheses can contribute to theory.
5:6 For example, Freud had a theory of anxiety that included the concept of “repression.”
5:7 [14] (1. By 2. On 3. To) repression, Freud meant the forcing of unacceptable ideas into the unconscious.
5:8 Testing Freud’s theory is thus a difficult matter, because the concepts of “repression” and the “unconscious” need to be defined in a measurable, empirical way.
5:9 This is [15] (1. part 2. Soil. Most) of making a hypothesis and testing it empirically.
5:10 If the concepts used in a hypothesis are operationally defined, that is, empirically testable, then a scientist can test the theory itself, and the theory can be improved upon.
5:11 [16] (1. Relative to 2. Depending Oil 3. Owing to) the hypothesis-testing activity tests not only the hypothesis in question but also the validity of the theory under consideration.
[26] In the article, which of the following statements is true of the description of the Freudian theory of anxiety?
1. The concepts included in the theory are well-defined and interconnected.
2. Having a theory does not always result in well-defined concepts and testable hypotheses.
3. The concept of repression can be described independently of the notion of the unconscious.
4. The concept of anxiety has been made explicit with the use of the concept of repression.
[27] According to the 5th paragraph, hypothesis-making and hypothesis-testing are bridged by means of
1. the operational definition of concepts.
2. the refinement of theory.
3. the explanatory power of concepts.
4. the validity of the theory.

■第6段落
6:1 Hypotheses are important in scientific investigation in that they can be tested and shown to be probably true or probably false.
6:2 Isolated facts are not tested;
6:3 only relations are tested.
6:4 The fact that hypotheses are relational propositions is the main [17] (1. way 2. reason 3. argument) they are used in scientific inquiry.
6:5 They are, in essence, predictions of the form, “If A, then B” which we set up to test the relation between A and B.
6:6 We [18] (1. let 2. make 3. see) the facts have a chance to establish the probable truth or falsity of the hypothesis.
6:7 A hypothesis is a prediction.
6:8 It says that if x occurs, y will also occur.
6:9 That is, y is predicted from x.
6:10 If, then, x is made to occur, and it is observed that y also occurs, then the hypothesis is confirmed.
6:11 This is more powerful evidence than simply observing, [19] (1. with reservations 2. within the limit 3. without prediction), the covering of x and y.
6:12 The scientist makes a bet that x leads to y.
6:13 If, in an experiment, x does lead to y, then she wins the bet.
6:14 She cannot just enter the game at any point and pick a perhaps accidental common occurrence of x and y.
6:15 Games are not played this way.
6:16 She must play according to the rules, and the rules in science are made to minimize error.
[28] What is the most appropriate interpretation of “hypotheses are relational propositions” in the 6th paragraph?
1. Hypotheses are closely related to propositions.
2. Hypotheses are statements that contain the relations between x and y.
3. Hypotheses are propositions related to other propositions.
4. Hypotheses are statements about the relations between different propositions.

■第1段落
1:1 Some people think that science and common sense are alike because science is a systematic and controlled extension of common sense, which is, in turn, a series of concepts and conceptual schemes satisfactory for practical uses.
1:2 But science and common sense differ in two significant ways.
1:3 First, their uses of conceptual schemes and theoretical structures are strikingly different.
1:4 [1] (1. Since 2. While. Now that) the man in the street uses “theories” and concepts, he ordinarily does so in a loose fashion.
1:5 He often accepts fanciful explanations of natural and human phenomena.
1:6 An illness, for instance, may be thought to be a punishment for sin.
1:7 The scientist, on the other hand, systematically builds her theoretical structures, tests them for [2] (1. internal 2. external 3. social) consistency, and subjects aspects of them [3] (1. for 2. to 3. through) empirical testing.
1:8 Furthermore, she knows that the concepts she is using are manmade terms that may or may not exhibit a close relation to reality.
[29] The statement “An illness, for instance, may be thought to be a punishment for sin” in the 1st paragraph is intended to show that
1. scientists do not accept superstitions no matter how plausible they are.
2. Ordinary people tend to accept common views without question.
3. Scientists should test the relationship between illness and punishment.
4. there are many views that cannot be tested on empirical grounds.

■第3段落
3:1 The complex of buildings in West Orange was erected in the late 1880s, when the Second Industrial Revolution was just beginning.
3:2 As the greatest industrial research facility in the United States, the laboratory was the breeding ground for a new generation of technology and the starting point of some important new industries of the twentieth century.
3:3 Here Edison worked at spreading his electrical lighting systems throughout the industrialized West and [5] (1. estimating 2. lowering. dispersing) the price of electricity until it was available to everyone.
3:4 The motion picture camera was invented at the laboratory, along with a host of other important products, such as the Edison storage battery and the dictating machine.
3:5 Edison perfected the phonograph at this facility and manufactured thousands of them at his nearby factories.
3:6 Two of the twentieth century’s most influential media industries -motion pictures and musical entertainment – had their humble beginnings in this cluster of brick buildings.
[22] In the 3rd paragraph, the phrase “the breeding ground” refers to the birthplace of
1. new sciences.
2. a new breed of people.

  1. new industries and technologies.
    4. new start up companies.

■第7段落
7:1 In Edison’s view a patent was hardly worth the trouble of inventing something.
7:2 He knew from experience that selling patents to businessmen often left the inventor
shortchanged.
7:3 More often than not the returns from a new idea went to the financier or manufacturer, while the inventor struggled to protect his patent in the courts and [16] (1. lose 2. enlarge 3. obtain) his share of the profits.
7:4 A patent alone was not enough, nor was an invention.
7:5 The original idea had to be developed into something more tangible than a patent;
7:6 it had to be transformed, or “perfected,” into a working model or a prototype – something a businessman could see and touch rather than [17](1. imagine 2. create 3. materialize.
7:7 This was essential to obtaining financial support.
7:8 In Edison’s words, “the money people” had to see money in an invention before they would invest in it.
7:9 Perfecting an invention included finding and remedying the bugs – the defects and design problems – that inevitably [18](1. broke down 2. went through 3. cropped up) in the development of an idea into a working model or process.
7:10 This stage of innovation ended when the invention was translated into a factory ready prototype.
7:11 The idea was now embodied in a technology, an amalgamation of ideas, knowledge, and hardware all directed [19] (1. in 2. toward 3. under) a practical goal.
7:12 Its value was much greater than a patent.
7:13 The final step was “pioneering” a technology by putting it into production and proving its commercial feasibility.
7:14 This meant financing and administrating a manufacturing operation until it could be sold to entrepreneurs.
[26] According to the article, which of the following best represents Edison’s general attitude toward Science?
1. Science should not be evaluated on the basis of its commercial feasibility.
2. Scientific progress can lead to new commercial possibilities.
3. Scientific research should follow industrial revolutions.
4. Scientific findings should be accumulated for scholarly purposes.

[28] Edison regarded those he called “the money people” as
1. intrusive and demanding.
2. congenial and supportive.
3. irrelevant to his business.
4. potential partners and supporters.

■第6段落
6:1 Innovation is a term that Edison did not use.
6:2 He described himself as an inventor and the work he did in the laboratory as invention.
6:3 Yet to label Edison a mere inventor does not do justice to his genius, nor does it [13] (1. account for 2. turn out 3. lead to) the enormous impact he had.
6:4 Inventing was the idea stage, the first step in a long process.
6:5 Its formal ending came when a patent was filed.
6:6 Edison considered getting ideas for an invention the easy part;
6:7 the hard part was “the long laborious trouble of working them out and producing apparatus which is commercial.” 6:8 Innovation defines Edison’s work, [14] (1. leaving 2. keeping 3 taking) it from the laboratory into the commercial world.
6:9 Innovation covers the setting up of a commercial enterprise based on an idea.
6:10 Edison’s record number of U. patents [15] (1. might as well 2. should not 3. cannot but) obscure his even greater achievement of founding several industries.

■第8段落
8:1 Innovation covers what Edison called inventing, perfecting, and pioneering a new technology.
8:2 The business of innovation encompasses decision making, from establishing the technical goals of a research program to devising a marketing strategy for a new product.
8:3 It also covers the management of the research and development effort and the financing of the whole operation.

8:4 Inventors in the nineteenth century had often [20] (1. emphasized 2. imagined 3. ignored) the business of innovation, preferring to remain in the technical domain.
8:5 This was fine for the individual who did not mind a life of poverty and obscurity, but for the operator of an invention factory, the management of resources was of primary importance.
[29] Which of the following statements best summarizes the concept of innovation as used in the article?
1. The main point of innovation is to do new research.
2. The objective of innovation is to create new technologies.
3. The process of innovation involves trial and error.
4. The aim of innovation is to realize the commercial value of an invention.

■第1段落
1:1 The year 2005 will be remembered as a year of monumental generosity that donors demonstrated in the face of natural disasters.
1:2 It should also be remembered as the year when traditional philanthropy* displayed how
stagnant and ineffective it really is.

■第4段落
4:1 Approaching philanthropy as a form of investment is an important part of the solution to the problems of philanthropy.
4:2There is reason for [33] (1. optimism 2. pessimism 3. Nihilism):
4:3 Increasingly, donors are treating their giving like their investments.
4:4 Many philanthropists have begun to see philanthropy as a capital market.

4:5 They demand the same levels of transparency and accountability that they expect from stock markets.
4:6 Some have termed this “social investment” or “venture philanthropy.”
4:7 Geneva Global, and organization created by donors in search of real accountability, prefers the term “performance philanthropy.”
4:8 Performance philanthropy is a hopeful alternative to traditional approaches to giving, [34] (1. unless 2. because 3. although) it is working.

■第11段落
11:1 The [44] (1. marriage 2. failure 3. uniqueness) of measurable results and more committed donors is why performance philanthropy is so convincing as a strategy for reducing global poverty and its related consequences.
11:2 According to the World Bank, half the world’s 6 billion people live on less than $2 a day, and
1.3 billion people – more than 20 percent of the world’s population – live on less than $1 per day.
11:3 These poverty figures, [45] (1. due to 2. roughly 3. despite) hundreds of billions of dollars of traditional philanthropy, keep growing.
11:4 The number of people living on less than $2 a day grew by 300 million in the last 20 years.
[51] According to the article, “traditional philanthropy” is what we should
1. return to in order to mitigate global poverty.
2. reject because it worsens global poverty.
3. replace with performance philanthropy.
4. convert to a capital market.

■第6段落
6:1 But economists recognize that for many families, you must adjust these calculations using what they call “psychological variables.”
6:2 Some divide household [43](1. expenditures 2. management 3. activities) into two categories:

6:3“consumption,” which should be something you enjoy, and “production,” which is anything that feels like work.
6:4 If you love gardening, it is consumption, but if you hate gardening, it is production and you will be more [44](1. reluctant 2. inclined 3. able) to hire someone else to do it.
6:5 As one economist says, “it’s not just about the money.”
6:6 That was how Sarah Kallie [45] (1. justified 2. uncovered 3. undermined) her long battle with the telephone company.
6:7 It was worth it for the satisfaction, says Ms. Kalliney.

■第8段落
8:1 Many do-it-yourself veterans are grappling with these same issues.

8:2 We tried two tasks:

8:3 one, filling in our tax forms by ourselves versus hiring a tax accountant;

8:4 two, buying a jar of pre-chopped garlic versus buying a garlic press device and doing it ourselves.
8:5 The tax accountant finished his work only two minutes faster than we did ourselves when we used a software program, if we include the time it took to travel to his office.
8:6 However, employing him cost $100 more.
8:7 Buying the jar of garlic saved us 22 minutes of chopping and slicing by ourselves, making it worthwhile, but the garlic in the jar does not taste as good as fresh garlic.
8:7 We then hired a professional to organize our desk.

8:8 She did half of it, but [49](1. charged 2. paid 3. saved) nearly $100 per hour, during which we had to stay with her to help her understand the piles of papers, making it not worthwhile.
[52] According to the article, which of the following would result from miscalculating the value of our time ?
1. Assuming that having another person do certain tasks for us is cost-efficient.
2. Calculating the “psychological variables” of doing tasks we enjoy.
3. Spending too much time on leisure activities and not enough on work.
4. Not using our work time as productively as we could.

■第3段落
3:1 Some economics professors regard a household as a small company that employs labor, buys technology, and makes decisions about what services to outsource.
3:2 But the household is a “company” that nowadays needs [34] (1. welfare 2. management 3. tax) consultants.
3:3 People often make drastic miscalculations about the [35](1. value 2. pace 3. amount) of their time, and take a do-it-yourself approach to tasks that might be less costly in time and money if they were hired out.
3:4 A simple oil change for your car, for example, costs the equivalent of $25 at some gasoline
stations, [36] ( 1. or 2. if 3. while) buying the supplies to do it yourself costs at least 20, meaning it is cost-efficient to let the gasoline station do it for you.
3:5 Yet millions of people say that they change the oil in their cars themselves.

■第6段落
6:1 But economists recognize that for many families, you must adjust these calculations using what they call “psychological variables.”
6:2 Some divide household [43](1. expenditures 2. management 3. activities) into two categories:
6:3“consumption,” which should be something you enjoy, and “production,” which is anything that feels like work.
6:4 If you love gardening, it is consumption, but if you hate gardening, it is production and you will be more [44](1. reluctant 2. inclined 3. able) to hire someone else to do it.
6:5 As one economist says, “it’s not just about the money.”
6:6 That was how Sarah Kallie [45] (1. justified 2. uncovered 3. undermined) her long battle with the telephone company.
6:7 It was worth it for the satisfaction, says Ms. Kalliney.

[56] Which of the following is closest to the meaning of “psychological variables” in the 6th paragraph?
1. The personal value of leisure time within the household.
2. The choice of emotional satisfaction or economic feasibility.
3. The choice between consumption and investment.
4. Ones like or dislike of a task in relation to the cost of outsourcing it.

[60] As a whole, this article stresses the importance of
1. calculating the real value of your time.
2. measuring the impact of psychological variables.
3. balancing consumption and production in the household.
4. Saving time and money by doing things yourself.

■第3段落
3:1 The other meaning of “theory” is the popular and not the scientific one.
3:2 It is referred to as a guess, a faith, or an idea.
3:3 It does not state L [4] (1. an adaptable 2. a testable. a usable) relationship between two or more things.
3:4 It is a belief that may be true, but its truth cannot be tested by scientific inquiry.
3:5 One such theory is that God exists and [5] (1.includes 2. infers 3. intervenes) in human life in ways that affect its outcome.
3:6 God may well exist, and He may well help people overcome problems or even (if we believe certain athletes) determine the outcome of a game.

3:7 But that theory cannot be verified.
3:8 There is no way anyone has found that we can prove empirically that God exists or that His action has affected some human life.
3:9 If such a test could be found, the scientist who performed it would overnight become a [6]( 1.
Genius 2. hero 3. Successor).
[23] Which of the following is consistent with the meaning of “theory” as explained in the 3rd paragraph?
1. It is based on empirical investigation.
2. It does not affect any human action.
3. It cannot be tested by scientific inquiry.
4. It is mainly concerned with the relationships among various things.

■第7段落
7:1 There is another theory called “intelligent design.”
7:2 Its [11] (1. Consumers 2. Critics 3. Proponents) argue that there are some things in the natural world that are so complex that they could not have been created by accident.
7:3 They often use the mousetrap as a metaphor.
7:4 We can have all of the parts of a trap – a board, a spring, a clamp – but it will not be a mousetrap unless someone assembles it.
7:5 The assembler is the “intelligent designer.”
[24] In the 7th paragraph, the example of a mousetrap is used by those who claim that
1. Darwin gave up any belief that God created animal species.
2. evolution is a product of accidents.
3. parts make a whole without a designer.

  1. the theory of evolution is questionable.

■第8段落
8:1 Mousetraps, however, are not created by nature but are manufactured by people.
8:2 Then, we must ask what part of natural life is so complex that it cannot be fully explained by Darwinian Theory.
8:3 Some have suggested that the human eye is one such example.
8:4 But the eye has been studied for decades with results that strongly [12] (1. deny 2. doubt 3. suggest) it has evolved.
8:5 At first there were light sensitive plates in prehistoric creatures that enabled them to move toward and away from illumination.
8:6 In a few animals, these light sensitive plates were more precise.
8:7 This was the result of genetic differences.
8:8 Just as only a few people today can see a baseball [13] (1. as long as 2. as poorly as 3. as well as) Ted Williams could, so then some creatures were able not only to detect light but to see shapes or colors in the light.
[25] In the 8th paragraph, the example of Ted Williams is meant to explain that
1. genetic differences can explain the patterns of evolution.
2. some creatures have sharper eyesight than humans because of evolution.
3. the great career of Ted Williams is inconsistent with the theory of evolution.
4. the theory of evolution has some limitations.

■第11段落
11:1 What schools should do is to teach evolution emphasizing both its successes and it’s still unexplained limitations.
11:2 Evolution, like almost every scientific theory, has some problems.
11:3 But they are not the kinds of problems that can be solved by assuming that an intelligent designer created life.
11:4 Not a single [17] (1. piece 2. proportion 3. property) of scientific evidence in support of this theory has been put forth since the critics of Darwin began writing in the 19th century.
[27] According to the article, intelligent design refers to
1. a theory that can be verified by factual observations.
2. a theory that is becoming more prevalent than the theory of evolution.
3. the idea that evolution occurs because of Gods handiwork.
4. the idea that some things in the natural world do not occur by accident.

■第12段落
12:1 Some people claim that if evolution is a useful (and, so far, correct) theory, we should still see it at work all around us in humans.
12:2 We do not.
12:3 But we can see it if we adopt a long enough time frame.
12:4 Mankind is believed to have been on this earth for about 100,000 years.

12:5 In that time there have been changes in people’s appearance, but those changes have occurred very slowly.
12:6 After all, 1,000 centuries is just a [18] (1. blank 2. blink 3. block) in geological time.
12:7 [19] (1. Besides 2.Therefore 3. However), the modern world has created an environment by means of public health measures, the reduction in crime rates, and improved levels of diet that have sharply reduced the environmental variation that is necessary to [20] (1. reconstruct 2. renew
3. reward) some genetic accidents and penalize others.
12:8 But 100,000 years from now, will the environment change so much that people who now have unusual characteristics will become the dominant group in society?
12:9 Maybe.
[28] According to the article, we are unable to see evolution at work in humans, because
1. the record of the human species does not include any reference to it.
2. it does not occur fast enough for us to observe.
3. it is slowing down in the modern era.
4. the environment has recently assumed unusual characteristics.

■第7段落
7:1 There is another theory called “intelligent design.”
7:2 Its [11] (1. Consumers 2. Critics 3. Proponents) argue that there are some things in the natural world that are so complex that they could not have been created by accident.
7:3 They often use the mousetrap as a metaphor.
7:4 We can have all of the parts of a trap – a board, a spring, a clamp – but it will not be a
mousetrap unless someone assembles it.
7:5 The assembler is the “intelligent designer.”
[29] Which of the following is mentioned in support of the theory of intelligent design?
1. Isaac Newton.
2. The mousetrap.
3. Ted Williams.
4. Prehistoric creatures.

■第2段落
2:1 During the 19th century, however, education by postal correspondence was established in some areas of England, Germany, the U.S., and Sweden.
2:2 In the 20th century, additional forms of distance education that made use of radio and television emerged.
2:3 Virtual schooling, another [1](1. ancestor of 2. type of 3. alternative to) distance learning that uses online computers to provide some or all of a student’s education, first appeared in the closing years of the 20century.

[21]The world’s first virtual schools
1. can be traced to Aristotle’s time.
2. taught by means of correspondence more than a century ago.
3. do not exist anymore.
4. came into existence just a few years ago.

[22]Which of the following best describes the authors feeling about the future of virtual schooling?
1 Optimistic.
2. Pessimistic.
3. Indifferent
4. Intolerant.

■第9段落
9:1 Another point in favor of virtual schooling can be seen in the positive effects of on demand discussions.
9:2 In most conventional school classes, discussions tend to be dominated by the few, most [14] (1. excluded 2. extroverted 3. indifferent) students.
9:3 Also, the number and variety of students in a given class are [15](1. limited 2. multiplied 3. unrestricted) by the size and location of the classroom in which they gather.
9:4 In the online classroom environment, spatial barriers are removed, and discussions enter a new dimension.
9:5 When a virtual school instructor posts a question on an online discussion board, students are given a certain number of days in which to respond.
9:6 For many introverted students, this type of discussion [16](1. rejects 2. revives 3. represents) a first opportunity to “speak up” in class.
9:7 Also, the fact that classmates cannot see each other promotes the participation of students who are socially marginalized for one reason or another.
9:8 Finally, because the discussions do not take place in [17](1. broadband 2.cyberspace 3. real time), non native speakers have the extra time they need to contemplate questions and contribute their points of view.
[24] According to the article, which of the following types of students can online discussions benefit the most?
1. Extroverted students.
2. Non native speakers.
3. Students with fast Internet access.
4. Students in the U.S. and Europe.

■第10段落
10:1 Supporters of virtual schooling also argue that, while virtual Schools may not be for everyone, they play an [18](1. questionable 2. trivial 3. vital) role as policy levers in contemporary educational politics.
10:2 Their very presence and proliferation continue to challenge the status quo on issues of instructional equality, the quality of teaching, and the way schools are organized to deliver services.

[26] In the 10th paragraph, “lever” is intended to mean
1. an instrument used to prevent change within a system.
2. a compromise offered in order to reach consensus.
3. a means of maintaining the status quo.
4. a means of promoting reform.

■第4段落
4:1 It is questionable whether these statistics themselves necessarily represent a problem.
4:2 It is true that the [36](1 . better 2. more . very) size of the cities and the high proportion of the world’s population living within them will inevitably intensify problems, which will include the intensive use of resources such as land, water and energy, the overstretching of infrastructure, poor sanitation and health, and social and economic inequalities.
4:3 The more serious problem, however, is concerned with [37](1. affluent 2. broad 3. simple) lifestyles and wasteful use of land, both in developed and developing countries, which result [38](1. as 2. in 3. to) a disproportionate use of resources and urban forms that are often unsustainable.
4:4 For example, commercial enterprises outside cities such as the ubiquitous shopping mall are likely to cause most waste, pollution and harmful emissions.
4:5 Also the lifestyles of those living in low-density suburban areas on the periphery will be responsible [39](1. by 2. for 3. to) the consumption of more resources than those with similar incomes living in cities.
[54] Which of the following statements is the main idea of the 4th paragraph?
1. The high proportion of the world’s population living within cities will inevitably intensify problems.
2. Commercial enterprises should not locate outside cities because they are the main causes of waste, pollution and harmful emissions.
3. The lifestyles of people living in low density suburban areas consume less resources.
4. Luxurious lifestyles and use of land and resources are not sustainable.
[55] In the 4th paragraph, the term “ubiquitous shopping mall’ refers to
1. the large department store with all sorts of goods in a city center.
2. the large shopping center with a vast parking space located in a suburban area.
3. the shopping district neighboring an urban residential area.
4. ecommerce using online shopping websites.

■第6段落
6:1 There is a strong [43](1. barrier 2. force 3. link) between urban form and sustainable development, but it is not simple and straightforward.
6:2 It has been suggested that a sustainable city must be of a form and scale appropriate to walking, cycling and efficient public transport, and with a compactness that encourages social interaction.
6:3 Some other proponents have suggested forms with large concentrated centers, those with decentralized but compact settlements linked by public transport systems, or those with a set of self-sufficient communities based on development strategies [44](1. for 2. On 3. To) dispersion.
[57] Which of the following forms of a city with a population of 1 million people matches the idea of “decentralized but compact settlements linked by public transport systems” in the 6th paragraph?
1. A city with one compact settlement, in which mass transit systems are well developed.
2. A city with two compact settlements with 500,000 people, which are connected by a highway for private automobiles.
3. A city with three compact settlements with about 330,000 people, which are connected by a highway network for private cars.
4. A city with four compact settlements with 250,000 people, which are connected by mass transit systems.

■第2段落
2:1 A new animal appeared on the planet, spreading slowly out from the African heartland.

2:2 It was still so rare that a hasty census might have overlooked it, among the teeming billions of creatures roving over land and sea.
2:3 There was no evidence, as yet, that it would prosper or even survive;
2:4 in this world where so many mightier beasts had passed [1](1. away 2. off 3. Out), its fate still wavered in the balance
[21] What is the meaning of the statement “its fate still wavered in the balance” in the 2nd paragraph?
1. It was uncertain whether the new animal would survive.
2. Two or three groups of animals might take over the earth.
3. The form of animal life was unpredictable.
4. Two different animal groups took turns as animal kings.

■第8段落
8:1 When the ice had passed, [11](1. now 2. SO 3. Then) had much of the planets early life including the manages.
8:2 But, unlike so many others, they had left descendants;
8:3 they had not merely become extinct they had been transformed.
8:4 The toolmakers had been remade by their own tools.

■第9段落
9:1 For in using clubs and flints, their hands had developed a [12](1. clumsiness 2. dexterity 3. sloppiness) found nowhere else in the animal kingdom, permitting them to make still better tools, which in turn had developed their limbs and brains yet further.
9:2 It was an accelerating, cumulative process; and [13] (1. at 2. in 3. of) its end was Man.

[23] Which of the following is the intended meaning of the statement “the toolmakers had been remade by their own tools” in the 8th paragraph?
1. People were classified by the tools they made.
2. Man-apes continued making new tools.
3. Man-apes evolved into humans.

  1. New tools were produced by old tools.

■第10段落
10:1 The first true humans had tools and weapons only a little better than those of their ancestor’s a million years earlier, but they could use them with far greater skill.
10:2 And somewhere in these shadowy centuries they invented the most essential tool [14](1. at 2. in 3. of) all, though it could be neither seen nor touched.
10:3 They learned to speak, and so won their first great victory over Time.

10:4 Now the knowledge of one generation could be handed on to the next, so that each age could [15](1.escape 2. profit 3. suffer) from those that had gone before.
10:5 Unlike the animals, who knew only the present, humans acquired a past;
10:6 and they were beginning to [16](1. come 2.grope 3. vanish) toward a future.
[24] What made it possible for humans to acquire a past?
1. Historical accidents.
2. Language.
3. Papyrus.
4. Time.

■第11段落
11:1 Humans were also learning to harness the forces of nature;

11:2 with the taming of fire, they laid the foundations of technology and left their animal origins far behind.
11:3 Stone gave [17](1. merit 2. birth 3. way) to bronze, and then to iron.
11:4 Hunting was succeeded by agriculture.
11:5 The tribe grew into the village, the village into the town.
11:6 Speech became eternal, [18] (1. more 2. relative 3. thanks) to certain marks on stone and clay and papyrus.
11:7 Presently they invented philosophy, and religion.
11:8 And they peopled the sky, not altogether inaccurately, with gods.
[25] What does the author mean by the statement “they peopled the sky … with gods” in the 11th paragraph?
1. Humans separated politics and religion.
2. Humans traced the figures of gods in the constellations.
3. Humans developed politics based on astrology.
4. Humans fostered a philosophy based on mythology.

■第13段落
13:1 Without these weapons, though they often used them against themselves, humans would never have conquered their world.
13:2 Into their weapons they put their heart and soul, and for ages the weapons served them well.
13:3 But now, as long as weapons existed, humans were living on borrowed time.
[28] What does the author mean by the statement “they often used them against themselves” in the 13th paragraph?
1. By misusing tools, humans destroyed them.
2. Humans were not able to maximize their power.
3. Humans were not able to conquer the forces of nature.
4. Humans fought each other.
[29] The statement “humans were living on borrowed time” in the 13th paragraph indicates that
1. humans were obliged to return time to the lender someday.
2. time could be reversed.
3. the human race might come to an end.
4. the human rule over time was simply accidental.

■第1段落
1:1 If we look at the languages spoken in the world today, we notice wide differences in the use to which they are put.
1:2 Most languages are the first language of some community and serve the everyday functions of that community perfectly well.
1:3 On the other hand, some languages have wider functions than that of everyday communication and are used as official languages in the administration of whole nations.
1:4 Yet other languages enjoy an international role. 1:4国際的な役割をもっている言語さえある。
1:5 English, for instance, is the language of international air traffic, business communication, and scientific publication, and is the lingua franca of tourism.
1:6 [1](1. Fortunately 2. Unfortunately 3. Hopefully), the differences in the roles that languages play frequently lead some people to believe that some languages which do not fulfill a wide range of functions are in fact incapable of doing so.
1:7 In the view of some people, some languages are just not good enough.
[21] The term ‘lingua franca’ as used in the 1st paragraph means
1. the language spoken by the descendants of European settlers in South America.
2. the language peculiar to an occupational group or a particular social class.
3. a simplified form of speech, usually a mixture of two or more languages.
4. a language used as a medium of communication between speakers of different languages.

■第2段落
2:1 This sort of opinion is often seen in societies where a minority language is spoken alongside a major language.
2:2 Consider the situation of Maori, the [2] (1. indigenous 2. Inevitable 3. Institutional) language of New Zealand.
2:3 Linguists estimate that English is the native language of some 95 percent of the New Zealand population and the only language of about 90 percent.
2:4 People who identify themselves as Maori [3] (1. come out 2. make up 3. sum up) about 12 percent of the New Zealand population of just over 3 million.
2:5 Although the Maori language is regarded as an important part of identity as a Maori, it is spoken fluently by only 30,000 people.
[22] The figures given in the 2paragraph of this article indicate that
1. less than 10 percent of the Maori population speaks the Maori language fluently.
2. about 20 percent the Maori population speaks the Maori language fluently.
3. about 12 percent of the Maori population has never learned to speak the Maori language.
4. just over 3 million people identify themselves as the speakers of the Maori language.

■第3段落
3:1 Over the last twenty years, there have been a number of initiatives in the areas of politics, education and broadcasting to try to use Maori and, [4] (1. by the way 2. in addition 3. as a result), it is now an official language of New Zealand.
3:2 As these initiatives have progressed, however, some people have begun to express the view that Maori is simply not capable of being used as an official language.
3:3 This kind of opinion, in fact, is not based on logic.
3:4 I recall a comment in a New Zealand newspaper, which tried to [5] (1. make 2. see 3. show) the point that Maori was no good as a language because it had to borrow words from English in order to express new ideas.

3:5 English, [6] (1. on the one hand 2. on the other hand 3. On top of that), was a very flexible and vital language because it had throughout its history been able to draw resources from many other languages to express new ideas.
[23] The author of this article refers to a comment in a New Zealand newspaper in order to show that
1. people should be allowed to express their opinions no matter how illogical they may be.
2. the comment is invalid because of the apparent contradictions involved.
3. Maori is superior to English in term of flexibility and vitality.
4. English is superior to Maori in terms of flexibility and vitality.

■第4段落

4:1 Now let’s look at the ways in which languages are supposed to be inadequate.
4:2 In some instances, it is features of the structure of a language which are picked on as the reason why another language is to be [7] (1. preferred 2. provoked 3. supported) for a particular function.
4:3 In Switzerland, some people speak Romansh, a language descended from Latin, although German has been making inroads for centuries.
4:4 [8] (1. As for 2. As with 3. As regards) Maori, there has been a [9] (1. play 2. push 3. pick) in recent decades to increase the areas of life and activity in which Romansh is used.
4:5 Now, German is a language which can very easily combine words into ‘compounds’.
4:6 Romansh is a language which cannot do this so readily and [10] (1. instead 2. furthermore. additionally) uses phrases as a way of combining ideas.
4:7 Some speakers of Romansh believe that Romansh is not good enough to be used in really technical areas of life because ‘German is able to construct clearly defined single words for technical ideas, Romansh is not’.
4:8 This notion ignores the fact that other languages such as French and Italian are in exactly the same boat as Romansh, yet obviously have no problem in being precise in technical areas.
[24] Which of the following best represents the authors view on Romansh? 1. More people should speak Romansh because it is a language descended from Latin.
2. Romansh is defective as a language in the sense that it lacks the expressive power that German has.
3. Romansh’s inability to form compounds has prevented it from becoming a major language such as German.
4. Romansh is potentially just as good as German in expressing technical ideas.

[25] In the 4th paragraph, the author states that “other languages such as French and Italian are in exactly the same boat as Romansh.” What does he mean by this?
1. The fate of Romansh is the same as that of French and Italian.
2. The Social and cultural conditions surrounding Romansh are the same as those of French and Italian.
3. French and Italian cannot readily combine words into compounds, just like Romansh.
4. French and Italian have a way to form compounds easily just like Romansh.

■第6段落
6:1 However, this view confuses a feature of languages which is due just to their history with an [13] (1. insistent 2. inherent 3. initial) property of languages.
6:2 That is, this opinion concludes that because there has been no occasion or need to discuss, for arguments sake, nuclear physics in Maori; it could never be done because of some inherent fault in Maori.
6:3 A little thought, however, will show that this argument cannot be maintained.
6:4 Computers were not discussed in Old English;
6:5 Modern English is the same language as Old English, only later;
6:6 it should follow that Modern English cannot be used to discuss computers.
6:7 This is clearly [14] (1. assertive 2. absurd 3.appropriate).
6:8 What of course has happened is that through time English has developed the resources necessary to the discussion of computers and very many other topics which were simply unknown in earlier times.
6:9 And ‘developed’ is the crucial word in this matter.

6:10 English expanded its vocabulary in a variety of ways so as to meet the new [15] (1.demands
2. supply 3. necessity) being made of it.
6:11 All languages are capable of the same types of expansion of vocabulary to deal with whatever new areas of life their speakers need to talk about.
[26] If a certain language lacks the vocabulary needed to discuss technical matters, the author would argue that
1. there are some essential factors which prevent the language from dealing with technical matters.
2. it just happened that there has been no need in history for the language to develop such vocabulary.
3. the speakers of the language have not reached a certain level of maturity which allows for intellectual discussion.
4. it is a historical fact that there is no way to compensate for the lack of vocabulary.

■第8段落
8:1 However, this is by [16] (1. all 2. some 3. no) means the only way in which a language can develop its vocabulary;
8:2 there are many cases where the vocabulary of a language is developed from within, that is, by using its own existing resources.
8:3 One of the reasons why a languages own resources may be used in the expansion of its vocabulary is that a writer wants his/her work to be readily understood by its intended audience, who might be [17](1. put on 2. put off 3. pulled off) by too much borrowing.
8:4 This is what Cicero* did.
8:5 In order to write in Latin about the ideas of Greek philosophy, he developed a Latin vocabulary which corresponded to the ideas he wanted to put [18(] 1. away 2. down 3. across).
8:6 An example of this was his use of the Latin word ratio to mean ‘reason’, a usage which has come down to us today in English.
8:7 He also invented new words made up of Latin elements:
8:8 for instance, the word qualitas, which became ‘quality’ in English, was [19] (1. coined 2.
depicted 3. designated) by Cicero to correspond to a Greek idea.
8:9 Thus, he composed his philosophical works in Latin partly to make Greek philosophy available to a Latin-speaking audience, but also partly to show that it could be done.
8:10 This was because some of his contemporaries were skeptical about the possibility of Latin being able to express the ideas of the Greeks!
[28] The attitude of Cicero’s contemporaries toward Latin would be considered absurd given the fact that
1. until recently Latin was restricted to certain uses within the Roman Catholic Church.
2. Latin was to become the language of scholarship, science, international diplomacy and literature for over a thousand years.
3. Latin is now used only by a few people to read the literature originally written in that language.
4. at the end of the Middle Ages, languages such as French, English, or Italian took over the functions that had previously been the domain of Latin.

■第1段落
1:1 When and where did our species arise?
1:2 Over the past two decades molecular evolutionists have pursued this question.
1:3 DNA evidence from the mitochondrion, an independent element inside every cell that acts as the “powerhouse” of the cell, has figured prominently in these studies, providing the raw data for producing evolutionary trees and molecular clocks to illustrate a theory of the development of diverse human populations.
1:4 The mitochondrial family tree of humans has suggested that our roots [1](1. started 2. lie 3.occurred) in Africa; but, so far, this theory have had only weak statistical support.
1:5 Another theory is that modern humans arose simultaneously in different regions of the world.
[21] Which of the following statements best summarizes the main point of the opening of this article?
1. The analysis of mtDNA has strongly suggested that the origin of modern human beings lies in Africa.
2. Before DNA research was introduced, researchers had shown that modern humans arose in Africa.
3. The family tree of humans was analyzed with statistical data from non human mitochondrial DNA.
4. The complete family tree is not clear due to the lack of statistical support from the raw data.

■第2段落
2:1 Recently, Dr. Gyllensten of the University of Uppsala in Sweden and his colleagues have conducted the most thorough analysis yet of diversity in human mitochondrial DNA*.
2:2 The results support the [2](1. view 2. process 3. nature) that modern humans originated in Africa.
2:3 The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has become an important tool in this debate on human evolution.

2:4 This is [3](1. due to 2. created by 3.made from) the fact that mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother and does not change as much as cellular DNA from generation to generation, and therefore can offer evidence of human mitochondrial lineages*.

■第9段落
9:1 Gyllensten and colleagues have used sequences from a large number of complete mitochondrial genomes to [18] (1. address 2. evaluate 3. estimate) these evolutionary questions, an approach that could be called population genomics.
9:2 Genes responsible for physical and behavioral traits will probably be found and their allelic histories provide [19](1.cloud 2. clear 3. additional) information.
9:3 Molecular evolutionary trees and time estimates will have greater precision, all of which will help to [20](1. cloud 2. conclude 3.clarify) our evolutionary history.
[29] The future research of human genomics will best be provided by
1. a more precise fossil record of global regions.
2. a deeper analysis of mtDNA for biological clocks.
3. more discoveries of various lineages in human evolution.
4. more analytical research into the genes responsible for physical and behavioral traits.

■第2段落
2:1 Recently, Dr. Gyllensten of the University of Uppsala in Sweden and his colleagues have conducted the most thorough analysis yet of diversity in human mitochondrial DNA*.
2:2 The results support the [2](1. view 2. process 3. nature) that modern humans originated in Africa.

2:3 The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has become an important tool in this debate on human evolution.
2:4 This is [3](1. due to 2. created by 3.made from) the fact that mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother and does not change as much as cellular DNA from generation to generation, and therefore can offer evidence of human mitochondrial lineages*.

■第5段落
5:1 How can social scientists measure something as hard to pin down as happiness?
5:2 Most researchers simply ask people to report their feelings of happiness or unhappiness and to [3](1. count 2. assess 3. realize) how satisfying their lives are.
5:3 Such self-reported well-being is moderately consistent over years of retesting.
5:4 Furthermore, those who say they are happy and satisfied seem happy to their close friends and family members and to a psychologist interviewer.
5:5 Their daily mood ratings reveal more positive emotions, and they smile more than those who call themselves unhappy.
5:6 Self-reported happiness also links to other [4](1. indicators 2. futures 3. formations) of well- being.
5:7 Compared with the depressed, happy people are less self-focused, less hostile and abusive and less susceptible to disease.

■第15段落
15:1 Whatever the reason, the close personal relationships that characterize happy lives are also correlated with health.
15:2 Compared with loners, those who can name several [15] (1.aged 2.intimate 3.social) friends are healthier and less likely to die prematurely.
15:3 For nine out of ten people, the most significant alternative to aloneness is marriage.
15:4 Although a broken marriage can cause much misery, a good marriage apparently is a strong source of support.
15:5 During the 1970s and 1980s, 39 percent of married adults told the National Opinion Research Center they were “very happy,” as compared with 24 percent of those who had never married.
15:5 In other surveys, only 12 percent of those who had divorced [16](1. perceived 2. correlated 3. persuaded) themselves to be “very happy.”

15:6 The happiness gap between the married and never married was similar for men and women.

■第16段落
16:1 Religiously active people also report greater happiness.
16:2 One survey found that highly religious people were twice as likely as those lowest in spiritual commitment to declare them very happy.
16:3 Other surveys, including a collaborative study of 166,000 people in 16 nations, have found that reported happiness and life satisfaction [17] (1. rise 2. relate 3.register) with the strength of religious affiliation and frequency of attendance at worship services.
16:4 Some researchers believe that religious affiliation [18] (1. equates 2. encourages 3. evolves) greater social support and hopefulness.
[27] According to the research mentioned in this article, one of the objectively demonstrated benefits associated with subjective well-being is
1. a happy marriage.
2. religious faith.
3. close friends.
4. better health.

■第17段落
17:1 Researchers on happiness are now beginning to examine happy people’s exercise routines, worldviews and goals.
17:2 It is possible that some of the [19](1. traditions 2. customs 3. patterns) discovered in the research may offer clues for transforming circumstances and behaviors that work against well- being into ones that promote it.
17:3 Ultimately, then, the scientific study of happiness could help us understand how to build a world that[20] (1. enhances 2. evaluates 3. examines) human well-being and to aid people in getting the most satisfaction from their circumstances.
[28] According to the conclusion of this article, the ultimate goal of the research into happiness is
1. to find concrete ways to help people gain satisfaction in their lives.
2. to promote greater frequency of attendance at worship . services.
3. to establish a connection between exercise and well-being.
4. to find clues to understand tl1e happiness gap.

■第13段落
13:1 In a large number of studies, four traits [12](1.diminish 2. evaluate 3.characterize) happy people.
13:2 First, especially in individualistic Western cultures, they like themselves.
12:3 They have high self-esteem and usually believe themselves to be more ethical, more intelligent, less prejudiced, better able to get along with others and healthier than the average person.
13:4 Second, happy people typically feel personal control.
13:5 Those with little or no control over their lives — such as prisoners, nursing home patients, severely impoverished groups or individuals, and citizens of totalitarian regimes — suffer lower morale* and worse [13](1. happiness 2. health 3. success).
13:6 Third, happy people are usually optimistic.
13:7 Fourth, most happy people are extroverted*.
13:8 Although one might expect that introverts* would live more happily in the calmness of their less stressed, contemplative lives, extroverts are happier — whether alone or with others.
[26] According to the various studies n1entioned in this article, which of the following is a key trait of happiness?
1. Wealth
2. Self-esteem
3. Self-actualization
4. Subjectivity

■第6段落
6:1 Researchers have found that the even distribution of happiness cuts across almost all demographic classifications of age, economic class, race and educational level.
6:2 In addition, almost all [5](1. research 2. study 3.real) strategies for assessing subjective well- being turn up similar findings.

■第7段落
7:1 Interviews with representative samples of people of all ages, for example, reveal that no time of life is especially happier or unhappier.
7:2 [6](1. Simultaneously 2. Similarly 3.Definitely), men and women are equally likely to declare themselves “very happy” and “satisfied” with life, according to a statistical digest of 146 studies compiled by researchers at Arizona State University.
7:3 Other researchers at the University of Northern British Columbia and the University of Michigan summarizing surveys of 18,000 university students in 39 countries and 170,000 adults in 16 countries have supported these findings.

■第8段落
8:1 Ethnicity also gives little clue to subjective well-being.
8:2 African-Americans are only slightly less likely to feel “very happy” when compared to European- Americans.

8:3 The National Institute of Mental Health found that the rates of depression and alcoholism among blacks and whites are roughly equal.
8:4 Social psychologists at the University of California have also found that people in [7](1. discovered 2. aristocrat 3.disadvantaged) groups maintain self-esteem by valuing things at which they excel, by making comparisons within their own groups and by blaming problems on external sources such as prejudice.

■第9段落
9:1 Wealth is also a poor [8](1. predictor 2. fortune-teller 3. future) of happiness.
9:2 People have not become happier over time as their cultures have increased in wealth.
9:3 Even though Americans earn twice as much in today’s dollars as they did in 1957, the proportion of those telling interviewers from the National Opinion Research Center that they are “very happy” has declined from 35 to 29 percent.

■第10段落
10:1 Even very rich people — those surveyed among Forbes magazine’s 100 wealthiest Americans — are only slightly happier than the average American.
10:2 Those whose income has increased over a ten-year period are not happier than those whose income is stagnant.
10:3 Indeed in most nations the [9](1. collaboration 2. equation 3. correlation) between income and happiness is negligible — only in the poorest countries, such as Bangladesh, is income a good measure of emotional well-being.
[25] The graphs above HAPPINESS APPEARS CONSISTENT seem to illustrate
1. that personal satisfaction rises in relation to personal success.
2. that personal satisfaction and happiness are statistically opposite.
3. that rates of happiness vary according to age, family and work.
4. that rates of happiness remain the same regardless of specific circumstances.

■第2段落
2:1 Recently, a number of researchers have begun a systematic study of happiness.
2:2 Dozens of investigators around the world have asked a cross-section of several hundred thousand people to reflect on their happiness and satisfaction with life — or what psychologists call “subjective well-being.”
2:3 In the U.S., the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago has surveyed a representative sample of roughly 1,500 people a year since 1957; the Institute of Social Research at the University of Michigan has carried out similar studies.
2:4 Government-funded efforts have also studied the moods of European citizens.
[21] The phrase “subjective well-being” in the second paragraph of the article refers to
1. the qualitatively established scale for measuring ht1ma11 happiness.
2. the scientifically evaluated chemical basis for happiness.
3. tl1e psychological theory of e111otional well-being.
4. the personal evaluation of one’s emotional well-being.

■第5段落
5:1 How can social scientists measure something as hard to pin down as happiness?
5:2 Most researchers simply ask people to report their feelings of happiness or unhappiness and to [3](1. count 2. assess 3. realize) how satisfying their lives are.
5:3 Such self-reported well-being is moderately consistent over years of retesting.
5:4 Furthermore, those who say they are happy and satisfied seem happy to their close friends and family members and to a psychologist interviewer.
5:5 Their daily mood ratings reveal more positive emotions, and they smile more than those who call themselves unhappy.
5:6 Self-reported happiness also links to other [4](1. indicators 2. futures 3. formations) of well- being.
5:7 Compared with the depressed, happy people are less self-focused, less hostile and abusive and less susceptible to disease.
[22] The question asked in the fifth paragraph of the article, “How can social scientists measure something as hard to pin down as happiness?” suggests that
1. scientists do not yet have the tools to analyze emotio11s.
2. scientists have developed a variety of objective surveys on happiness.
3. happiness is subjective, so science may have difficulty with a definition.
4. happiness is objective, and therefore science can offer an accurate picture.

■第6段落
6:1 Researchers have found that the even distribution of happiness cuts across almost all demographic classifications of age, economic class, race and educational level.
6:2 In addition, almost all [5](1. research 2. study 3.real) strategies for assessing subjective well- being turn up similar findings.
[23] The main concept in the sixth paragraph is
1.a sense of persona l happiness is dependent on an individual’s ethnicity and social status.
2.a sense of personal happiness has a direct relation to an individual’s level of education.
3.a sense of well-being is determined by demographic classification.
4.a sense of well-being is independent of an individual’s demographic background.
[24] The key concept behind the graphs under “Probing for Happiness” is
1. despite differing methods all surveys depend on personal response.
2. images are more effective than words when estimating global happiness.
3. scales of subjective well-being are constructed by national representation.
4. similar results arise in surveys when life nears ideal conditions.

■第7段落
7:1 At the time of the Hague Conferences both in 1899 and 1907, it was not understood that aerial warfare might be [13](1. as much as 2. no more than 3. of) major significance.
7:2 However, the role played by aircraft during World War I made it clear that some rules were necessary to regulate aerial conflict.
7:3 As a result, a commission of legal experts met at The Hague in 1922 to agree on the Rules of Air Warfare.
7:4 These rules were never put into any international treaty and are, as such, not legally binding.
7:5 To be a legally binding international law, the agreement between countries has to be in a form of a treaty signed and approved by representatives of these countries.
7:6 Alternatively, there is international customary law, which is not a written treaty but an unwritten law made of generally accepted state practices around the world.
7:7 Any other rule is just a political declaration or a moral recommendation although it may sometimes be influential and widely supported by peoples around the world.

■第6段落
6:1 In contrast to the Geneva Law is the law concerning the means and methods of conducting actual military operations in armed conflict.
6:2 This is generally known as the Hague Law.
6:3 The Hague Law has evolved mainly through the disarmament conferences, which were held at the invitation of Russian Emperor in 1899 and 1907.
6:4 In 1899, 26 countries met at The Hague and adopted Conventions concerning the ban of gas weapons [12](1. besides 2. addition to 3. as well as) certain methods of military operations such as attacking civilian population and denial of quarter*.
[24] In the seventh paragraph, the author refers to “Rules of Air Warfare” as
1. rules of international customary law ; therefore such rules binding.
2. an example of treaty ; therefore such rules are not binding.
3. rules other than a treaty at that time, but that later became a treaty.
4. rules which were not included in the formal sources of international law.

■第4段落
4:1 Siemens Data Communications (SDC), an Israel-based electrical -engineering company, has [6](1. same objects 2. similar goals 3. different purposes.
4:2 In October 1998, SDC and a Palestinian engineering company signed a pioneering joint venture in which SDC agreed to hire, train, and integrate Palestinian engineers into company projects.
4:3 This contract [7](1.hardly 2. neatly 3. rarely) solved two problems: first, it lowered the high rates of unemployment among Palestinian engineers; and second, it filled the gaps in the Israeli labor market.
4:4 As for the success of this joint venture, Ari Ben-Zichri, the head of research and development at SDC, noted, “during the training period at SDC there was no tension of any kind even though many of the Israeli employees were in the army and helped to put down the uprisings in Ramallah.”
4:5 One of the Palestinian employees stressed that “As engineers, we all speak the same language and have the same goals.
4:6 I think the only real hope for a peaceful settlement [8](1. Lies in 2. Results in 3. differs from) such cooperative projects.”

[23] Ari Ben-Zichri, the head of research and development at SDC, seems
1. delighted at the successful collaboration between Israeli and Palestinian employees.
2. skeptical of many Israeli employees who once served in the army.
3. critical of many Israeli employees who ended up fighting with Palestinian employees.
4. proud of the sharp increase of Israel’s foreign investment figures since 1998.

■第7段落
7:1 The BOC model is built on the idea that business can create the setting necessary to reach long-lasting Social understanding and prosperity in conflict regions while simultaneously achieving its business objectives.
7:2 It works at three levels.
7:3 First, human interaction: when people work together under conditions of equality, they overcome cultural stereotypes.
7:4 Second, commercial cooperation: all businesses profiting from joint Ventures [13](1. achieve 2. restrain 3. refrain) a fixed interest in preserving those business ties.
7:5 And finally, regional participation: the people participating in joint ventures “gain a stake in the system,” which eventually leads to even greater stability.
[25] According to this article, which of the following statements is the basic idea of the BOC model?
1. Profit-making and peace-making are essentially contradictory.
2. The tension between profit-making and peace-making is a cause of conflicts in the Middle East.
3. Profit-making is the fundamental condition of peacemaking.
4. Profit-making and peace-making can go hand in hand.
[26] To “gain a stake in the system” in the seventh paragraph means to
1. put the system at risk for greater gains.
2. make money out of the system.
3. hire more Palestinian workers in the system.
4. secure confidence and an interest in the system.

■第10段落
10:1 The BOC report outlines these potential gains, but it also warns of some difficulties in applying the model to real life.
10:2 Furthermore, the socioeconomic impact of the model is limited by the number of companies incorporating it into their operations framework.
10:3 BOC committee members believe that before their model can have a powerful effect, it must reach “critical mass,” with a sufficient number of corporations following its guidelines.
10:4 The success of the model [110](1.also 2. Scarcely 3. Thereby) depends on the assumption that joint business ventures are based on a relationship of equality between partners.
10:5 If these relations are not rooted in an equal and honest alliance, the ventures may not succeed in reducing tensions between groups in conflict.
10:6 Daily commercial interaction alone does not guarantee a peaceful coexistence.
[27] According to this article, the BOC report assumes that businesses grow when
1. a sole focus on increasing profitability is required.
2. equal and honest partnerships are created in conflict areas.
3. prosperity is shared by parent companies.
4. governments succeed in reforming economic and political structures.
[28] The BOC model is less likely to succeed in real life, according to this article, if
1. companies have employees of different backgrounds that have habitually been in conflict.
2. states and private companies are closely connected.
3. too many companies incorporate it into their operations framework.
4. commercial interaction is not sustained by equal partnerships.

■第11段落
11:1 [20](1. Fortunately 2. Clearly 3. Theoretically), the social benefits of joint ventures have a limited scope; they merely touch their local communities.

11:2 But the failure of peace talks and negotiations only serves to emphasize that politics are not sufficient, and that the BOC model may indeed be one of the better ways to guide the Middle East and similarly troubled regions to peace.
[29] Which of the following statements best represents the view of the author of this article?
1. Peace in the Middle East may be achieved if governments rather than private companies take the initiative.
2. Private companies should donate more to improve the critical conditions of people in the Middle East.
3. Private companies can become potential actors in the peace-making diplomacy in the Middle East.
4. The BOC model is not theoretically sophisticated enough to have any impact on the Middle East.

■第8段落
8:1 The United Kingdom has three agricultural schemes that could have benefits for [11] (1.intensification 2. biodiversity 3. revolution).
8:2 Two of these schemes, the Environmentally Sensitive Areas and the Countryside Stewardship Scheme, both subsidize* farmers to preserve traditional landscape features.
8:3 Between them they cover about 12.5% of agricultural land.
8:4 Unfortunately, there are few data to [12](1. demonstrate 2. experiment 3. authorize) whether or not these schemes have benefits for biodiversity, although some habitats have been preserved or restored.
8:5 A third scheme, “set-aside,” subsidizes farmers to leave some fields uncultivated.
8:6 The available data show that set-aside can be beneficial for birds and other wildlife.
8:7 But set-aside will probably be discontinued early in the 21st century.

8:8 Although we can, as described above, devise schemes that may help a traditional environment or individual species to [13](1. recover 2. conserve 3. adhere), there appears to be no single program or combination of programs that can reverse the decline in a large general population such as farmland birds.
8:9 Therefore, the most general prescription seems to be to reverse the intensification of agriculture as a whole.
[25] Which of the following best summarizes the evaluation of the three schemes for biodiversity mentioned in the 8th paragraph?
1. The effectiveness of all three schemes has been evaluated by comprehensive data.
2. The “set-aside” scheme is the most effective to assure biodiversity for the long term future.
3. The schemes are ineffective without the intensification of agriculture.
4. The beneficial effects of all three schemes are limited.

■第9段落
9:1 A slightly more specific prescription comes from the habitat heterogeneity and lower intensive agriculture found in the concepts of organic farming.
9:2 Although several comparisons of organic and conventional farms have [14](1. recommended 2. Suggested 3. Guaranteed) that organic farming is good for biodiversity, this benefit probably relates to such features as crop diversity and maintenance of natural field borders rather than to any “belief” in organic farming.

9:3 Although there have been no systematic comparisons of the biodiversity benefits of organic and other “wildlife friendly” farming methods, it seems that heterogeneous landscapes are good for birds.
[26] According to the 9th paragraph, which of the following is an example of a beneficial “heterogeneous landscape”?
1. Natural field borders.
2. Conventional farms.
3. Environmentally sensitive areas.
4. Bread basket regions.

■第6段落
6:1 Can we be sure that the bird declines in the United Kingdom are caused by agricultural intensification?
6:2 Although the cause of these declines has not been proven, there are some suggestive figures.
6:3 For example, annual BTO censuses of 42 species of breeding birds show that 13 species living [8](1. exclusively 2. prevalently 3. geographically) in farmland declined by an average of 30% between 1968 and 1995, while 29 species of birds that can live anywhere have increased by an average of 23%.

[23] According to the figures in the 6th paragraph, which of the following is correct?
1. A total of 42 species of birds declined over the last 27 years.
2. In 1995, farmland species declined by a total of 53%.
3. A total of 29 species of birds decreased by 23%.
4. The birds increased or decreased in number depending on their habitats.

■第12段落
12:1 It is easy to see how Chomsky reached this conclusion.
12:2 He did not study language as social communication, namely, the face-to-face interactions between humans that integrate words, intonation, and body language.
12:3 The way people speak is [17] (1. based upon 2. similar to 3. different from) the visual grammar of ASL.
12:4 In ASL I can color the sentence “I feel good” with different shades of meaning — from “cautiously good” to “unbelievably good” — by altering the height or speed of my sign.
12:5 When speaking English, I can use tone and facial expression to color the word “good” with the same shadings.

■第13段落
13:1 By focusing on words on the page, Chomsky [18] (1. placed 2. removed 3. interpreted) language from its social context.
13:2 All the face-to-face signaling behaviors we share with chimpanzees were considered unimportant; the idea of a chimpanzee learning language was considered [19] (1.absurd 2. ambiguous 3. acceptable).
13:3 Chomsky said it was like an island of birds that had the power to fly but had never done so; if chimps had an innate capacity to use language, they’d already be talking in the wild.
[29] Which of the following best represents the author’s opinion about language and communication?
1. Human language has nothing in common with animal communication.
2. In the study of language, we must take its social context into consideration.
3. Nonverbal elements of human language play only an insignificant role in communication.
4. The use of gesture or facial expression should be regarded as nonlinguistic.

■第9段落
9:1 Chomsky said that the language acquisition device — or “language organ” — was located in the left hemisphere of the brain, but there is no anatomical [11] (1. counterpart 2. hypothesis 3. evidence) to support this.
9:2 But anatomy aside, the language device was a reasonable hypothesis for explaining how children acquired language.

9:3 What was not reasonable, however, was Chomsky’s [12] (1. suggestion 2. criticism 3. analogy) that such a device was unique to humans.
9:4 There simply wasn’t enough time, in the brief six million year period since humans diverged from apes, for evolution to add on a completely new brain structure.
9:5 This “add on” scenario was at odds with the laws of biology.
9:6 The primate brain did not evolve like an ever-expanding house, adding on new rooms as it grew from monkey ancestor to ape ancestor to human.
9:7 Instead, evolution was continually [13](1.abandoning 2. reorganizing 3. eliminating) what it already had taking old structures and putting them to use for new mental tasks.
[25] The author criticizes Chomsky’s suggestion that the language organ” is unique to humans on the grounds that
1. it is impossible for human beings to evolve a uniquely human device within a relatively short period of time since humans diverged from apes.
2. it is highly unlikely that the evolutionary process enabled human beings to develop such an organ no matter how long this process might take.
3. scientists have not been able to construct any theory that anatomically supports the existence of such an organ.
4. all the related species such as humans and apes are genetically determined to share the same organs.
[26] The “add on” scenario, as mentioned in the 9th paragraph, is
1. supported by the author because the theory of evolution has provided ample evidence for it.
2. criticized by the author because it goes against the nature of evolution.

  1. criticized by Chomsky because it goes against his theory of a universal grammar.
    4. supported by Chomsky because the theory of evolution has already proved its validity.

■第11段落
11:1 From the viewpoint of biologists, this has always been the problem with the language acquisition device.
11:2 Whenever we study [15] (1.account for 2. discount 3. calculate) its evolutionary development from ancestral species.
11:3 Linguists, however, did not consider evolutionary constraints.
11:4 They simply assumed a discontinuity between humans and apes and worked on the assumption that human language stood [16] (1. outside 2. inside 3. beside) the animal kingdom.
11:5 To Chomsky, human language bore no relation to any other form of animal communication.

[27] The author seems to claim that the language acquisition device, as proposed by Chomsky, has a crucial problem in that Chomsky
1. takes it for granted that humans and apes share the same biological makeup.
2. is too much concerned with an aspect of anatomy in his study of language.
3. does not take evolutionary constraints into consideration.
4. provides only a few pieces of evidence for the validity of the “add on” scenario.

■第2段落
2:1 Today linguists agree that King James was wrong: a child is not born with knowledge of a specific language.
2:2 We know that language develops as a child interacts with adults.
2:3 However, exactly what happens in the process of language acquisition [1](1. regains 2. retains 3. remains) a matter of debate.
2:4 Somehow, virtually all children acquire a means of communication so complex that no one has ever fully described the grammatical rules for even a single language.

■第4段落
4:1 What does this have to do with the mystery of child language acquisition?
4:2 If we knew that our ancestors developed language through cognition and learning, then it [4] (1. denies 2. follows 3. proves) that modern human children probably do the same thing.
4:3 Children must use the same [5] (1. applications 2. rules 3. strategies) to learn language — observation, imitation, and play — that they use to learn other skills, like tying their shoes or playing the piano.
4:4 Language, of course, is more complicated than shoe tying and more universal than piano playing, so somewhere along the [6] (1. avenue 2. way 3. street) humans must have developed a specialized way of learning in order to acquire language.

■第8段落
8:1 [10](1.Unexpectedly 2. Fortunately 3. Obviously), if a universal grammar did exist, no human two year-old would be able to learn such a complex system.

8:2 So Chomsky suggested that every child is born with a “language acquisition device” that already has the universal grammar built in.
8:3 According to Chomsky, the universal grammar was part of a child’s genetic makeup, making language unique to humans.
[23] With regard to child language acquisition, Chomsky seems to hold the view that children are
1. faced with the problem of how to deal with the complex rules of language as well as the disordered adult speech.
2. born with the rules of language already stored in the brain, thereby facilitating language acquisition.
3. equipped with cognitive abilities which enable them to learn language by imitating.
4. born with a fully developed language system stored in the brain, thus making it unnecessary for them to imitate adult speech.
[24] Which of the following best characterizes the author’s attitude toward a universal grammar as proposed by Chomsky?
1. He is fully in support of it.
2. He is totally indifferent to it.
3. He is at best skeptical about it.
4. He is very much enthusiastic about it.

■第3段落
3:1 How do children do it?
3:2 It is possible that Project Washoe may indicate an answer.
3:3 This project was an attempt to teach a form of human language, namely American Sign Language, or ASL, to a chimpanzee named Washoe.
3:4 She acquired about 240 signs and produced them in sequences.
3:5 Her progress in learning ASL could help answer the question by [2] (1. pulling 2.switching 3. Shedding) light on the origins of language.
3:6 Until she began signing, it was assumed that sometime after our ancestors diverged from Washoe’s ancestors about six million years ago, we evolved an anatomical structure that enabled us to develop language.
3:7 But if Washoe could learn a human sign language it meant that the common ancestor of both humans and chimps also must have had the [3] (1. capacity 2. longing 3. admiration) for gestural communication.
[21] Project Washoe has an important implication to the theory of language acquisition because
1. it will suggest when Washoe’s ancestors developed an anatomical change that enabled us to develop language.
2. it has the possibility of increasing our understanding of the origins of human language, thus helping us understand how children acquire language.
3. it has the possibility of proving that human beings learned gestural communication from Washoe’s ancestors.
4. it will suggest that the ability of learning a sign language is a basis for acquiring a human language.

■第1段落
1:1 Information technology, and the low cost communications it enables, is almost certainly the most fundamental change in the mechanisms of politics at the international level.
1:2 It has created a rich new set of both actors and interactions.
1:3 This explosion of interconnectivity and the number of players has created the possibility for a network-like structure for international discourse.
1:4 This structure contrasts sharply with the more hierarchical structure that previously constrained interactions.
1:5 It provides access for small groups that had no influence in the past.
1:6 Also, by connecting multiple levels of interactions, it facilitates the complex governance arrangements* developing in Europe (such as the EU and NATO).
1:7 Both the access and the complex governance arrangements are important new features of international politics.
1:8 These features increase the number of organizations with which nation-states can and must deal on international issues.
[21] According to this article, a network-like structure
1 . constrains interactions, as a hierarchical structure did before.
2. invites more interactions and players than a hierarchical structure.
3. puts too much pressure on nation-states to deal with.
4. makes consensus formation in democracies almost impossible.

■第5段落
5:1 So why would we think that cultural survival is valuable in itself?
5:2 One argument draws an analogy between cultures and other threatened aspects of the natural world: we ought to preserve cultures because to do otherwise is to allow something unique and [8] (1. irrational 2. irreplaceable 3. irrelevant) to leave the world.
5:3 Refusing to act against assimilation might be thought [9](1. compatible with 2. contrasted with 3. equivalent to), say, shooting the last panda.
[24] In the 5th paragraph, the analogy between cultural survival and pandas is used to illustrate the idea that
1. we need to protect endangered cultures the way we protect endangered species.
2. assimilation is the best way to protect endangered cultures just as zoos protect pandas.
3. cultural diversities are best understood by using analogies.
4. the natural world and the cultural world are both unique.

■第6段落
6:1 This argument, though, claims too much, for we feel a similar sense of loss when we face not the destruction of a culture but merely it’s reworking from the inside — and, thereby, the loss of specific elements [10](1. within 2. upon 3. beside) the culture.
6:2 Over time, all of our cultures are remade and many traditional norms and practices are abandoned.
6:3 We might easily sympathize that there was a loss to the world in what was thereby abandoned.

6:4 We do have reason to regret that the current ways by which the world is understood — our own ways included — will eventually disappear.
6:5 But our justifiable sadness does not give us good reason to declare that what is now endangered ought to be preserved forever; or to forbid ourselves from altering inherited cultural norms — abandoning some, changing others — and [11](1.adopting 2. excluding 3. enclosing) new ways and customs as our own.

[25] In the 6th paragraph, the phrase “inherited cultural norms” refers to
1. the genetic aspects of brain developn1ent that determine an individual’s cultural identity.
2. the aspects of culture that develop over time forming an individual’s sense of the world.
3. the daily behavioral patterns that an individual adopts against elders and peers.
4. the traditional behavioral patterns that elders impose on the next generation.

■第7段落
7:1 One might even say that this sadness is the inevitable price we pay for freedom.
7:2 If we had no choice about what norms to adopt, and knew that the next generation would live as our ancestors lived before us, the world might lose one source of trouble but gain many more.
7:3 The “endangered species” approach to [12](1. defending 2. delaying 3. destroying) cultural
survival, then, has some serious defects.
[26] In using the phrase “this sadI1ess is the inevitable price we pay for freedom” in the 7th paragraph, the author suggests that
1. humans feel fearful when they realize that certain events are inevitable.
2. freedom of action demands a serious reflection on life.
3. in the course of our lives the values that we have abandoned may come back.
4. freedom of choice is necessarily bound to cultural change.

■第10段落
10:1 The second notion — that of valuing cultural diversity in the abstract — raises in turn another deep ambiguity, the difference between diversity of cultures and diversity within cultures.
10:2 Exposure to a wide variety of lifeways is clearly of great moral value; it enables people to flourish in ways that conformity and sameness instead suppress.
10:3 But there is no necessary [15](1. break 2. link 3. chain) between the desirability of diversity within cultures and the demand that there be a wide variety of cultures themselves.
[27] In the 10th paragraph, the distinction between diversity of cultures and within cultures is drawn in order to suggest that
1. it is more important to accept a diversity of behavior within cultures than to have a great number of diverse cultures.
2. it is more important to have great moral values than to be exposed to a wide variety of lifestyles.
3. it is more important for people to flourish than to be linked to a particular form of cultural diversity.
4. it is more important to support diversity in cultural values than to be ambiguous about moral values.

■第13段落
13:1 The proper focus for our moral concern, then, is [19](1. by all means 2. not 3. except) the survival of cultures as collective practices and traditions, but rather the political, civil and human rights of the individuals that constitute the cultures.
13:2 A culture has no moral claim to [20](1. temporal 2. transient 3. eternal) existence, especially as against the rights and choices of its own individual members.
13:3 Our concern about cultures, endangered or otherwise, should ultimately stem from the moral status and rights of their individual members.
[28] Based on this article, which of the following would the author most likely support?
1. We should base our moral concerns on large abstract principles like cultural rights.
2. We should base our moral concerns on balance between the natural and cultural worlds.
3. We should base our moral concerns on the ethical methods for cultural assimilation.
4. We should base our moral concerns on ethical concepts such as human rights.

■第12段落
12:1 While I cannot accept the argument that all existing cultures have a moral right to permanent survival, I would assert that there are circumstances under which allowing the destruction of a culture is immoral.
12:2 Cultures can go out of the world because its members gradually and freely choose to adopt the norms of an outside culture.

12:3 But much more often, the members of a culture assimilate because the surrounding community has made it impossible not to do so.
12:4 Injustice and oppression have made many cultures around the world less likely to survive than they would otherwise be; allowing these cultures to disappear would reflect the tragic outcome of an unjust process.
12:5 But this conclusion derives from the circumstances of the disappearance [18](1. rather than 2. more than 3. less than) from the disappearance itself.
the ideas in the 12th paragraph and your reading of this whole article, which of the fallowing would the author consider “immoral”?
1. The extinction of the panda due to cultural preservation.
2. The cultural extinction caused by such global institutions as McDonald’s.
3. The use of economic or physical means to enforce cultural conformity.
4. The attempts of parents to teach the importance of cultural conformity to their children.

■第13段落
13:1 The proper focus for our moral concern, then, is [19](1. by all means 2. not 3. except) the survival of cultures as collective practices and traditions, but rather the political, civil and human rights of the individuals that constitute the cultures.
13:2 A culture has no moral claim to [20](1. temporal 2. transient 3. eternal) existence, especially as against the rights and choices of its own individual members.
13:3 Our concern about cultures, endangered or otherwise, should ultimately stem from the moral status and rights of their individual members.
[30] Which of the following will make the n1ost suitable title for this article?
1. A Call for Cultural Rights
2. Cultural Preservation versus Cultural Conformity
3. Rights for People not for Cultures
4. Pandas, Rhetoric and Modern Ethics

■第2段落
2:1 This vague moral claim has turned up in the discussion of issues as [1](1. variety 2. varied 3. variously) as affirmative action* and the moral status of such culturally overwhelming institutions as McDonalds.
2:2 If we take these arguments literally, cultural survival is [2](1. something 2. anything 3. nothing) very close to a moral absolute; to refuse to agree with it is to sign up on the side of cultural destruction and global conformity.
[21] When the author uses the phrase “a moral absolute” in the 2nd paragraph, this refers to
1. a belief that a few people hold about which actions are good or evil.
2. a belief that anthropologists have identified about the moral values of a culture.
3. a belief used by activists as a political slogan to persuade people.
4. a belief that all people would agree to as a guide to their ethical choices.
[22] In the 2nd paragraph, the author refers to McDonald’s as an example of
1. cultural conformity.
2. cultural sanctions.
3. moral absolute.
4. moral equation.

■第9段落
9:1 The photograph is a professional transformation of social life, a politically relevant rhetoric, a constructed form that ironically naturalizes experience.
9:2 As Michael Shapiro puts it,
… representation is the absence of presence, but because the real is never wholly present to us — how it is real for us is always [20](1. cut 2. gone 3. mediated) through some representational practice — we lose something when we think of representation as mimetic (or the exact copy of reality) …
[27] What do the authors mean by the phrase “a constructed form that ironically naturalizes experience” in the ninth paragraph?
1. Despite our natural desire to understand reality, we don’t wish to take reality as it is.

  1. The photograph is a professional and natural representation of social life.
    3. Photographs can capture reality as it is and purify our experience.
    4. Photographs cannot capture reality as it is, yet we accept a photo image as constructing a natural experience.

■第7段落
7:1 One message that comes across from viewing suffering from a distance is that [15] (1. based on 2. together with 3. for all) the havoc and chaos in Western society, we are somehow better than this African society.
7:2 We gain in moral status, and some of our organizations gain financially and politically, while those whom we represent, or appropriate, remain where they are, slowly dying, surrounded by [16] ( 1. vultures 2. chance 3. mistake).
7:3 This “consumption” of suffering in an era of so-called “disordered capitalism” is not so very different from the late nineteenth-century view that the savage barbarism in non-Christian lands justified the valuing of our own civilization at a higher level of development — a view that authorized colonial exploitation.
7:4 Both are [17] (1. forms 2. aware 3. igno rant) of cultural representation in which the moral, the commer cial, and the political are deeply involved in each other.
7:5 The point is that the image of the vulture and the child carries cultural entailments, including the brutal history of colonialism as well as the dubious cultural baggage of the more recent programs of “modernization” and globalization (of markets and financing), that have too often [18] ( 1. improved 2. worsened 3. overcame) human problems in sub-Saharan Africa.
[25] The authors refer to colonial exploitation in the late 19th century in the seventh paragraph, in order to demonstrate that

  1. Western society has been dominant over African society since the age of colonialism.
    2. Westerners tend to believe that their civilization is superior to that of Africa.
    3. people in the media consume others’ suffering today in the Same way pagan lands were colonized in the past.
    4. the same attitude is found working both in justifying the colonial exploitation in the 19th century and in consuming today’s suffering.
    [26] What is the author’s main point about the image of the child and the vulture in the photograph?
    1. The image implies that Westerners have something to do with the human problem in the photograph in the form of colonialism in the past, and modernization and globalization now.
    2. The image suggests that the child is abandoned and that she is unprotected.
    3. The image was horrible, and Kevin Carter was not able to overcome the burden of horror. So he committed suicide.
    4. The image can be effectively used to heighten moral sentiment to mobilize support for social action.

■第2段落
2:1 When the photograph first appeared, it accompanied a story of the famine that has once again [1] (1. moved 2. solved 3. resulted from) political violence and the chaos of civil war in the southern Sudan.
2:2 The Times’ self-congratulatory account fails to adequately evoke the image’s shocking effect.

2:3 The child is [2] (1. much 2. hardly 3. a little) larger than an infant; she is naked; she appears bowed over in weakness and sickness, incapable, it would seem, [3] (1. from 2. of 3. for) moving; she is unprotected.

2:4 No mother, no family, no one is present to prevent her from being attacked by the vulture, or succumbing to starvation and then being eaten.
2:5 The image suggests that she has been abandoned.
2:6 Why?
2:7 The reader again is led to imagine various [4] ( 1. scenarios 2. styles 3. col lections) of suffering: she has been lost in the chaos of forced uprooting; her family has died ; she has been deserted near death in order for her mother to [5] ( 1. keep up with 2 .get rid of 3. hold on to) more viable children.
2:8 The image’s great success is that it causes the reader to want to know more.
2:9 Why is this innocent victim of civil war and famine unprotected?
2:10 The vulture embodies danger and evil, but the greater dangers and real forces of evil are not in the “natural world”; they are in the political world, [6] (1. including 2. predicting 3. speaking of) those nearby in army uniforms or in government offices in Khartoum.
2:11 Famine has become a political strategy in the Sudan.
[23] The authors consider Kevin Carter’s photograph to be powerful and successful because
1. it impressively captures the famine caused by political turmoils in the Sudan.
2. it has a vulture that embodies danger and evil.
3. it shows that an infant, the victim of civil war and famine, is unprotected.
4. it has a strong image that evokes a number of questions and speculations.
[24] The term “natural world” in the second paragraph is used in contrast to the political world in order to indicate that
1. real suffering is caused by people.
2. the vulture represents danger and evil in the actual political world.
3. there are two types of problems people confront.
4. natural factors explain the problem of famine in the Sudan.

[21] By starting out the article with Kevin Carter’s photograph, the authors are generally concerned with
1. the strength and merit of photojournalism.
2. the eloquence and immediacy of photographs.
3. the social and political meanings behind the photograph.
4. the disaster and suffering in the Sudan.

■第6段落
6:1 Several factors may have contributed to the [12] (1. strength 2. Weakness 3. Calmness) of the 1997-98 El Niño.
6:2 One is chaos, which some theories invoke to account for the irregularity of the ENSO cycle.
6:3 Nonlinear resonances involving ENSO and the seasonal cycle have received special attention, but other chaotic interactions may affect ENSO as well.
6:4 In 1997-98, events possibly acted together to produce an extraordinarily strong El Niño simply due to the underlying tendency towards chaos in the climate system.
6:5 A related issue is [13] (1. another 2. that 3. in case) of weather ‘noise.’
6:6 Weather phenomena, inherently unpredictable more than about two weeks [14] (1. in advance
2. ago 3. later), are a source of random forcing in the climate system.
6:7 In the tropical Pacific, weather events occurring at the right time, and on time and space scales [15] (1. for 2. in 3. to) which the ocean is sensitive, can markedly alter the evolution of the ENSO cycle.

[29] In this article, the term “chaos” is used to explain
1. the irregularity of Pacific marine ecosystems.
2. the unpredictability of the strength of La Niña.
3. the irregularity of the ENSO cycle.
4. the unpredictability of the strength of El Niño.

■第1段落
1:1 Just under a year ago, a sharp drop in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures indicated the end of the 1997-98 El Niño.
1:2 Called by someone “the climate event of the century,” it was by several measures the strongest on record.
[30] The author uses the phrase, “the climate event of the century,” in the first paragraph, in order to
1. show the extraordinary nature of the 1997-98 El Niño.
2. demonstrate the irregularity of the ENSO.
3. illustrate the importance of the MJO.
4. explain the combination of El Niño and La Niña.

■第7段落
7:1 One notable source of weather in the tropics is the Madden Julian Oscillation(MJO), a wave- like disturbance in the atmosphere with a period of 30-60 days that originates over the Indian Ocean.
7:2 It could have been that the ocean got a healthy kick from the MJO at just the right time to send it on a course towards record [16] (1. cold 2. low 3. high) temperatures.
7:3 The tropical Pacific was preconditioned for the beginning of an EI Nino by the build-up of excess heat in the western equatorial Pacific due to stronger than normal trade winds in 1995-96.

7:4 However, beginning in late 1996, the MJO was particularly energetic, and several cycles of the wave amplified through nonlinear ocean-atmosphere interactions [17](1. since 2. as 3. because) they passed over the western Pacific.
7:5 This set in motion a series of positive feedbacks between the ocean and the atmosphere which reinforced initial MJO-induced warming.
[28] At the end of the seventh paragraph, when the author refers to “positive feedbacks,” this refers to
1. the effect of weather ‘noise’ on radio waves.
2. the effect of El Niño on crop harvests.
3. the amplification of the ocean atmosphere interaction.
4. the amplification of the western Pacific ENSO cycle.

■第4段落
4:1 The general mechanisms underlying ENSO involve large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions and equatorial ocean dynamics.
4:2 But each El Niño and La Niña is unique in the [8](1. combination 2. division 3. category) of its strength, duration and pattern of development.
4:3 Irregularity in the ENSO cycle can be seen both in the record dating back to the middle of the last century, and in other supporting data, such as lake sediments*, coral growth rings and tree rings, going back hundreds or [9](1. less 2. more 3. even) thousands of years.
4:4 So, in principle, it should not be surprising that an unusually strong El Niño occurs every so often.
[27] At the end of the fourth paragraph, when the author says “in principle,” it suggests that if the record and data are read carefully,
1. large-scale ocean atmosphere interactions should be surprising.
2. frequent ENSO cycles should not be surprising.
3. occasionally strong El Niños should not be surprising.
4. equatorial ocean dynamics should not be surprising.

■第3段落
3:1 El Niño, Spanish for ‘the child’ (and specifically the Christ child), is the name Peruvian fishermen gave to coastal sea temperature [3](1. silence 2. coldness 3. warmings) that first appeared around Christmas time.
3:2 Now El Niño more generally refers to a warming of the tropical Pacific basin that occurs roughly [4] (1. every 2. any 3. some) three to seven years in association with a weakening of the trade winds.
3:3 The opposite side of El Niño, La Niña, is characterized by stronger-than-normal trade winds and unusually cold sea-surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific.
3:4 Both El Niño and La Niña are [5] (1. disrupted 2. exchanged 3. accompanied) by swings in atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western Pacific.
3:5 These swings are known as the Southern Oscillation.
3:6 These phenomena are collectively [6] (1. preferred 2. referred to 3. gathered) as ENSO or El Niño/Southern Oscillation.
3:7 At the moment, a strong La Niña is evident in the tropical Pacific, with several (but not all) forecast models predicting a return to [7] (1. abnormal 2. formal 3. normal) by the end of 1999.

[21] The author uses the title “The Child Prodigy of 1997-98” for this article in order to
1. personify the phenomenon and to indicate that the 1997-98 El Niño was extraordinarily strong.
2. suggest that the effect of the 1997-98 El Niño was moderately small and that it was good for Peruvian fishermen.
3. show that the 1997-98 El Niño was a new type of intelligent Storm.
4. say that the 199798 El Niño was born 15 years after the previous and tremendous El Niño.

■第10段落
10:1 The so-called “Western values of freedom and liberty,” sometimes seen as an ancient Western inheritance, are not particularly [16](1.but uniquely 2. but proudly 3. nor exclusively) Western in their origins.
10:2 Many of these values have taken their full form only over the [17](1. last 2. earlier 3. recent) few centuries.
10:3 While we do find some anticipatory components in parts of the ancient Western traditions, there are other such anticipatory components in parts of nonwestern ancient traditions as well.

10:4 On the particular subject of toleration, Plato and Confucius may be on a somewhat similar side, [18](1. such as 2. just as 3. thereby) Aristotle and Ashoka may be on another side.
10:5 The need to acknowledge diversity applies not only between nations and cultures, but also
within each nation and culture.
10:6 In the anxiety to [19](1. write 2. take 3. put) adequate note of international diversity and cultural divergences, and the so-called differences between “Western civilization,”“Asian values,” “African culture, and so on, there is often a dramatic neglect of heterogeneity within each country and culture.
10:7 “Nations” and “cultures” are not particularly good units to understand and analyze intellectual and political differences.
10:8 Lines of division in commitments and skepticism do not run along national boundaries — they
run at many different [20](1. speeds 2. faces 3. Levels).

10:9 The rhetoric of cultures, with each “culture” seen in largely homogenized terms, can trouble us politically as well as intellectually.
[28] According to this article, what can be inferred about Ashoka?
1. He behaved as a strict authoritarian.
2. He preferred order and discipline over freedom.
3. He excluded women and slaves.

  1. He emphasized the importance of freedom and tolerance.
    [29] What is the author’s main point in the last paragraph?
    1. The word “culture” should be replaced.
    2. We need to be more aware of the power of culture in today’s world.
    3. We should be more attentive to the heterogeneity within each culture.
    4. Governmental spokesmen tend to monopolize the rhetoric of cultures.

■第5段落
5:1 If one influence in separating out human rights as specifically “Western” comes from the [6](1. pleading 2. denying 3. escaping) of governmental spokesmen from Asia, then another influence relates to the way this issue is perceived in the West itself.
5:2 There is a tendency in Europe and the United States to assume that it is in the West — and only in the West — that human rights have been valued from ancient times.
5:3 This allegedly unique feature of Western civilization has been, it is assumed, an alien concept [7](1. everywhere 2. anywhere 3. elsewhere).
5:4 By stressing regional and cultural specificities, these Western theories of the origin of human
rights tend to reinforce the questioning of the concept of universal human rights in nonwestern societies.
5:5 By arguing that the valuing of toleration, of personal liberty, and of civil rights is a particular contribution of Western civilization, Western advocates of these rights often give an ironic support to the nonwestern critics of human rights.
5:6 The advocacy of an allegedly “alien” idea in non-Western societies can indeed look like cultural imperialism [8](1. attacked 2. sponsored 3. installed) by the West.
[23] The expression “an ironic support to the non-Western critics of human rights” in the fifth paragraph means that one
1. intentionally criticizes the Asian critics who criticize the notion of human rights.
2. unintentionally supports the Asian critics who criticize the notion of human rights.
3. intentionally supports the Western critics who criticize the notion of human rights.
4. unintentionally criticizes the Western critics who criticize the notion of human rights.

■第3段落
3:1 Are there really such [3](1. great mysteries 2. good terms 3. firm differences) on this subject in terms of traditions and cultures across the world ?
3:2 It is certainly true that governmental spokesmen in several Asian countries have not only
disputed the relevance and importance of universal human rights, but they have also frequently done this disputing in the name of “Asian values,” in contrast to Western values.
3:3 The claim is that in the system of so-called Asian values, for example in the Confucian system, there is greater emphasis on order and discipline, and [4](1. less 2. fewer 3. than) on rights and freedoms.
[22] According to the author, the unique feature of “Asian values” is commonly described in terms of
1. the emphasis on a shared community.
2. the denial of human rights and freedoms.
3. the denial of political democracy.
4. the emphasis on order and discipline.

■第1段落
1:1 My students seem to be very concerned — and also very divided — on how to approach the difficult subject of human rights in nonwestern societies.
1:2 Is it right, the question is often asked, that nonwestern societies should be encouraged and pressed to conform to “Western values of liberty and freedom?”

1:3 Is this not cultural imperialism?
1:4 The notion of human rights [1](1. builds 2. reflects 3. dwells) on the idea of a shared community.
1:5 These rights are not derived from citizenship of any country, or membership of any nation, but taken as entitlements of every human being.
1:6 The concept of universal human rights is, in this sense, a uniting idea.
1:7 Yet the subject of human rights has ended up being a very real battleground of political debates and ethical disputes, particularly in their application to nonwestern societies.
1:8 Why so?
[21] The term “cultural imperialism” is specifically used in this article to indicate that
1. each culture tends to be seen in homogenized terms.
2. culture can explain anything about our lives.
3. one culture imposes its values on other cultures.
4. the “West” colonizes and rules non-Western cultures.

■第17段落
17:1 Postman: I very much like the idea that you use the word “clubbing,” which I prefer to community.
17:2 I think we have to pay a lot of attention to the new words were using in the computer age.

17:3 My point is that we need to pay attention to differences.
17:4 When we talk about distance learning, we have to ask ourselves what are the differences between what we call “distance learning” and other kinds of learning.
17:5 If we are careful about noting those [20](1. commonalities 2. differences 3. similarities), then we can make better use of these new technologies.
[28] Postman prefers Kay’s use of the term “clubbing” rather than community because it implies
1. a difference in technology between distance learning and the Internet. 2. a difference in learning between student-teacher and student-computer.
3. a difference in awareness between a word’s common image and its actual usage in the computer age.
4. a difference in preference between the printing and computer age.

■第16段落
16:1 Kay: That might happen if computers weren’t connected to the Internet.
16:2 After the Internet caught on we found that by far the most popular things on the Internet are what you might call tribalization mechanisms such as chat rooms, forums, virtual spaces, where people could find each other.
16:3 So there are enormous numbers of people doing what you might call “clubbing.”
16:4 I don’t call them communities.
16:5 I call them clubs of people of similar interests; and these constitute something that looks a lot like McLuhan’s “global village,” but more divided and fragmented.
16:6 Not a “virtual community,” but a return to something more like tribalization.
[27] Kay believes that chatrooms have a function as a “tribalization mechanism” because
1. people who use chatrooms tend to form small fragmented groups.
2. people who use chatrooms tend to join social clubs together.
3. people who use chatrooms are the main Internet customers.
4. people who use chatrooms are members of the global village.

■第9段落

9:1 I don’t know what the answer would be, [11](1. except that 2. so that 3. just that) there is some power in the oral tradition and in the fact of compresence which facilitates learning and makes it into a certain kind of event that can’t be duplicated by technology.
9:2 So I am [12](1. realistic 2. Optimistic 3. Skeptical) when people talk about distance learning as a future process that will replace the current methods of teaching and learning
[25] Postman believes that the “power in the oral tradition” comes from
1. the fact that people working together on a problem create an atmosphere that can’t be duplicated by technology.
2. the fact that teachers can encourage students to challenge their ideas and create manuscripts.
3. the fact that when people are together in a room they share a strong feeling of tribalization.
4. the fact that we have been using lectures for 500 years and it is used in 95 % of the classes at New York University.

■第10段落
10:1 Kay: It’s possible that the label distance learning” is a bit misleading.
10:2 To me, most of the real learning that happens doesn’t happen in a social situation.
10:3 That’s only where you find out about things.
10:4 Real learning happens when you go off and [13](1. try out 2. hold out 3. take out) these new models that you are trying to build in order to comprehend ideas that you haven’t been able to deal with before.
10:5 To me, almost all real learning is a kind of distance learning.
10:6 Your [14](1. more or less 2. more and more 3. more than less) off by yourself.
[24] Kay believes that “real learning happens when you go off” because
1. then you are at a distance to better understand events and react emotionally.
2. then you are like a scholar of the Renaissance with individualism held in check.
3. then you can test ideas and try to comprehend them on an individual level.
4. then you are under a tree, more contemplative and better able to see yourself.

■第8段落
8:1 I always think of the longevity of the lecture method [8](1. in use 2. in demand 3. in style) in most universities.
8:2 In the 15th century, just before the invention of the machine-made book, a professor had the only manuscript of an author’s work.
8:3 So of course, lecturing made sense.
8:4 In the first fifty years after the invention of printing, more than eight million books were printed.
8:5 You would think that the lecture method would have disappeared.
8:6 [9](1.When 2. Why 3. Where) should we have a professor standing in front of a group of students who could all read the same book that the professor had?
8:7 The odd thing is that at New York University, this [10](1. one 2. very 3. only) day, probably 95% of the instruction is through the lecture method.
8:8 So I have to ask why, after 500 years, were still using a method that ought to have become obsolete through technological development.
[23] When Postman refers to ”the longevity of the lecture method” he is trying to
1. demonstrate the long history of the lecture to reject the method.
2. compare a lecture to a computer simulation in terms of duration.
3. illustrate why we no longer need professors actually present in classrooms.
4. demonstrate the persistence of the lecture method despite changes in technology.

■第4段落
4:1 One is dialoging, Socrates preferred method of learning.
4:2 In a good essay, the author [2](1.unless 2. invites 3. increases) the reader to argue with him or her a little bit.
4:3 But debate usually stops in scientific or technical essays when an author puts a formula in.
4:4 Most people, even educated people, [3](1. unless 2. when 3. while) they know something special about the topic or the formula, are pretty much at the mercy of the authors claims.

4:5 So it would be great if those mathematical symbols in a formula could lead into a computer simulation of what’s being talked about in the essay — if the reader could experiment as much as the author had.
4:6 So the computer can provide an extra dimension in which people can argue more deeply with the author.
[22] According to Kay, computer learning is like Socrates’ “preferred method of learning” because
1. both make it easier to understand abstract mathematical formulas.
2. both offer an opportunity to argue with the person presenting the idea.
3. neither stop debating unless they are working with educated people.
4. neither can be easily disconnected from the task they are working on.

■第3段落
3:1 Kay: I think the book makes a good starting point because it was a great invention for distance learning.
3:2 The disembodied nature of the symbols provides a different stimulus to imagination than face- to-face learning does.
3:3 I think reading [1](1. detects 2. lessens 3. strengthens) the ability to imagine things and deal abstractly.
3:4 But, I ask, is there anything a new technology like computers could add?
3:5 In fact there is; not a lot of things, but a couple of really important ones.
[21] Kay thinks that the book was a great invention for distance learning because
1. it changed the conception of the individual.
2. it embodies McLuhan’s concept of tribalization.
3. it exercises a different quality of imagination.
4. it emphasizes the case for computers by the use of symbols.

■第8段落
8:1 The real problem underlying many of the criticisms of anthropomorphism is actually anthropocentrism.
8:2 Placing humans at the center of all interpretation, observation, and concern, and dominant men at the center of that, has led to some of the worst errors in science, whether in astronomy, psychology, or animal behavior.

8:3 Anthropocentrism treats animals as (18)(1. superior 2. inferior 3. compatible) forms of people and denies what they really are.
8:4 It reflects a passionate wish to (19)(1. differentiate 2. alienate 3. dismiss) ourselves from animals, to make animals other, presumably in order to maintain humans at the top of the evolutionary hierarchy and the food chain.
8:5 The notion that animals are wholly other from humans, despite our common ancestry, is more
(20) (1. likely 2. rational 3. irrational) than the notion that they are like us.
(28)The author seems to support which of the following statements about scientists?
1. Young scientists should be trained in such a way that they will not fall into the trap of anthropomorphism.
2. Scientists who have received proper training will be careful enough to avoid using psychological terms in describing emotions in animals.
3. Only the most prominent scientists should be allowed to go into the study of emotions in animals.
4. Scientists should realize that anthropocentrism, rather than anthropomorphism, is the real problem in science.

■第6段落
6:1 Against this scientific orthodoxy, the biologist Julian Huxley has argued that to imagine oneself into the life of another animal is both scientifically (15)(1. avoidable 2. predictable 3. justifiable) and productive of knowledge.

6:2 Huxley introduced one of the most extraordinary accounts of a deep and emotional tie between a human being and a free-living lioness, Joy Adamson’s Living Free, as follows:
6:3 When people like Mrs.Adamson (or Darwin for that matter) interpret an animal’s gestures or postures with the aid of psychological terms — anger or curiosity, affection or jealousy — the strict behaviorist (16)1. relieves 2. deprives 3. accuses) them of anthropomorphism, of seeing a human mind at work within the animal’s skin.
6:4 This is not necessarily so.
6:5 The true ethologist* must be evolution-minded.
6:6 After all, he is a mammal.
6:7 To give the fullest possible interpretation of behavior he must have (17)(1. recourse 2. resistance 3. immunity) to a language that will apply to his fellow-mammals as well as to his fellow man.
6:8 And such a language must employ subjective as well as objective terminology — fear as well as impulse to flee, curiosity as well as exploratory urge, maternal solitude in all its modulations in welcome addition to goodness knows what complication of behaviorist terminology.
(26) Which of the following statements is in accordance with Julian Huxley’s position on anthropomorphism?
1. In order to provide a satisfactory interpretation of animal behavior, the use of objective terms should be encouraged while that of subjective terms should be restricted as much as possible.
2. Mrs. Adamson’s interpretation of a free-living lioness is nothing but a typical example of anthropomorphism which any scientist should try to avoid.
3. The use of psychological terms in interpreting animal behavior is not to be criticized; rather it might even be necessary.
4. Mrs. Adamson’s account of her relationship with a free-living lioness is so moving that scientists who have read it would take no notice of its anthropomorphic nature.

■第5段落
5:1 From the belief that anthropomorphism is a desperate error, a sin or a disease, flow further research (12)(1.taboos 2. incentives 3. interests), including rules that dictate use of language.

5:2 A monkey cannot be angry; it exhibits aggression.
5:3 A crane does not feel affection; it (13)1.conceals 2. displays 3. prohibits) courtship or parental behavior.
5:4 A cheetah is not frightened by a lion; it shows flight behavior.
5:5 In keeping with this, Frans de Waal’s use of the word reconciliation in reference to chimpanzees who come together after a fight has been criticized: Wouldn’t it be more objective to say “first postconflict contact”?
5:6 In the struggle to be objective, this kind of language employs distance and the refusal to (14)(1. maneuver 2. manage 3. identify) with another creature’s pain.
(25) With regard to rules dictating use of language, the author seems to hold the view that
1. the use of the term reconciliation by Frans de Waal should rightly be criticized because it is impossible to observe chimpanzees’ motivation for their behavior.
2. to say “first postconflict contact” is preferable because it sounds more suitable for scientific writing.
3. the use of objective language such as first “postconflict contact” makes it difficult for us to have empathy toward animals.
4. scientists should try to avoid the use of subjective language such as reconciliation in order to be more objective.

■第4段落
4:1 To accuse a scientist of anthropomorphism is to make a severe criticism of unreliability.
4:2 It is regarded as a species-confusion, a forgetting of the line between subject and object.
4:3 To assign thoughts or feelings to a creature known incapable of them would, indeed, be a problem.
4:4 But to ascribe to an animal emotions such as joy or sorrow is only anthropomorphic error if one knows that animals cannot feel such emotions.
4:5 Many scientists have made this decision, but not on the basis of evidence.
4:6 The situation is not so much that emotion is denied but that it is regarded as too dangerous — such a minefield of (8)(1. relativity 2. objectivity 3.subjectivity) that no investigation of it should take place.
4:7 As a result, all but the most prominent scientists (9)(1. obtain 2. risk 3. establish) their reputations and credibility in venturing into this area.
4:8 Thus many scientists may actually believe that animals have emotions, but be unwilling not only to say that they believe it, but unwilling to study it or encourage their students to investigate it.

4:9 They may also (10)(1. defend 2. attack 3. copy) other scientists who try to use the language of the emotions.
4:10 Nonscientists who seek to retain scientific credibility must tread carefully.
4:11 An administrator at one internationally known animal training institute remarked, “We don’t take a position on whether animals have emotions, but I’m sure if you talked to any one of us we’d say ‘Sure they have emotions.’
4:12 But as an organization we would not want to be (11)(1. depicted 2. anticipated 3. rejected) as saying they have emotions.”
(24) In this article, an administrator at an internationally known animal training institute is quoted as saying that they do not take a position on whether animals have emotions.This remark suggests that people in the institute
1. tend to be hypocritical in their attitude toward prominent scientists in this field.
2. do not wish to risk the reputation of their institute by saying that animals have emotions.
3. are uncertain about how much they should commit themselves to conducting research on emotions in animals.
4. are not generally interested in the issue about whether animals have emotions.

■第3段落
3:1 Young scientists are indoctrinated with the gravity of this error.
3:2 As animal behaviorist* David McFarland explains, “They often have to be specially trained to (5)(1. describe 2.accept 3. resist) the temptation to interpret the behavior of other species in terms of their normal behavior-recognition mechanisms.”
3:3 In his recent book The New Anthropomorphism, behaviorist John S. Kennedy laments, “The scientific study of animal behavior was inevitably marked from birth by its anthropomorphic parentage and to a significant extent it still is.
3:4 It has had to struggle to free itself from this erroneous approach and the struggle is not over.

3:5 Anthropomorphism (6)(1. remains 2. restructures 3. recognizes) much more of a problem than most of today’s neobehaviorists believed….
3:6 If the study of animal behavior is to mature as a science, the process of (7)1. cancellation 2. liberation 3. interference) from the delusions of anthropomorphism must go on.”
3:7 His hope is that “anthropomorphism will be brought under control, even if it cannot be cured completely.
3:8 Although it is probably programmed into us genetically as well as being learned culturally, that does not mean the disease is untreatable.”
(22) Which of the following statements best represents John S. Kennedy’s views on anthropomorphism?
1. The study of animal behavior has to overcome the problem of anthropomorphism in order to mature as a science.
2. Scientists who have been engaged in the study of animal behavior have failed to bring anthropomorphism under control and they never will in the future.
3. The time will come in the future when scientists will realize the importance of training young scientists to overcome the temptation to personify animals and their behavior.
4. In the future, the study of animal behavior will develop to such an extent that scientists will be able to overcome anthropomorphic mistakes.

■第2段落
2:1 Science considers anthropomorphism toward animals a grave mistake, even a sin.
2:2 It is common in science to speak of “committing” anthropomorphism.
2:3 The term originally was religious, referring to the (1)(1. modifying 2. shaping 3.assigning) of human form or characteristics to God — the hierarchical error of acting as though the merely human could be (2)(1. divine 2. secular 3. religious) — hence the connotation of sin.
2:4 In the long article on anthropomorphism in the 1908 Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, the author (Frank B. Jevons) writes: “The tendency to (3)(1. personify 2. imitate 3. create) objects — whether objects of sense or objects of thought — which is found in animals and children as well as in savages, is the origin of anthropomorphism.”

2:5 Men, the idea goes, create gods in their own image.
2:6 The best-known example of this tendency comes from the Greek author Xenophanes (fifth century B.C.).
2:7 He notes that Ethiopians represent the gods as black, Thracians depict them as blue-eyed and red-haired, and “if oxen and horses … had hands and could paint” their images of gods would depict oxen and horses.
2:8 The philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach concluded that God is nothing but our (4)(1. injection 2. projection 3. introspection), on a celestial screen, of the essence of man.
2:9 In science, the sin against hierarchy is to assign human characteristics to animals.
2:10 Just as humans could not be like God, now animals cannot be like humans (note who has taken God’s place).
(21) The author quotes Xenophane’s remarks in order to
1. indicate that the essence of man is to be found on a celestial screen.
2. explain that humans have the tendency to create gods with the same characteristics as themselves.
3. show that oxen and horses would create gods in their own image if they were competent enough.
4. argue that imagination plays an important role in creating the images of gods.

■第13段落
13:1 At that time Lovelock had no idea how the Earth might regulate its temperature and the composition of its atmosphere, (19) (1. provided 2. except 3. granted) that he knew that the self- regulating processes had to involve organisms in the bio sphere.
13:2 Nor did he know which organisms produced which gases.
13:3 At the same time, however, the American microbiologist Lynn Margulies was studying the very processes Lovelock needed to understand — the production and removal of gases by various organisms, including especially the myriad bacteria in the Earth’s soil.
13:4 Margulies remembers that she kept asking, “Why does everybody agree that atmospheric oxygen … comes from life, but no one speaks about the other atmospheric gases coming from life?
13:5 Soon several of her colleagues recommended that she speak to James Lovelock, which led to a long and fruitful (20) (1. corre lation 2. combination 3. collaboration) that resulted in the full scientific Gaia Hypothesis.
(27) The best description of Lynn Margulis’ work is that it
1. paralleled Lovelocks work.
2. replaced Lovelocks work.
3. contradicted Lovelocks work.
4. complemented Lovelocks work.

■第4段落
4:1 At that time NASA invited James Lovelock to the Jet Propulsion Laboratories in Pasadena, California, to help them design instruments for the (5)( 1. proof 2. anticipation 3. detection) of life on Mars.
4:2 NASA’s plan was to send a spacecraft to Mars that would search for life at the landing site by perform ing a series of experiments with the Martian soil.
4:3 While Lovelock worked on technical problems of instrument design, he also asked himself a more general question: How can we be sure that the Martian way of life, if any, will reveal itself to tests based on Earth’s lifestyle?
4:4 Over the following months and years this question led him to think deeply about the nature of life and how it could be recognized.
(23) It may be inferred from the article that the primary function of Lovelock’s place of employment in Pasadena, California, is
1. the search for jet fuel.
2. the development of space instruments.
3. the technology of jet propulsion.
4. the exploration of space.

■第3段落
3:1 The clearest evidence for the (3) (1. resolution 2. role 3. realm) of color in sexual attraction among butterflies comes from studies of species in which males and females have distinctly different appearances.
3:2 Obviously, to mate successfully, individuals must be able to determine whether other conspecific butterflies are of their own or of the opposite sex.
3:3 The rest, it can be argued, is fine-tuning.
(28) “Conspecific butterflies” (paragraph 3) means
1. butterflies of the same species.
2. butterflies of different species.
3. butterflies in general.
4. mating butterflies.

■第17段落
17:1 Cox says that what he’s learned in the ELSI process has taught him to be cautious about how much those achievements mean.

17:2 “You don’t legislate away discrimination,” he says.
17:3 “You just make it more painful for people to discriminate.
17:4 It (16) (1. takes 2. gives 3. makes) a social belief that discrimination on the basis of genetic information is bad.” (27) When the author says, “You don’t legislate away discrimination,” he implies that
1. the law cannot assure a prejudice free society.
2. one should not look to the law for help in fighting discrimination.
3. discrimination will eventually go away by itself.
4. discrimination is not always illegal.

■第11段落
11:1 Botstein does worry about healthcare discrimination, (8) (1. giving 2. making 3. calling) it a serious social problem.
11:2 But he points out that it is mostly a problem in the United States — in Europe, there is (9) (1. some 2. little 3. a little) incentive to discriminate because everyone is guaranteed some level of healthcare.
11:3 Paul Billings, deputy chief of staff at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Palo Alto, says that people like Botstein are (10) (1.deluding 2. cheating 3. camouflaging) themselves if they think that healthcare is the only arena where genetic information is misused.
11:4 He cites a number of nightmarish cases: The 24 year old woman fired from her job after her employer learned of her risk of Huntington’s disease, an ailment that usually doesn’t strike until after 40; their recruits turned down by the Air Force because they were (11) (1. carriers 2. patients
3. agents) of sickle cell disease; the two Marines court-martialed for refusing to take a gene test.

■第13段落
13:1 “The genie is out of the bottle,” Billings says.
13:2 “Every risk assessment event could be linked to gene tests: your driver’s license, gun permit, home mortgage.”
(26) In the phrase “the genie is out of the bottle,” genie refers to
1. the genome project of genetic mapping.
2. the “magical” appearance of a new social underclass, the “asymptomatic ill.”
3. the working group on bioethics established by President Clinton.
4. the potential for both good and evil inherent in knowledge from genetic research.

■第11段落
11:1 Botstein does worry about healthcare discrimination, (8) (1. giving 2. making 3. calling) it a serious social problem.
11:2 But he points out that it is mostly a problem in the United States — in Europe, there is (9) (1. some 2. little 3. a little) incentive to discriminate because everyone is guaranteed some level of healthcare.
11:3 Paul Billings, deputy chief of staff at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Palo Alto, says that people like Botstein are (10) (1.deluding 2. cheating 3. camouflaging) themselves if they think that healthcare is the only arena where genetic information is misused.
11:4 He cites a number of nightmarish cases: The 24 year old woman fired from her job after her employer learned of her risk of Huntington’s disease, an ailment that usually doesn’t strike until after 40; their recruits turned down by the Air Force because they were (11) (1. carriers 2. patients
3. agents) of sickle cell disease; the two Marines court-martialed for refusing to take a gene test.
(25) According to the author,
1. genetic research might lead to discrimination in the United States because there are so many people there with inadequate healthcare.
2. people in the United States are more prone to having a “master race” complex.
3. the European model works well in the United States because both are market driven societies.
4. there are more people with genetic mutations in the U. than in Europe.

■第2段落
2:1 “Genetics offers the best road to understanding disease at this time,” says David Botstein, chair of genetics at Stanford and a national leader in the field.

2:2 We can ask: Which genes predispose a person to this disease, what are the factors that work with the gene to cause the disease, and what can you do about it?”
(22) When the author says, “…genes predispose a person to this disease,” he suggests that
1. a person with a genetic disease is likely to have a lowered immune system.
2. a person with a particular gene may be more likely to develop certain diseases.
3. genetic structure determines an individual’s future health.
4. a person will develop diseases without preventive gene therapy.

■第11段落
11:1 Botstein does worry about healthcare discrimination, (8) (1. giving 2. making 3. calling) it a serious social problem.
11:2 But he points out that it is mostly a problem in the United States — in Europe, there is (9) (1. some 2. little 3. a little) incentive to discriminate because everyone is guaranteed some level of healthcare.
11:3 Paul Billings, deputy chief of staff at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Palo Alto, says that people like Botstein are (10) (1.deluding 2. cheating 3. camouflaging) themselves if they think that healthcare is the only arena where genetic information is misused.
11:4 He cites a number of nightmarish cases: The 24 year old woman fired from her job after her employer learned of her risk of Huntington’s disease, an ailment that usually doesn’t strike until after 40; their recruits turned down by the Air Force because they were (11) (1. carriers 2. patients
3. agents) of sickle cell disease; the two Marines court-martialed for refusing to take a gene test.
(21) When the author says “the Human Genome Project will have an impact far beyond the diseases it might help cure,” he means that
1. medical advances may result from genetic research.
2. social change often occurs faster than genetic research can keep up with.
3. genetic research will lead to changes in social belief.
4. genetic research may cause more problems than it solves.

■第10段落
10:1 A “mistake” on the violin : I have been playing some pattern : 1, 2, 3, 6 ; 1, 2, 3, 6.
10:2 Suddenly I make a slip and play 1, 2, 3, 7, 6.
10:3 It doesn’t matter to me at the time whether I have broken a rule or not; what matters is what I do in the next tenth of a second.
10:4 I can adopt the traditional attitude, treating what I have done as (10) (1. a mistake 2. and improvisation 3. and innovation): Don’t do it again, hope it doesn’t happen again, and in the meantime, feel guilty.
10:5 Or I can repeat it, amplify it, and develop it further until it becomes a new pattern.
10:6 Or beyond that I can drop neither the old pattern nor the new one but discover the unforeseen context that includes both of them.

■第13段落
13:1 The history of science, as we well know, is liberally (15) ( 1. peppered 2. preoccupied 3. prepared) with stories of essential discoveries seeded by mistakes and accidents: Fleming’s discovery of penicillin, thanks to the dust-borne mold that contaminated his petri dish; Roentgen’s discovery of X-rays, thanks to the careless handling of a photographic plate.
13:2 Time after time, the quirks and mishaps that one might be tempted to reject as “bad data” are often the best.
13:3 Many spiritual traditions point up the vitality we gain by reseeding the value of what we may have rejected as insignificant: “The stone which the builders refused,” sing the Psalms of David, “has come to be the cornerstone.”
(27)The author uses the examples of Fleming and Roentgen to suggest that
1. serendipitous blunder is essential to important scientific discovery.
2. scientists need accidents in order to be inspired.
3. quirks and mishaps are unavoidable in scientific experiments.
4. scientific discoveries can result from quirks and mishaps.

(28)In this essay the quote from the “Psalms of David” is used to illustrate
1. the author’s faith that what appears to be useless could become essential.
2. the author’s religious conviction that all our work is guided by a master plan.
3. the author’s belief in the importance of spiritual traditions in everyday work.
4. the author’s notion that great results grow from small beginnings.

■第9段落
9:1 Once I was preparing for a full evening poetry performance, with multiscreen slide projections and electronic music I had composed on tape for the occasion.
9:2 But in the course of overrehearsing during the preceding week, I managed to give myself a case of laryngitis, and woke up the morning of the performance with a ruined voice and a high fever.
9:3 I was (9) (1. ready 2. forced 3. obliged) to cancel, but in the end decided that would be no fun.
9:4 Instead I dropped my attachment to my music and preempted the sound system for use as a public address system.
9:5 I sat in an old wicker wheelchair and croaked into a microphone.
9:6 My soft, spooky, obsessive, guttural voice, amplified, became an instrument of qualities that totally surprised me, releasing me to find a hitherto unsuspected depth in my own poetic line.
(25)When the author says, “I dropped my attachment to my music,” he implies that
1. he no longer enjoyed playing music, so he stopped doing it.
2. he began to dislike the music he had written, so he decided to do something different.
3. he no longer felt bound by the expectation of what his performance should be.
4. he considered cancelling his performance.
(26)Which of the following statements best reflects the author’s view of the “traditional attitude” toward mistakes?
1. Mistakes are like pearls, a jewel hidden in an accident.
2. Mistakes are indispensable.
3. Mistakes are like sin, and should be prevented.
4. Mistakes can lead to further errors.

■第7段落
7:1 Often the process of our artwork is thrown onto a new track by the inherent balkiness of the world.
7:2 Murphy’s Law states that if anything can go wrong, it will.
7:3 Performers experience this daily and hourly.
7:4 When dealing with instruments, tape recorders, projectors, computers, sound systems, and theater lights, there are inevitable breakdowns before a performance.
7:5 A performer can become sick.
7:6 A valued assistant can quit at the last minute, or lose his girlfriend and become mentally incapacitated.
7:7 Often it is these very accidents that give rise to the most (6) (1. ingenuous 2. indigenous 3. ingenious) solutions, and sometimes to off-the-cuff creativity of the highest order.
(22)What is the author’s ultimate purpose in referring to Murphy’s Law?
1. To suggest that problems are inevitable.
2. To suggest that problems lead to chaos.
3. To convince us that all artists and performers experience accidents.
4. To lead us to his point about creative solutions.

■第6段落
6:1 But the real point of electronic documents is not simply that we’ll read them on hardware devices.
6:2 Going from paper book to e-book is just the final stage of a process already well under way.
6:3 The significant aspect of digital documents is the (11) (1. reinstallation 2. replacement 3. redefinition) of the document itself, which will cause dramatic repercussions.

6:4 We’ll have to rethink not only what we mean by the term “document” but also what we mean by “author,” “publisher,” “office,” “classroom,” and “text.”

(23)The expression “dramatic repercussions” as used in this article may be paraphrased as
1. profound changes.
2. significant replacements.
3. great reductions.
4. impressive digitalizations.

■第6段落
6:1 So much for writing.
6:2 While reading aloud is necessarily an individual task and a frequent feature of early literacy, especially when only a small proportion of the population had the skills, it involved an immediate audience, the (14)(1. Physiological 2. Virtual 3. Physical) presence of hearers.
6:3 So, too, did a parallel feature of early literacy, the repetitive reading to oneself of a piece, then its subsequent recitation, as if produced purely orally, to a collected audience.
6:4 Such a process involves rereading, that is, going over for a second or a third time the linguistic message, in a fashion that is virtually impossible without writing.
6:5 The backward look facilitates not only verbatim memorizing but also understanding and critical analysis, as well as enabling the writer to construct and present more complex sentences than would otherwise be possible.

6:6 Such reviewing is the counterpart of comparing several versions of the same incident, poem, or account and of evaluating their differences, a procedure that gave (15) (1. birth 2. impetus 3. way) to history in the technical sense.
(30) Which of the following best expresses one of the main points of the article?
1. Written language is merely a representation of speech.
2. People in literate societies have taken advantage of those in nonliterate societies.
3. Speech is best characterized as a secondary mode of communication.
4. Literacy has contributed to our intellectual ability by facilitating critical thinking.

■第7段落
7:1 Literacy not only encourages such deliberate perusal of the text, it also makes possible the opposite, that is, the highly (16) (1. holistic 2. haphazard 3. Selective) forms of retrieval that are involved in consulting a dictionary (or even a library), as well as the skipping and the speed reading that takes place when we read a detective story rather than a poem.
7:2 The potential results of such procedures are vital to the growth of knowledge.
7:3 In the first place, the deliberate perusal of a text facilitates the search for inconsistencies, for contradictions, while the ability to set side by side different texts referring to the same events or notions leads to the (17)(1. reconsideration 2. cultivation 3. evaluation) of criticism and of skepticism.
7:4 It allows not only for criticism of the texts but also their further elaboration by commentary, which can (18) (1. in this respect 2. in its turn 3. as it turns out) be stored away for future reference, leading to the building up of libraries of stored knowledge.
7:5 These libraries encapsulate objective knowledge in the sense that this information has become theoretically (19) (1. inaccessible to 2. associated with 3. independent of) specific human teachers.

(29) The author seems to hold the view that
1. finding inconsistencies and contradictions is essential to the growth of knowledge.
2. highly advanced forms of information retrieval were available even in early literate cultures.
3. scrutinizing texts describing the same incidents or ideas is detrimental to the development of analytical abilities.
4. the main function of libraries is to store knowledge in such a way that skeptical people will be able to find inconsistencies in texts.

■第4段落
4:1 The deliberate visual recording of language means not only a search for words but a search for genres.
4:2 Oral discourse, even when not informal, often trails off into another activity, being punctuated by a drink of water, a mouthful of food, the rustle of paper, the closing of a door, or, in other words, by another nonlinguistic activity.
4:3 Written composition, however, has to have a formal beginning and an end; “Dear Christine” is completed by “Yours sincerely, Stephen,” (7) (1. put out 2. put forward 3. laid out) in a particular format, with the specification of place and date.
4:4 Apart from the letter, there is a gamut of genres from the report to the passport, as well as the literary genres ranging from the novel to the poem.
4:5 These developments appear gradually over time, but eventually not only each composition but each subunit (8) (1. takes after 2. takes on 3. takes in) a specific form each topic requires a paragraph, each sentence a capital letter and full stop, each word its break.
4:6 Syntax and punctuation become more precise and more formal as a result of becoming visual.
4:7 Part of the reason behind these changes is that whereas speech (9) (1. operates as 2. addresses 3. defines) one of the channels in face-to-face communication, writing as a register stands on its own.
4:8 It is “decontextualized,” or rather the context is highly (10) (1. restricted 2. redundant 3. reserved).
4:9 Hence, clarity of expression and precision of genre, syntax, and punctuation are encouraged by the visual representation of language.
(26) According to the article, face-to face communication is characterized by the fact that
1. it is highly dependent on the contexts in which communication takes place.
2. it often involves misunderstandings caused by the speaker’s lack of syntax and structure.
3. it often involves nonlinguistic activities, particularly in formal circumstances.
4. it is loosely tied to the contexts in which communication takes place.

■第3段落
3:1 The first achievement of writing is to ensure the storage and communication over time and space of linguistic messages.
3:2 There lies its prime role in transforming social organizations, but the process of setting down such messages, whether or not they are then communicated to anyone, leads to changes in human understanding itself.
3:3 In terms of the mechanics of reading and writing, these involve the development of secondary skills, the coordination of the eye with the brain, the inner ear, and the silent voice, by which linguistic thoughts are expressed in visual formulae and vice versa.
3:4 The process of learning to read involves the deliberate cultivation of exact memory and verbatim recall right from the start.
3:5 The memorizing of hundreds of basic shapes is (6) (1. crucial 2. marginal 3. irrelevant) to any logographic writing such as Chinese; syllabic scripts make fewer initial demands, and alphabetic ones fewer still.
(25) According to the article, the author claims that
1. the nature of human understanding has been greatly influenced by the kind of writing system we adopt.
2. some writing systems are more efficient for recording linguistic thoughts than others.

  1. the more complex the writing system is, the more demanding it is for the learner to acquire it.
    4. the acquisition of a writing system necessarily leads to the cultivation of analytical skills.

4:1 The deliberate visual recording of language means not only a search for words but a search for genres.
4:2 Oral discourse, even when not informal, often trails off into another activity, being punctuated by a drink of water, a mouthful of food, the rustle of paper, the closing of a door, or, in other words, by another nonlinguistic activity.
4:3 Written composition, however, has to have a formal beginning and an end; “Dear Christine” is completed by “Yours sincerely, Stephen,” (7) (1. put out 2. put forward 3. laid out) in a particular format, with the specification of place and date.
4:4 Apart from the letter, there is a gamut of genres from the report to the passport, as well as the literary genres ranging from the novel to the poem.
4:5 These developments appear gradually over time, but eventually not only each composition but each subunit (8) (1. takes after 2. takes on 3. takes in) a specific form each topic requires a paragraph, each sentence a capital letter and full stop, each word its break.
4:6 Syntax and punctuation become more precise and more formal as a result of becoming visual.
4:7 Part of the reason behind these changes is that whereas speech (9) (1. operates as 2.
addresses 3. defines) one of the channels in face-to-face communication, writing as a register stands on its own.
4:8 It is “decontextualized,” or rather the context is highly (10) (1. restricted 2. redundant 3. reserved).
4:9 Hence, clarity of expression and precision of genre, syntax, and punctuation are encouraged by the visual representation of language.
(24) The author seems to hold the view that written language differs from speech in that
1. it has a far more flexible structure than speech.
2. it has triggered the instantaneous development of genres.
3. it tends to be more precise in terms of syntax and punctuation.
4. it does not make any sense when taken out of context.

■第2段落
2:1 In most societies with writing, until 100 years ago only a minority could read and write; the rest were illiterate and hence were themselves dependent on the oral or visual transmission of knowledge.
2:2 They were not, (2) (1. therefore 2. however 3. on the contrary), dependent on knowledge originating in the oral or visual registers, and, consequently, their traditions differed in kind from those of a society without writing because they would be indirectly influenced by the written forms; illiterates would absorb Christian or Buddhist book learning through stories, sermons, paintings, and sculpture.
2:3 Equally, they might learn to conduct cognitive operations invented by the written culture (such as the arithmetic tables learned by heart).
2:4 The same is true of technological advances developed through the medium of written operations; illiterates may (3) (1. benefit from 2. be prevented from 3. resist) living in a literate culture, although the inability to read and write will place them in a disadvantageous position relative to others who can.
2:5 Even cultures without writing may be influenced by contact with literate outsiders in a similar manner.
2:6 The radio could stand as one example, because literacy was clearly (4)(1. a side effect 2. an outcome 3. a prerequisite) of its invention but not its operation.
2:7 Today, however, there is probably no society in the world that does not have some literates who are capable of (5) (1. deriving 2. manipulating 3. gaining) access to written knowledge produced elsewhere.
(22) With regard to illiterates living in a literate culture in the past, which of the following statements is true according to the article?
1. The knowledge they acquired was necessarily derived from oral or visual registers.
2. The channel through which they acquired knowledge was restricted to the oral or visual mode.
3. They learned to conduct cognitive operations quite differently from literates.
4. They were placed in a disadvantageous position because there was no way for them to acquire written knowledge.

■第6段落
6:1 The actual ideas for my theory of intelligence were inspired by contact with people I have known.
6:2 In developing a (11) (1. consensus 2. purpose 3. rationale) for a theory of intelligence, however, it is necessary to have both a scientific and an observational basis for making theoretical claims.
6:3 I therefore decided to look back at the major theories of intelligence that have been proposed during the twentieth century.
6:4 All of these seemed to be doing one, or in rare cases, two, of three things.
6:5 The first kind of theory attempted to relate intelligence to the internal world of individuals: What goes on inside people’s heads when they think intelligently?
6:6 In the second kind of theory, psychologists sought to relate intelligence to the experience of individuals: How does experience affect people’s intelligence, and how does their intelligence affect the kinds of experiences they have?

6:7 The third kind of theory is concerned with the relationship of intelligence to the external world of individuals: How do their interactions with the world at large affect their intelligence, and how does their intelligence affect the world in which they live?
6:8 Furthermore, how does the world in which we live shape our very notions of what intelligence is?
(29) How does the authors theory of intelligence differ from those of other theorists?
1. His theory relates intelligence to the internal world of the individual.
2. His theory tries to explain how experience affects intelligence.
3. His theory posits an interaction between individuals and the external world.
4. His theory is both scientific and observational.

8:1 The (13) (1. convergence 2. divergence 3. incompatibility) of my analysis of the research literature and my personal experience convinced me that what was needed was a “triarchic” theory of human intelligence — one that did justice to each of these three aspects of intelligence.
8:2 It is important to mention that my goal in constructing the tribrachic theory was quite (14) (1. contrary to 2. interchangeable with 3. compatible with) that of most psychologists who have developed theories of intelligence.
8:3 The field has been (15)1. Exceptionally focused 2. Notoriously contentious 3. Unusually harmonious), with every theorist setting out to prove that his theory is right and everyone else’s is wrong.
8:4 For example, Arthur Jensen argues for the predominance of a single, general factor in human intelligence, while Howard Gardner maintains that there are at least seven or eight multiple intelligences.

8:5 For me, the most disturbing element of these and other opposing theorists has been that while they have done reasonably well in (16) (1. amassing 2. refuting 3. responding to) evidence to support their own point of view, they have generally failed to disprove the views of others.
8:6 How could this be?
8:7 After reviewing earlier theories, I came to the conclusion that the reason for this was that virtually all of them have been (17)(1. inaccurate 2. incomplete 3. inconsistent).
8:8 Though proposed as full theories of intelligence, each has dealt with only some limited aspects.

8:9 Often, too, these theories have proved to be complementary rather than contradictory, as might be expected.
8:10 It is not difficult to show that a theory of general intelligence and the theory of multiple intelligences can be (18) (1. infused 2. installed 3. integrated) in a hierarchical framework, with general intelligence at the top of the hierarchy and multiple intelligences lower down.
8:11 More specific abilities would then be viewed as sub-abilities.
8:12 The point to be made, then, is that often the competition among theorists has been (19) (1. fierce 2. spurious 3. accommodating).
8:13 Their theories are really theories of different aspects of intelligence.
(26)According to the author, a theory of general intelligence and a theory of multiple intelligences
1. relate to each other as competing views.
2. exist together in a hierarchical relationship.
3. appear to be related but in fact are not.
4. share related kinds of evidence.

(27)The author is upset that psychologists who have developed theories of intelligence
1. have little evidence to support their views.
2. have not been able to prove the views of other theorists.
3. have come up with too many different theories.
4. have not used their evidence to reject the theories of others.
(28)Which of the following qualities does the author consider least important for success in graduate school ?
1. The ability to use intelligence in dealing with novelty.
2. The ability to use both synthetic and analytic skills.
3. The ability to apply ones knowledge in practical ways in everyday settings.
4. The ability to score well on various kinds of conventional measures of intelligence.

■第5段落
5:1 Just how would you characterize the similarities and differences among Alice, Barbara, and Celia?
5:2 Clearly, all are exceedingly intelligent, though in very different ways.
5:3 People like Alice excel in traditional academic, or analytic, intelligence.
5:4 To the extent that intelligence is measured by (8)1. conventional 2. genetic 3. creative) factors or information processing components, by its relationship to the internal world, Alice and individuals like her would be considered very, very smart.
5:5 Individuals like Barbara, on the other hand, do not appear nearly so intelligent by such ordinary standards.
5:6 Where they excel is in their synthetic ability, the ability to deal with novelty — to view new things in old ways or old things in new ways.
5:7 Hence Barbara’s intelligence, and that of others like her, becomes truly apparent (9) (1. unless
2. even though 3. only if) it is viewed in terms of the relationship of intelligence to experience, particularly novel experience.
5:8 People like Celia have neither Alice’s nor Barbara’s pattern of strength.
5:9 Instead, they excel in terms of the relationship between intelligence and the external world of the individual.
5:10 Their excellence resides in their practical intelligence — the ability to apply their mental abilities to (10) (1. novel 2. unusual 3. every day) situations.
5:11 Their street smarts are not measured by typical tests but quickly show up in their performance in real-world settings.
(24) In the author’s opinion, which of the following statements is true?
1. Intelligence and experience are related.
2. Practical intelligence is not as useful a measure of intelligence as are test scores.
3. People like Alice, Barbara, and Celia tend to do equally well, but in different ways, in graduate school.
4. A good theory of intelligence needs to focus primarily on how the mind processes information.

■第2段落
2:1 Alice was the admissions officer’s dream.

2:2 She was easily admitted to our graduate program.

2:3 She came with (1) (1. average 2. stellar 3. satisfactory) test scores, outstanding college grades, excellent letters of recommendation, and, overall, close to a perfect record.
2:4 Alice proved to be more or less what her record promised.
2:5 She had excellent critical and analytical abilities, which earned her outstanding grades during her first two years at our school.
2:6 When it came to taking tests and writing papers, she (2) (1. had no peer 2. had no help 3. was popular) among her classmates.
2:7 But after the first two years, Alice no longer looked quite so outstanding.
2:8 In our graduate program, as in most, emphasis shifts after the first couple of years.
2:9 It is not enough just to criticize other people’s ideas or to study concepts that other people have proposed.
2:10 You must (3) (1. not rely on 2. begin reviewing 3. start coming up with) your own ideas and figuring out ways of implementing them.
2:11 Alice’s synthetic abilities were far inferior to her analytic ones.
2:12 But there was no way of knowing this from the evidence available in the admissions folder, for
(4) (1. although 2. however 3. whenever) conventional measures can give us a good reading on analytic abilities, they give virtually no assessment of synthetic abilities.
2:13 Thus, Alice was “IQ test” smart, but not equally (5)1. discreet 2. disciplined 3. distinguished) in the synthetic, or practical, areas of intelligence.

■第3段落
3:1 In sharp contrast to Alice, Barbara was the admissions officer’s nightmare.
3:2 When she applied to our graduate school, she had good grades but abysmal aptitude test scores.
3:3 Still, she had superlative letters of recommendation, which described her as an exceptionally creative young woman who had designed and implemented creative research with only minimal guidance.
3:4 Moreover, her resume showed her to have been actively involved in important research.

3:5 Unfortunately, people like Barbara are rejected from many graduate programs.
3:6 As a result, they either have to enter a program that is much less competitive or change their field altogether.

■第1段落
1:1 Consider three type of graduate students with whom I have been associated.
1:2 If you understand the similarities and differences among these students — we’ll call them Alice, Barbara, and Celia — and their strengths and weaknesses, you will have a better basis for understanding the tribrachic theory of human intelligence that I am proposing.
(22) What was the authors point in describing Alice, Barbara, and Celia?
1. To point out which kind of student had the most appropriate kind of intelligence to succeed in graduate school.
2. To demonstrate three different kinds of admissions criteria.
3. To exemplify three kinds of interrelated intelligence in his theory.
4. To stress the importance of analytic intelligence in success in school.

■第10段落
10:1 And what about authority?
10:2 Do we perhaps identify authority with the designer who had the idea of inventing a new polo shirt design, or with the manufacturer who decided to sell it, and to sell it on a wide scale, to make money?
10:3 Or with those who legitimate lee agree to wear it, and to advertise an image of youth and recklessness, or happiness?
10:4 Or with the TV director, who has one of his young actors wear the polo shirt to characterize a genera tion?
10:5 Or with the singer who, to cover his expenses, agrees to sponsor the polo shirt?
10:6 All are in it, and all are outside it.
10:7 Power is elusive, and there is no longer (16) (1. any 2. some 3. all) telling where the “plan” comes from.
10:8 There is a plan, but it is no longer intentional.
10:9 Therefore, it cannot be criticized with the traditional (17) (1. critic 2. criticism 3. critics) of intentions.
10:10 All the professors of communication, trained by the texts of twenty years ago (this includes me), should be pensioned off.
[8] The author suggests that people like himself should retire because
1. their understanding of things no longer applies.
2. criticism is no longer useful in modern times.
3. his generation no longer has plans for the future.
4. they have too much power.

■第7段落
7:1 Radio and television today send out countless, uncontrollable messages that each individual uses to make up his own composi tion with the remote control switch.
7:2 The consumer’s freedom may not have increased, but surely the way to teach him to be free has changed.

7:3 We are faced with a new phenomenon; the multiplica tion of the media and “media squared.”
[3] According to the author, we have to reexamine everything that was said in the 60s and 70s
because
1. what people demanded in the 60s and 70s has largely been achieved.
2. there is a change in the nature of the media itself.
3. we have new authorities and new political plans.
4. we are not victims of indoctrination any more.

■第3段落
3:1 And yet we (2) (1. considered 2. are considering 3. had considered) Kubrick an innovator of genius.
3:2 But that is the point; the media have a history but they have no memory (two characteristics that ought to be incompatible).
3:3 The mass media are genealogical because, in them, every new invention sets (3) (1. off 2. out
3. on) a chain reaction of inventions and produces a sort of common language.
3:4 They have no memory because, when the chain of imitations has been produced, no one can remember who started it, and the head of the clan is confused with the latest great grandson.
3:5 (4)(1. Therefore 2. In contrast 3. Furthermore), the media learn ; and thus the space ships of Star Wars, descended from Kubrick’s, are more complex and plausible than their ancestor, and now the ancestor seems to be their (5) (1 .imitator 2. origin 3. model).
[1] When the author says that the media are “genealogical,” he means that the media
1. have characteristics that are incompatible.
2. have no memory.
3. constantly invent new technologies.
4. contain their own history.

■第13段落
13:1 But what inspires the pecking behavior?
13:2 The baby gull has no conscious understanding of a reward to be gained.
13:3 It has never eaten before and cannot know (15) (1. what 2. how 3. that) a knock on a parents bill will provide.
13:4 The behavior must be innate and unlearned.
[10] Newborn gulls peck at their parents’ beak because of
1. early habit formation.
2. instinct.
3. an attraction to odors and movement.
4. a knowledge of where the food is.

■第5段落
5:1 Barrington reasoned that the fundamental emotions in our behavioral storehouses are dissociable and that our totality must be an amalgam of separable components.
5:2 Such a splintering of skills is also (5) (1. captured 2. evident 3. enclosed) sometimes in severely handicapped people, and we are all familiar with people who can reckon the day of the week for any date over centuries in their head.
5:3 This suggests that we must construct our understanding of the world from separate modules, and this principle of dissociation may be a key to the nature of the evolution of intelligence.
[8] The main focus of this essay is on
1. the meaning of Mozart’s genius.
2. the importance of careful research.
3. the nature of biological change.
4. the origin of animal behavior.

■第10段落
10:1 He wished, (10) (1. to be sure 2. in sum 3. for example), to trace facial gestures to antecedent states in ancestral animals.
10:2 But if the human complement forms an integrated array, locked together by our unique consciousness, then a historical origin from simpler systems becomes impossible.
10:3 Darwin recognized that two principles must underlie the possibility of evolution.
10:4 First, gestures cannot be subject to fully conscious control; some, at least, must represent automatic, evolved responses.
10:5 As (11) (1. examples 2. collections 3. evidence) for ancestral states, Darwin cited several gestures that make no sense without modern morphology, but must have served our ancestors well.
10:6 In sneering, we tighten our upper lips and raise them in the region of our canine teeth.
10:7 This motion once exposed the fighting weapons of our ancestors, but human canines are no bigger than our other teeth and this inherited reaction has lost its original function.
[7] The fact that we now have small canine teeth shows that
1. we use gestures to threaten our enemies.

  1. our facial expressions are tied to our emotions.
    3. we have evolved from ancestors who used their teeth to frighten a potential attacker.
    4. our gestures develop independently of our body parts.

■第16段落
16:1 The concept of modularity (19) (1. lies 2. forms 3. stays) at the heart of much innovative research in cognitive science.
16:2 The brain does a great deal of work by complex coordination among its parts, but we have also known for a long time that highly particular attitudes and behaviors map to specific portions of the brain.
16:3 Barrington’s study of Mozart and the modern scientific research on the behavior of newborn gulls may seem at first sight to have (20) (1. little 2. much 3. everything) in common.
16:4 However, although we may read it to learn more about the life of a man revered for his contribution to the world of art, the illustration of modularity evidenced both in Mozart’s own behavior and in his ability to separate and abstract single emotions is an important contribution to our understanding of the human mind.
[6] The concept of modularity, the author suggests,
1. is responsible for a great deal of original research.
2. is a new and exciting concept.
3. shows the degree to which the complexity of the brain has developed.
4. proves that some parts of the brain are more highly adapted to development than others.

■第3段落
3:1 What especially intrigued Barrington was the nature of genius itself.
3:2 (3)(1. How it is, he wondered 2. How is it, wondered he 3. How is it, he wondered), that this child could be so exceptional in one particular arena, and so normal a child in apparently every other way?
3:3 Not only did Mozart look like a child, but
3:4 …whilst he was playing to me (Barrington wrote), a favorite cat came in, upon which he immediately left his harpsichord, nor could we bring him back for a considerable time.
3:5 He would also sometimes run about the room with a stick between his legs (playing horse).
[4] Barrington uses “playing horse” as an illustration that Mozart
1. had a short attention span as a child.
2. was good at expressing emotions.
3. was less developed in some ways than in others.
4. was a child with well-balanced interests.

■第9段落
9:1 This fundamental principle of dissociability works just as well for the mental complexities of emotions and intelligence as for designs of entire bodies.
9:2 As he began to (9) (1. compile 2. change 3. contain) the notes that would lead to his evolutionary theory, Charles Darwin recognized that he could not give an evolutionary account of human emotions without the principles of modularity and dissociation.

■第11段落
11:1 (12)(1. Therefore 2. Second 3. Nonetheless), just as young Mozart could separate and abstract single emotions, Darwin realized that standard facial gestures must be modules of largely independent action and that the human emotional repertoire must be more like the separate items in a shopper’s bag than the facets of an unbreakable totality.

11:2 Evolution can mix, (13) (1. run 2. survive 3. match), and modify independently.
11:3 Otherwise we face Cuvier’s dilemma: if all emotions are inextricably bound by their status as interacting, optimal expressions, then how can anything ever change?
[3] If we follow the principles of modularity and dissociation, we must conclude that:
1. the expression of fear may have evolved separately from the expression of sadness.
2. facial gestures familiar to us today may be found unchanged in ancestral animals.
3. the evolution of an upright posture had to occur before enlargement of the human brain.
4. Darwin thought that all emotions interact and are inextricably bound to all other emotions.

■第11段落
11:1 When immigrants of diverse cultural backgrounds are assimilated into a new society, they may contribute to the dominant culture.
11:2 The degree to which assimilation occurs depends on the migrants’ ability and on the receiving society’s willingness to accept them.
11:3 Assimilation works best where mutual integration is desired, permitting the incoming individuals and groups to remain different[19](1. such that 2. so that 3. so long as) they do not be come dominant or cause disunity.
11:4 Where minorities have remained unintegrated or where an attempt has been made to achieve
[20](1. social welfare 2. mutual independence 3. complete uniformity), cultural collisions have occurred.
11:5 In the United States the concept of the population as a “melting pot”or uniform blend of human ingredients, has changed since the mid-20th Century.
11:6 It is now generally recognized that immigration produced something more like a mosaic, in which each element has retained its own characteristics while contributing to a commonality.
[10] In this article the expression “something more like a mosaic” is used to
1. describe a condition in which people of different backgrounds are well mixed and assimilated into Society.
2. refer to cultural conflicts among minority groups which tend to remain unintegrated.
3. reinforce the idea of the “melting pot” which typically characterizes American society.
4. emphasize the plurality of the ethnic backgrounds of American people.

■第11段落
11:1 When immigrants of diverse cultural backgrounds are assimilated into a new society, they may contribute to the dominant culture.
11:2 The degree to which assimilation occurs depends on the migrants’ ability and on the receiving society’s willingness to accept them.
11:3 Assimilation works best where mutual integration is desired, permitting the incoming individuals and groups to remain different[19](1. such that 2. so that 3. so long as) they do not be come dominant or cause disunity.
11:4 Where minorities have remained unintegrated or where an attempt has been made to achieve
[20](1. social welfare 2. mutual independence 3. complete uniformity), cultural collisions have occurred.
11:5 In the United States the concept of the population as a “melting pot”or uniform blend of human ingredients, has changed since the mid-20th Century.
11:6 It is now generally recognized that immigration produced something more like a mosaic, in which each element has retained its own characteristics while contributing to a commonality.
[9] According to the author assimilation
1. works when the individuality of each group is well maintained.
2. produces good results when incoming people take on the norms and lifestyles of the mainstream culture.
3. becomes successful if the dominant group accepts the lifestyles of minority groups.
4. results in a failure when too many cultural values are introduced into a host Society.

■第9段落
9:1 Current patterns of migration are linked with serious social and economic problems in many countries.
9:2 In the United States, the movement of millions of people from cities to suburbs and their [15] (1. increase 2. replacement 3. involvement) in the Cities by people of lower average incomes are causal factors of the modern “urban crisis”
9:3 The migration from the northern to the “Sunbelt” states has threatened to increase the population of the Southwest beyond the limits of some areas’ water resources.
9:4 In many third-world countries, rural-urban migration has caused over-urbanization and depopulation of rural areas.
9:5 The selective migration of highly intelligent, skilled individuals from less to more affluent countries has resulted in the problem of “brain-drain” for [16](1. receiving 2. Sending 3. both) countries.
[7] Regarding the social and economic problems of migration, which of the following is not mentioned in the article?
1. A modern urban crisis occurs in the U.S. when people of lower average incomes move into cities while the rich move to suburbs.
2. A brain-drain occurs because the government of a sending country selectively permits less skilled persons to emigrate.

  1. In third-world countries, migration from rural to urban areas is a cause of an unbalanced distribution of population.
    4. An increase of population due to movement from the northern to the southwestern states causes water shortage in some sunbelt areas.

■第8段落
8:1 Another obstacle to migration is the unwillingness of people to consider moving because of commitments to family, friends, property, and community.
8:2 [13](1. Nonetheless 2. In addition 3. For this reason), the migration rate for older groups is
lower than for young adults and their children.
8:3 Transportation costs are often a great obstacle, and some countries and private enterprises that have[14](1. restricted 2. promoted 3. rejected) immigration have offered financial incentives to desired new comers.
[6] As compared with young adults, older people are less willing to migrate to a distant and unfamiliar place because
1. linguistic and cultural barriers are impossible for older people to overcome
2. financial support is less likely to be offered to them, since they are considered less desirable by the host community.
3. they tend to have stronger ties to their own community.
4. they are set in their ways and lack a sense of adventure

■第2段落
2:1 People may move because of dissatisfaction with their community, or because of the attraction of a different community.
2:2 Examples of the first type of [3](1. effect 2. movement 3. incentive) to migrate are the loss of a job, causing the person to consider equivalent employment in another locality, or the exhaustion of natural resources, [4](1. including 2. inducing 3. providing) a group to move to a foreign land.

2:3 These are push factors of migration.
2:4 On the other hand, a person may choose a new community because its housing or job opportunities are superior, or a relatively large group may suddenly migrate to a distant place when gold is discovered there.
2:5 These are pull factors.
2:6 Either kind of motive may operate alone, but these factors generally [5](1. interact 2. predominate 3. function) in a migration.
[3] In describing motives for migration, the author suggests that
1. people move to a new community only if they find cross cultural barriers easy to overcome.
2. the main reason for migrating to another community is either the loss of a job or the exhaustion of natural resources.
3. discovery of gold and superior housing are equally good reasons for a large group to migrate to a new community.
4. the factors that motivate a single individual to move may be different from those that motivate a large group of people to move.

■第8段落
8:1 The principle of juxtaposition permits the enactment of cultural themes that may be deeply rooted in concepts of (16)(1. difference 2. maintenance 3. structure) and contrast or may derive from oppositions or conflicts in social experience.
8:2 For example, until the modern era, most societies were preoccupied with survival and thus concentrated attention on fertility rites and reproductive acts, emphasizing gender differences.

8:3 Today festivals continue to represent an opportunity for the enactment of gender roles and for courtship and romance.
[7] Which of the following is the example of juxtaposition cited in the article?
1. The contrast between fertility rites and reproductive acts.
2. The contrast between male and female.
3. The contrast between gender differences and gender roles.

内容一致問題
■第1段落
1:1 In a broad sense, human migration is a relatively permanent movement of an individual or a group over a significant distance.
1:2 Although the significance of a distance is usually measured geographically, it can also be determined by social criteria.
1:3 For example, a farmer who moves to a city apartment within the same County probably changes his life more [1](1. minimally 2. gradually 3. drastically) than does a person who moves from an apartment in New York to one in San Francisco.
1:4 Taking into account short moves that are socially significant, most analysts agree that a migration must include at least a relatively permanent change of community.
1:5 Movements that involve only a temporary change of residence are generally considered nonmigratory.
1:6 These include nomadism, for the nomad has no fixed home, and seasonal movements, [2]
(1. as in the case of 2. unlike 3. aside from) farm workers who follow the growing season.
1:7 Tourism and commuting also are nonmigratory.
[1] As regards the definition of “human migration” the author mentions that
1. human migration is exclusively defined by the two factors: “permanent movement” and “geographically significant distance.”
2. a permanent change of community is generally accepted among experts as a factor defining human migration
3. human migration Cannot be defined because of too many arbitrary factors involved in determining what migration is.
4. nomadism reflects the origin of migration since nomads do not settle in one place and move regularly.

■第7段落
7:1 Festival use of symbolic form has captured the interest of a number of scholars in different disciplines, from Jane Ellen Harrison to Victor Turner and Mikhail Bakhtin, all of whom noted the transformative potential in rites and festivals.
7:2 Transformation in festivals takes the form of symbolic manipulation using the principles listed above.
7:3 Among the most common is inversion, the reversal of the established social order, (13)(1. including 2. maintaining 3. furthering) social hierarchy and gender roles.
7:4 In hierarchical societies, symbolic inversion creates an upside-down world with the “inferior” at the top and the “superior” at the bottom, or it declares (14)(1. the social structure 2. inversion 3. egalitarianism) to be in order for the duration of the festival.

7:5 Special characters such as clowns may assume the role of agent in bringing about the symbolic action.
7:6 In societies in which egalitarianism is the stated form, symbolic inversion may create a (15)(1. demolition 2. royalty 3. reorientation) of queens and princesses, demonstrating the reversal from egalitarianism to aristocracy and from a male-dominated to a female-dominated social structure.

7:7 Competitions in festival serve the same purpose, creating competitive performers and dividing them into the victorious and the defeated, creating differentiation out of sameness.
[6] Of the statements about inversion, which is true according to the author?
1. Inversion is the major principle of symbolic manipulation that transforms the established social order.
2. Inversion predominantly takes place in hierarchical societies, not in their egalitarian counterparts.
3. Inversion reduces the amount of ambiguity inherent in symbolic meaning.

■第7段落
7:1 Festival use of symbolic form has captured the interest of a number of scholars in different disciplines, from Jane Ellen Harrison to Victor Turner and Mikhail Bakhtin, all of whom noted the transformative potential in rites and festivals.
7:2 Transformation in festivals takes the form of symbolic manipulation using the principles listed above.
7:3 Among the most common is inversion, the reversal of the established social order, (13)(1. including 2. maintaining 3. furthering) social hierarchy and gender roles.
7:4 In hierarchical societies, symbolic inversion creates an upside-down world with the “inferior” at the top and the “superior” at the bottom, or it declares (14)(1. the social structure 2. inversion 3. egalitarianism) to be in order for the duration of the festival.
7:5 Special characters such as clowns may assume the role of agent in bringing about the symbolic action.
7:6 In societies in which egalitarianism is the stated form, symbolic inversion may create a (15)(1. demolition 2. royalty 3. reorientation) of queens and princesses, demonstrating the reversal from egalitarianism to aristocracy and from a male-dominated to a female-dominated social structure.

7:7 Competitions in festival serve the same purpose, creating competitive performers and dividing them into the victorious and the defeated, creating differentiation out of sameness.
[5] What is an example of inversion in festivals?
1. Bears, corn and cowboys become the major visual symbols.
2. An egalitarian society becomes an aristocratic society.
3. A clown assumes the role of the agent to introduce the symbolic action.

■第2段落
2:1 (3)(1. Change 2. Consideration 3. Coinage) of terminology also raises the question of festival’s relationship to ritual.
2:2 The separation of the two types of symbolic enactment evolved as a consequence of modern religious systems’ attempts to obliterate native religions.
2:3 Quite commonly, however, indigenous practices (4)(1. survived 2. predominated 3. died down)
under a new name, disguising their origins.
2:4 These became known as festival or fiesta, in contrast to ritual, which became the serious occasions focusing on male authority legitimated by modern official religion.
2:5 In an effort to denigrate indigenous religious practices, modern religion thus assigned festival to a position (5)(1.through 2. crucial to 3.peripheral to) the core of ritual life.
2:6 The most recent modern religions, such as Protestantism, completely dissociate festival from religion, and it then becomes a secular event.
2:7 As a result, ritual is associated with official religion, whereas festival designates occasions considered to be pagan, recreational, or for children.
2:8 Like play and creativity, festival explores and (6)(1. copes 2. experiments 3. defines itself) with meaning.
2:9 Both forms utilize multiple codes and channels.
2:10 Examples of contemporary festivals and holidays with ancient roots include celebrations of saints’ days, the Virgin Mary, Christmas, the new year, Easter, May Day, and Halloween, all of which represent a fusion of early Indo-European and/or Native American religious rituals with modern religion and culture.
[2] In terms of word usage, how does festival differ from ritual?
1. Festival can cover a wide range of social and religious activities, while ritual tends to be restricted to modern official religion.
2. Festival refers to the symbolic nature of modern religions, while ritual refers to the peripheral nature of native religions.
3. The interpretation of festival is determinate and fixed, while that of ritual tends to be indeterminate and open-ended.

■第11段落
11:1 Taken as a whole, festival facilitates regeneration through rearrangement of structures, thus creating new frames and processes: consequently, it can strengthen the identity of the group and thus its power to (20)(1. act 2. balance off 3. disappear) in its own interest, or it can contribute to the articulation of social issues and possibly conflict if more than one interpretation prevails on the same subject.

11:2 Because of the social power of these regenerative forms, however, festival thrives in both ancient and modern societies, always enacting social life and shaping the expressive enterprise of human society.
[1] Overall, the author suggests that festivals play a major role in
1. integrating extraordinary social life into religious rituals, allowing people to stabilize social structures.
2. strengthening the group identity and maintaining social order.
3. upgrading the political and business activities of self-interested authorities or business persons.

■第6段落
6:1 So far there has been no definite answer to the question and none is likely to be given in the near future.
6:2 Attempts to compare different situations and assess how much of the variations could be attributed to leaders have occasionally been made.
6:3 Even if the efforts are not wholly convincing they (16)(1. take 2. rest 3.make) the case of those who suggest that leaders merely reflect their environment more difficult to sustain: it goes against common sense; it goes against the way people have always behaved, not least those who have (17)(1. processed 2. possessed 3. professed) that the environment was all powerful.
6:4 It is the political regimes that are most closely built on this philosophy, the communist systems, that produce the politicians who place most emphasis on leadership as though the socioeconomic forces needed Lenin, Mao, Tito and others to (18)(1. materialize 2. destroy .
neutralize) themselves in the reality of political life.
[9] The author mentions Lenin, Mao and Tito to illustrate an irony. What is it?
1. Looked upon as great leaders in their lifetimes, these men’s reputations have diminished after their deaths.
2. They were leaders in a political system which denied the importance of leaders to the formation of history.
3. They were simultaneously loved and hated.

■第4段落
4:1 There is, however, a second and even more fundamental way in which the environment appears to condition or even mould leadership : the circumstances are not equally advantageous to all those who hold top positions.
4:2 Of course, a “real” leader is the one who can (10)(1. lose 2. hold 3. seize) the opportunities and (11)(1. exploit 2. explain 3. extort) them to the full; but the opportunities may be rare.
4:3 Some leaders may benefit from the disunion of their enemies at home and abroad; others may benefit from the fact that external circumstances are favorable.
4:4 Indeed, it is in the context of foreign affairs that the characteristics of leadership have tended to (12)(1. indulge 2. submerge 3. emerge) most strongly, in part because foreign affairs have always been more glamorous than internal policy making and in part because, the stakes being much higher, up to and including the destruction of the country, the successes can be immense.
4:5 Machiavelli knew this well: most of his 1ecommendations to the Prince were connected to the aim of establishing leadership through prestigious victories against (13)(1. domestic 2. foreign 3. native) enemies.
4:6 Closer to our own day, one wonders how Winston Churchill would have fared — indeed whether he would still play a part in the history books, despite having been minister several times

— had he not “met with destiny” in 1940; the same might be said of Charles de Gaulle, as a result of the brutal French defeat of the same year.
[6] According to this article, what did Machiavelli know well?
1. If the Prince wants to be seen as a real leader, it is better for him to make himself feared than loved.
2. If the Prince wants to be seen as a real leader, it is better for him to concentrate on foreign affairs.
3. If the Prince wants to be seen as a real leader, it is better for him to concentrate on providing prosperity and security to his people.
[7] Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle are mentioned as examples
1. of leaders who embody the essential characteristics of their countries.
2. of leaders who were shaped by circumstances.
3. of leaders who possessed intelligence, energy, the ability to communicate and the capacity to make quick decisions.

■第4段落
4:1 There is, however, a second and even more fundamental way in which the environment appears to condition or even mould leadership : the circumstances are not equally advantageous to all those who hold top positions.
4:2 Of course, a “real” leader is the one who can (10)(1. lose 2. hold 3. seize) the opportunities and (11)(1. exploit 2. explain 3. extort) them to the full; but the opportunities may be rare.

4:3 Some leaders may benefit from the disunion of their enemies at home and abroad; others may benefit from the fact that external circumstances are favorable.
4:4 Indeed, it is in the context of foreign affairs that the characteristics of leadership have tended to (12)(1. indulge 2. submerge 3. emerge) most strongly, in part because foreign affairs have always been more glamorous than internal policy making and in part because, the stakes being much higher, up to and including the destruction of the country, the successes can be immense.
4:5 Machiavelli knew this well: most of his 1ecommendations to the Prince were connected to the aim of establishing leadership through prestigious victories against (13)(1. domestic 2. foreign 3. native) enemies.
4:6 Closer to our own day, one wonders how Winston Churchill would have fared — indeed whether he would still play a part in the history books, despite having been minister several times
— had he not “met with destiny” in 1940; the same might be said of Charles de Gaulle, as a result of the brutal French defeat of the same year.
[4] The author asks the question, “Why do some prime ministers or presidents not succeed in becoming real leaders?” Which of the following would be the best answer to that question?
1. Because they lacked intelligence and energy.
2. Because they were unable to benefit from external circumstances.
3. Because they were unable to communicate well and make quick decisions.

■第2段落
2:1 Part of the difficulty comes from the fact that the qualities required of a leader are hard to define.

2:2 Social psychologists and psychologists, who more than other academics have attempted to analyze the phenomenon and who have set up experiments designed to (4)(1. deflect 2. detect 3. detract) the components of leadership, have found it difficult to agree as to which personality characteristics are most important.

2:3 Many “traits” are felt to be essential, from energy to intelligence and from the ability to communicate to the capacity to make decisions rapidly and firmly.
2:4 The results so far do not provide a clear outline of what is or is not required, (5)(1. any less than 2. any more than 3. any other than) the biographies of “illustrious” men have made it possible to determine what exactly were the qualities of Alexander or Caesar, Napoleon or Churchill.
[2] Those attempting to understand leadership have followed a number of methods. Which of the following is not mentioned in this article?
1. Experiments to discover leadership traits have been conducted.
2. Biographies of leaders have been studied.
3. Leaders have been interviewed.

■第12段落
12:1 Gadamer’s discourse on language and tradition is based on a rather broad analysis of interpretation and understanding.
12:2 If we observe the hermeneutic circle only at the coarse-grained level offered by texts and societies, we remain (20)(1. geared 2. consistent 3. blind) to its operation at the much finer-grained level of daily life.
12:3 If we look only at language, we fail to relate it to the interpretation that constitutes non linguistic experience as well.
[10] What is the author’s point of view regarding hermeneutics?
1. The objectivist’s view of hermeneutics is correct.
2. Gadamer’s idea is generally correct, but needs to be refined.
3. Gadamer’s theory is adequate to interpret all texts.

■第9段落
9:1 To acquire an awareness of a situation is, however, always a task of particular difficulty.
9:2 The very idea of a situation means that we are (14)(1. really 2. not 3. naturally) standing outside it and hence are unable to have any objective knowledge of it.
9:3 We are always within the situation, and to throw light on it is a task that is never entirely completed.
9:4 This is true also of the hermeneutic situation, i.e., the situation in which we find ourselves with regard to the tradition that we are trying to understand.
9:5 The illumination of this situation — effective-historical reflection — can never be completely
(15) (1. achieved 2. ignored 3. persisted), but this is not due to a lack in the reflection, but lies in the essence of the historical being which is ours.
9:6To exist historically means that knowledge of oneself can (16)(1. indeed 2. always 3. never) be complete.
9:7 Gadamer, Truth and Method (1975), pp.268-269.
[7] Why does Gadamer believe that the nature of our being cannot be made fully explicit?
1. Awareness of a situation lies in the historical essence, which lies outside of the society.
2. It is impossible for us to acquire an objective view of the situation in which we are living.
3. We can understand the society with respect to the tradition in which we find ourselves.

■第6段落
6:1 Gadamer devotes extensive discussion to the relation of the individual to tradition, clarifying how tradition and interpretation (8)(1. complicate 2. interact 3. separate).
6:2 Any individual, in understanding his or her world, is continually involved in activities of interpretation.
6:3 That interpretation is based on prejudice (or pre understanding), which includes assumptions implicit in the language that the person uses.
6:4 That language in turn is (9)(1. learned 2. forgotten 3 . intervened) through activities of interpretation.
6:5 The individual is changed through the use of language, and the language changes through its use by individuals.
6:6 This process is of the first importance, since it constitutes the background of the beliefs and assumptions that determine the nature of our being.
6:7 We are social creatures:
[5] According to the author, Gadamer
1. claims that interpretation is always grounded in prejudice.
2. holds a naive but solid-seeming view of the meaning of the text itself.
3. believes that the nature of our existence is independent of our beliefs and assumptions.

■第1段落
1:1 Hermeneutics began as the theory of the interpretation of texts, particularly mythical and sacred texts.
1:2 Its practitioners struggled with the problem of characterizing how people find meaning in a text that exists over many centuries and is understood differently in different epochs.
1:3 A mythical or religious text continues to be spoken or read and to serve as a source of deep meaning, in spite of (1)(1. changes 2. consistency 3. disappearance) in the underlying culture and even in the language.

1:4 There are obvious questions to be raised.
1:5 Is the meaning definable in some absolute sense, independent of the context in which the text was written?
1:6 Is it definable only in terms of that original context?
1:7 If so, is it possible or desirable for a reader to transcend his or her own culture and the intervening history in order to (2)(1. repeat 2. reinforce 3. recover) the correct interpretation?
[1] What is the fundamental question of hermeneutics?
1. How to find meaning in a text.
2. How to begin a theoretical interpretation.
3. How to find mystery in a sacred document.
[2] Which of the following is not one of the “obvious questions to be raised” concerning hermeneutics?
1. Is the meaning in the text or in the context?
2. Is there a deep meaning in mythical and religious texts?
3. Can readers transcend their own culture and history to find meaning in the text?

■第13段落
13:1 Persuasive communicators commonly have an idea of how much they wish to modify a given audiences attitudes and opinions.
13:2 Some communicators may defend a position strongly discrepant to that held by the audience, while others may possibly advocate a position which is only somewhat discrepant from the audiences initial opinion.
13:3 Overall, research shows that with both excessive and (19)(1. conservative 2. liberal 3. radical) usage of discrepancy a communicators effectiveness is diminished.
13:4 The instance where discrepancy (20)(1. sustains 2. affords 3. works) best is when the message of the communicator is only slightly different from the opinions held by the audience.
13:5 As one would guess, moderate levels of discrepancy work best when the message is delivered by a credible communicator.
13:6 In some cases, messages with extreme levels of discrepancy seem to have positive results when given by a credible communicator.
13:7 Additionally, when a receiver maintains a high degree of involvement with a message the communicators range of discrepancy is greatly reduced.
13:8 As may already be apparent, a receiver who has a personal acquaintance with an issue may become more intolerant of strongly discrepant points of view.
[9] As used by the authors of this article, the word “discrepancy” refers to
1. the difference between the communicators argument and the receivers belief.
2. the difference between elements of fear and emotion and elements of reason in the argument.
3. the difference in educational levels.
[10] Receivers become less tolerant of discrepancy when
1. they are personally involved with the issue in question.
2. the message is delivered by a credible communicator.
3. they try to change the opinion of the communicator.

■第12段落
12:1 When presenting an argument one must consider whether opposing arguments should or should not be addressed.
12:2 As a general rule, presenting two-sided arguments is more effective because the audience tends to believe that the communicator is offering objective and unbiased information.
12:3 Moreover, well-informed and well-educated audiences are more (17)(1. receptive 2. subordinate 3. liable) to two-sided appeals as opposed to one-sided arguments.
12:4 Although there are instances in which recognizing opposing arguments may obscure the communicator’s message and fail to sway people’s opinions, the vantage point is still more robust with a two-sided appeal.
12:5 However, in instances where the audience is in full agreement with the message of the communicator a one-sided appeal is more effective.
12:6 Speculation (18)(1. makes 2. has 3. leaves) it that factors which influence people’s persuasibility to one as opposed to two-sided arguments are dependent upon their educational level and their acquaintance with the issue.
[8] According to the article, presenting two-sided arguments
1. often confuses even those people who are highly educated and highly involved in the issue.
2. is always more persuasive than presenting one-sided arguments.
3. is not always more persuasive than presenting one-sided arguments.

■第11段落
11:1 It has been found that the amount of fear experienced in any given audience is variable and complex.
11:2 Even in carefully controlled experimental designs the (16)(1. infringement 2. deduction 3. inducement) of fear is variable across individuals.
11:3 In general, research shows that fearful persuasive appeals may or may not be effective.
[7] A message containing fearful persuasive appeals
1. never fails to be effective.
2. may or may not be effective.
3. does not usually produce any effect.

■第7段落
7:1 A related source factor which is closely linked to credibility involves the receivers’ liking of the communicator.
7:2 Although the effects of liking tend to be weaker than those of credibility factors, they still play a dominant role in persuasibility.
7:3 There are two general rules to this source factor; one of these rules is that when a receiver is highly involved in an issue, influences such as liking are greatly reduced.

7:4 In this case, receivers tend to actively process the message and pay less attention to peripheral cues such as liking.
7:5 On the other hand, if a receiver is not highly involved inthe issue then he or she is more likely to rely on (10)( 1. simplistic 2. controversial 3. obnoxious) cues such as liking to develop opinions about the message.
7:6 In some cases disliked communicators are more effective than liked communicators.
7:7 This has been shown to occur when other characteristics of the communicator, such as credibility factors, produce a compensation effect.
7:8 Furthermore, disliked communicators are more persuasive in cases where the receiver has paid more attention to the message content than to the communicator’s personal characteristics.

According to the article, disliked communicators may be more effective than liked communicators when the credibility of the communicators
1. is sufficient to override the receivers dislike.
2. has been established by objective authority.
3. is overridden by the receivers dislike.

■第6段落
6:1 Credible communicators are looked upon as experts.
6:2 That is, they display a degree of competence in their field and are commonly viewed as knowledgeable and experienced.
6:3 Furthermore, receiver judgments of competence are significantly influenced by the communicator’s level of training, occupation, and experience.
6:4 This value judgment made on the part of the receiver is important in whether the message is accepted or rejected.
6:5 If the receiver believes the communicator has (6)( 1. disposed 2. displayed 3. dismissed) a high degree of competence, then it is much more likely that the message being conveyed will have an impact.
6:6 In addition to this, a communicator’s degree of trustworthiness is also (7) (1. assessed 2. assured 3. accorded) by the receiver.
6:7 If a communicator is viewed as being truthful then the message will seem much more reliable and acceptable.
6:8 On the other hand, if a persuasive message is remembered but not its source, then the influence of a communicator of high credibility may have a diminishing effect over time.
6:9 However, low credibility communicators may receive a beneficial gain in this situation which would result in having a more persuasive response to their message after a period of time has passed.
6:10 This is a phenomenon known as the sleeper effect that occurs under circumstances in which the receiver remembers the message but not reasons that may (8)(1. discount 2. support 3. discourage)it.
6:11 For example, a receiver may remember factual information from a message but forget about the credibility of the communicator and other source factors which we normally rely upon to judge information.
6:12 (9)(1. Thus 2. On the contrary 3. In addition), practical issues that may influence the credibility of communicators include their rate of delivery and the degree of confidence in their tone.
6:13 A communicator is viewed as more credible if his or her speech contains no hesitations and is delivered at a rapid pace.
[3] Communicators with low credibility may benefit from a situation in which the receiver
1. remembers factual information as well as source factors.
2. remembers the source while forgetting about the message.
3. remembers the message itself while forgetting about the source.

■第7段落
7:1 A related source factor which is closely linked to credibility involves the receivers’ liking of the communicator.
7:2 Although the effects of liking tend to be weaker than those of credibility factors, they still play a dominant role in persuasibility.
7:3 There are two general rules to this source factor; one of these rules is that when a receiver is highly involved in an issue, influences such as liking are greatly reduced.
7:4 In this case, receivers tend to actively process the message and pay less attention to peripheral cues such as liking.
7:5 On the other hand, if a receiver is not highly involved inthe issue then he or she is more likely to rely on (10)( 1. simplistic 2. controversial 3. obnoxious) cues such as liking to develop opinions about the message.
7:6 In some cases disliked communicators are more effective than liked communicators.
7:7 This has been shown to occur when other characteristics of the communicator, such as credibility factors, produce a compensation effect.
7:8 Furthermore, disliked communicators are more persuasive in cases where the receiver has paid more attention to the message content than to the communicator’s personal characteristics.

[4] In the process of forming opinions about the message, receivers tend to rely on their liking of the communicator when they
1. play a dominant role in persuasibility.
2. are not highly involved in the issue.
3. are highly educated and motivated.

3:3 Specifically, when receiver factors are taken into account one message may be a clear example of persuasive communication to a specific audience or individual, while presented to

another it may simply (2)(1. devalue 2. impair 3. validate) existing beliefs and opinions and thus fail to present a clear distinction of persuasion.

[2] We cannot arrive at a satisfactory definition of persuasive communication without considering receiver factors because
1. the same message may or may not be persuasive depending on the receivers beliefs and opinions.
2. the receiver sometimes fails to make a clear distinction between coercion and persuasion.
3. the persuader may fail to bring about some form of attitude change on the part of the receiver.

■第1段落
1:1 on a daily basis everyone comes into contact with persuasive forces.
1:2 Whether it is with friends, family members, or co-workers, elements of persuasion can be found in almost any social interaction.
1:3 Although most people would argue that they are responsible for their attitudes and beliefs, social scientific theory and research has (1)(1. yielded 2. assumed 3. declared) a large body of evidence that does not support this notion.
1:4 Within the United States and other developed nations, the media present powerful persuasive forces in the form of consumer advertising, political campaigning, and the dissemination of general news and information that, by and large, play a crucial role in the development of opinions, beliefs, and attitudes of individuals and groups.
[1] Social scientific theory and research does not support the idea that people are responsible for their attitudes and beliefs because
1. they have no control over the news and information disseminated by the media.
2. friends, family, and coworkers exert the most important influence on our beliefs and attitudes.
3. they are under the strong influence of persuasive forces, including the media.

■第13段落
13:1 The “New” Liberalism — To understand the growth of this second tendency, a virtually separate history of liberalism must be considered.
13:2 This view of liberalism derives from a conception of the modern state not as an association of independent individuals but as a productive enterprise to be managed by its ruler.
13:3 It is a concept held by men (14) (1. nevertheless 2. otherwise 3.once) as different as John Calvin and Francis Bacon, and it has its theological roots in the Christian injunction that men should enjoy the fruits of the earth.
13:4 In the 18th century this concept was developed and popularized as a set of doctrines called by its promoters “enlightenment.”

■第14段落
14:1 “Enlightened” ideas spread quickly throughout Europe, finding favor in two very different quarters: among the middle classes of the towns, who generally were (15) (1. in power in 2. compar ed to 3. excluded from) political activity, and among many of the absolute rulers of Europe.
14:2 A result was that, in the second half of the 18th century, politics commonly resolved itself into
a struggle between a reforming king supported by a largely middle class bureaucracy, on the one side, and entrenched corporations and parliaments, generally aristocratic, on the other.

■第15段落
15:1 The “enlightened despot” justified his absolute powers by regarding himself as “the first servant of the state” and his subjects as equal in the eyes of the state.
15:2 He established schools to teach useful knowledge and a civil service based on merit, and he sought to inaugurate town planning, to reduce church privileges, and to (16) (1. reduce 2. conceal
3. increase) the wealth of the state.
[7] What is the main characteristic of “New Liberalism” as compared with “Classical Liberalism”?
1. New Liberalism, “enlightened” by John Calvin and Francis Bacon, promoted far more authority of the king and the state.
2. New Liberalism put stronger emphasis on the role of the state, and at the same time, allowed the leadership of an “enlightened” ruler.
3. New Liberalism encouraged the middle-classes of the town, not the churches and the aristocratic parliaments, to take over the entire initiative and authority with an absolute but “enlightened” ruler.

■第10段落
10:1 The American Revolution gave (10) (1. further impetus 2. a shock 3. a halt) to liberalism.
10:2 The rhetoric of the Declaration of Independence asserted the liberal principle that all men have the right to “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
10:3 It was soon echoed by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man, which made liberal ideas the (11) (1. vehicle 2. scapegoat 3. replacement) of a revolutionary ferment throughout Europe.
[5] The author points out that
1. the French Declaration of the Rights of Man was a direct spin-off from the Revolution of 1688 in Britain.
2. the American Declaration of Independence promoted liberalism in terms of the rights of man throughout Europe.
3. the American Revolution was an example of the realization of the ideologies of Voltaire and Montesquieu.

■第10段落
10:1 One interesting aspect of birdsong is the occurrence of dialectal differences (regional variations) among populations of a single species living in different areas.
10:2 Several such changes that are known to occur between adjacent populations of the South American rufous-collared sparrow correlate with relatively major habitat changes.
10:3 Very few dialectal changes occur over an enormous range on the Argentine pampas, but in this case the habitat of the species also changes little.
10:4 The habitat changes markedly in the Andes mountains over short distances, however, as elevation rapidly increases, and, (19)(1. concurrently 2. additionally 3. jointly), many more dialectal changes occur there in birds’ songs.
10:5 The suggested function of the correlations between display and features of the habitat is that they provide markers that identify populations adapted to different local conditions; such markers would permit more appropriate selection of mates than would otherwise occur, at least in the marginal areas between populations.
10:6 It has been suggested that a similar (20)(1. structural 2. marginal 3. functional) explanation may by involved in the evolution of human dialects.
[8] In general, dialectal differences among songbirds seem to be related to
1. changes in habitat.
2. changes in climate.
3. changes in elevation.
[10] Which of the following phrases would best state the topic of this article?

  1. Functions of displays and badges in animal communication
    2. Maintenance of social groups in animals
    3. Evolution of displays in animal communication

■第6段落
6:1 Third, communication reduces the amount of actual fighting and fleeing among animals, an excess of which could (10)(1. dislocate 2. disrupt 3. distribute) social encounters.
6:2 In functionally aggressive encounters, such as territorial or dominance disputes, this reduction is achieved by threat displays that often lead to some form of capitulation by one opponent before fighting occurs.
6:3 In less aggressive circumstances, communication enables animals to appease and (11)(.1. reassure 2. confirm 3. assess) one another that each is not likely to be initially aggressive in his present state.
6:4 Fourth, communication aids in (12) (1. positing 2. contracting 3. synchronizing) the behaviour of individuals who must come into appropriate physiological states in order to breed.
6:5 This is necessary within pairs and, in some species, among whole colonies of pairs.
[7] In extremely aggressive encounters of animals, threat displays may lead to
1. negotiation between both parties involved.
2. surrender of one opponent under certain conditions.
3. signaling each other that they are not going to initiate aggressions.

■第3段落
3:1 Because the complexity of social interactions makes experimental manipulation difficult, human understanding of the signalling in the social life of animals remains largely based upon inference.
3:2 It is difficult to repeat an example many times with rigid control of all (5)(1. variations 2. variables 3. functions) except the one being investigated, and attempts to structure the testing situation to simplify the form of interaction often obviate the interaction.

3:3 Displays are universal among animals of any degree of structural complexity, however, so that they would not have been evolved and retained if they lacked important function.
3:4 But the function of a display is likely to differ, depending upon the individuals involved.
3:5 A small bird seeing an approaching hawk, for example, may utter a vocal display indicating the high probability that it (the communicator) is, or soon will be, engaged in an attempt to escape.
3:6 Other small birds, upon hearing the vocalization, may seek cover immediately.
3:7 Hence, the function of the vocalization is to give them a better opportunity to remain alive and not to increase the immediate chances of survival of the communicator — indeed, its chances for survival may slightly decrease.
3:8 The display functions for the communicator (6)(1. in that 2. for which 3. for whom) it protects individuals whose continued existence provides a benefit to him greater than the cost of using the display.
3:9 These individuals may be his offspring or associates whose similar responses to the environment will provide him future protection and, through their alertness in the future, make it possible for him to spend less time (7) ( 1. glancing 2. looking 3. scanning) his surroundings for predators.
[5] A vocal display of a small bird in the presence of a dangerous predator may
1. decrease the chances of survival of the communicator.
2. decrease the chances of survival of other small birds which may hear it.
3. decrease the chances that the predator will attack.

■第2段落
2:1 The information involved in animal communication can come from many sources; any facet of the environment (1)( 1. created 2. perceived 3. imagined) is considered information.
2:2 In linguistic communication the primary function of words is to convey information.
2:3 Similarly, animals (including man) have modes of behaviour that, in the course of evolution, were selected for their value in providing vehicles for conveying information.
2:4 During the evolutionary process some of these vehicles also (2)(1. remained 2. retained 3. underwent) more direct functions, but many became specialized for a communicative function alone.
2:5 These communicative acts, known as displays, include various posturings and movements; sounds; particular ways of making contact among individuals; the release of specialized chemicals called pheromones; and even electrical discharges.
2:6 Displays have been studied as important means for transmitting information in animal communication.
2:7 There are, of course, other information sources in animals, some of which have also undergone evolutionary (3)(1.specification 2. specialization 3. generalization) toward a communication function.
2:8 Among them are what may be called badges — i.e., attributes that are merely structural and nonbehavioral in nature: the red breast of the robin, the red underside of the breeding male stickleback fish, and the mane of the male lion.
2:9 Many other sources of information can be found in the repeated forms of interaction that develop during prolonged relationships between two individuals and in individual expectations about the nature of the roles in which they encounter others, both familiar associates and strangers.
2:10 The activities of individuals who interact socially provide a constant and usually rich information source, but, in the study of nonhuman communication, the bulk of systematic research thus far has been (4)(1. directed 2. induced 3. stipulated) toward displays and badges; it is, therefore, these highly specialized categories that are of the greatest concern here.

[2] Badges are different from displays in that
1. the former are behavioral whereas the latter are structural.
2. the former are nonbehavioral whereas the latter are behavioral.
3. the former are structurally simpler than the latter.

[1] According to the article, which of the following statements is true?
1. Displays, which are used to transmit information, are the only source of information among animals.
2. Displays, which are used among animals for communicative purposes, developed in the course of evolution.
3. Human beings have succeeded in developing a highly specialized mode of communication known as displays.

■第3段落
3:1 If rule-following is a necessary prerequisite on the field of play, one might say that the existence of such rules implies an off field structure to permit the alternation of rules amidst argument and debate.
3:2 In fact, the more rules a sport may have, the more arguments and changes of rules can be expected.
3:3 Cricket is probably the most ornate of all sports, demanding that the players (8) (1. break 2. question 3. obey) both the formal rules and informal spirit of the game.

3:4 Not a season passes without the games officials arguing amongst themselves about changing rules.
3:5 In fact controversies on the pitch can end up in the (9) (1. committee rooms 2. on the field fights 3. new rules) as controversies about the appropriateness of rules.
3:6 This is certainly true of the most furious, and enduring, of cricket’s on the field controversies.

3:7 On the tour of Australia in 1932/3, the English bowlers adopted a tactic which the Australian team and public considered to be unfairly dangerous.
3:8 The arguments stretched from the field of play right up to the highest levels of government.
3:9 As with Socrates and Protagoras, the words used in the dispute would not keep agreeably (10) (1. open 2. still 3. conflicting), but the choice of terms became a matter of controversy in itself, as well as being a signal of the speakers sympathies.
3:10 The British preferred to call their bowling tactic by the neutral, even academic, name of ‘Leg Theory’, (11) ( 1. in case 2. even if 3. as if) nothing more than strategy were involved.
3:11 The Australians insisted on Bodyline to express their indignation with a ploy which they felt to be unsparingly intimidator.
3:12 What is significant is that the controversy led to a change in the rules of cricket, and that the merits of this change (12) (1. occasion 2. discontinue 3.discourage) arguments to this day amongst the legislators of the game.
[10] Which of the following is the best paraphrase of the statement “the existence of such rules implies an off-field structure to permit the alteration of rules amidst argument and debate?”
1. If a game has rules for on-field play, there will inevitably be an off-field body in which these rules can be debated.
2. If a game has rules for on-field play, they will inevitably be changed during the course of play by arguments among the players.
3. If a game has rules for on-field play, spectators will inevitably disagree among themselves about the rules.

■第4段落
4:1 There is a general point which does not concern the details of that unhappy cricket tour, and which is not even restricted to the world of sport.
4:2 The (13) (1. more specific 2. more ambiguous 3. wider) issue is the close connection between lawmaking and argumentation.
4:3 Laws may exist to resolve disputes, but they are created out of dispute, frequently at the cost of provoking further Argument.
4:4 A simple syllogism might illustrate this: if there are lawyers, there will be arguments; therefore, if there are laws, there will be arguments.
4:5 This same general point is better expressed in Plato’s Republic, which looked forward to the creation of a well-ordered state.
4:6 The citizenry of this ideal republic would obey the states rationally founded laws without dispute.
4:7 Such a perfect state, in the interests of maintaining its ordered harmony, would need to (14) (1. dispense with 2. formulate 3. abide by) laws about trivia such as contracts made in the market and contracts for manufacture, questions of slander and assault, the lodging of legal actions and empaneling of juries, exaction and payment of market or harbor dues and the general business of regulating business and police and harbor charges and other similar matters.
4:8 If laws were formulated on such minor matters, then the citizenry would waste their whole time making and correcting detailed regulations, with the result that harmonious order would (15) (1. naturally follow 2. never be achieved 3. often be guaranteed).
4:9 Sextons Empirics blamed the rhetoricians, rather than the existence of laws, for argumentation.
4:10 He noted that among the barbarians there were no rhetoricians, and the laws remained unaltered and generally obeyed, whereas amongst those who cultivate rhetoric they are altered daily, as is the case with the Athenians.
4:11 We could add that the “barbarians” Sextus Empiricus had in mind would not have codified their laws with the precision of the legislative bodies presiding over modern bat and ball games.
[7] The main point of introducing Plato’s Republic in this article is to show that
1. people obey the state’s rationally founded laws without dispute in an ideal republic.
2. even in an ideal republic, lawmaking is inevitable and never free from argumentation.
3. laws on important matters force people to spend a great deal of time working on their details.

■第3段落
3:1 If rule-following is a necessary prerequisite on the field of play, one might say that the existence of such rules implies an off field structure to permit the alternation of rules amidst argument and debate.
3:2 In fact, the more rules a sport may have, the more arguments and changes of rules can be expected.
3:3 Cricket is probably the most ornate of all sports, demanding that the players (8) (1. break 2. question 3. obey) both the formal rules and informal spirit of the game.
3:4 Not a season passes without the games officials arguing amongst themselves about changing rules.
3:5 In fact controversies on the pitch can end up in the (9) (1. committee rooms 2. on the field fights 3. new rules) as controversies about the appropriateness of rules.
3:6 This is certainly true of the most furious, and enduring, of cricket’s on the field controversies.

3:7 On the tour of Australia in 1932/3, the English bowlers adopted a tactic which the Australian team and public considered to be unfairly dangerous.
3:8 The arguments stretched from the field of play right up to the highest levels of government.
3:9 As with Socrates and Protagoras, the words used in the dispute would not keep agreeably (10) (1. open 2. still 3. conflicting), but the choice of terms became a matter of controversy in itself, as well as being a signal of the speakers sympathies.
3:10 The British preferred to call their bowling tactic by the neutral, even academic, name of ‘Leg Theory’, (11) ( 1. in case 2. even if 3. as if) nothing more than strategy were involved.
3:11 The Australians insisted on Bodyline to express their indignation with a ploy which they felt to be unsparingly intimidator.
3:12 What is significant is that the controversy led to a change in the rules of cricket, and that the merits of this change (12) (1. occasion 2. discontinue 3.discourage) arguments to this day amongst the legislators of the game.
[6] What does the contrast of ‘Leg Theory’ and ‘Bodyline’ suggest in this article?
1. One can use any expression to describe a situation in order to win the argument.
2. The wordings, which reflect one’s interpretation of an issue, can solve a problem.
3. The focus of the on going dispute can be easily changed depending on the terms to be used.

■第1段落
1:1 If rules are treated as fixed and non controversial entities, then it becomes difficult to explain their origins.
1:2 The problem is a particularly acute one for theorists applying the game metaphor.
1:3 The difficulty of discussing the origins of games by applying the game metaphor is well illustrated by Michael Argyle’s article about the rules of social life.
1:4 Argyle, having stated that “even the most fiercely competitive and aggressive games can only take place if both sides abide by the rules”, adds the comment that “rules are developed gradually, as cultural products, as ways of handling certain situations; they can be changed, but changes are slow.”
1:5 These comments suggest that the formulation of rules is something which somehow evolves with (1) (1. observable changes 2. sluggish mystery 3. open arguments) almost as imperceptibly as biological evolution.
1:6 Just as the experimental social psychologist can safely assume that the course of biological evolution is not going to be changed in the middle of an experiment, so the rule theorist can rest (2) ( 1. assured 2. debated 3. informed) that the rules of social life will not be subject to sudden and troublesome alterations.
1:7 However, this tacit dismissal of the issue of rule formulation is based upon (3) (1. a misconception 2. a new assumption 3. a historical condition).
1:8 The major Sports of the modern world, such as football, cricket, tennis, and rugby, do not owe their rules to a slow process of accumulation, stretching over centuries of folk custom.
1:9 On the contrary, the nineteenth century (4) (1. reached 2. evolved 3.saw) an energetic burst of rulemaking.
1:10 Some important studies in the sociology of sport have shown that this rulemaking occurred at specific times of social change.
1:11 Moreover, it was predominantly confined to a particular class.
[2] Referring to the game metaphor, the author seems to agree that
1. rules are formulated only slowly, and are not subject to sudden, troublesome changes.
2. the slow process of rule-formulation does not hold true of all sports, as illustrated by some modern sports.
3. the issue of how rules are formulated remains a mystery since it resembles biological evolution.

■第8段落
8:1 The power to define the world and to define standards of judgment constitutes the power to shape the sociocultural world to one’s own image and interests.
8:2 Sexism, rooted in economic phenomena, legitimated and extended by ideologies, (12) (1. tests 2. vests 3. lifts) such power in males.
8:3 In turn, definitional power reinforces sexism.
8:4 When extreme Sexism exists, women are not simply denied all manner of rights, resources, and opportunity but are denied the ability to define themselves, their experience, and their works as worthy and valuable, sometimes even as real.
[10] The author implies that in order for women to be socially equal to men,
1. we must change our definition of what is real.
2. we must change our educational system.
3. we must change our economic system.

■第4段落
4:1 One very common practice in extremely sexist societies has been much stricter control over women’s sexuality than over men’s (6) (1. economic power 2. sexuality 3. political influence).
4:2 This has been done in order to ensure “proper” paternity, which in turn is linked to the intergenerational transmission of property from father to son.
4:3 It takes an extreme form such as purdah (the total seclusion of women in Hindu and Islamic tradition) or milder forms such as chaperoning unmarried women, (7) (1. painting 2. covering 3. washing) women’s bodies and faces almost entirely, or simply a double standard that punishes women (either alone or more harshly than men) who lose their virginity premarital or commit adultery.

4:4 The ideological justification often stresses women’s extreme sexuality and the diversion from duty this supposedly creates for men.
4:5 Left unchecked, female sexuality would presumably constitute a danger to the social collectivity.
4:6 In such cases the image of females is sharply bifurcated: the pure, virginal, or chaste woman who conforms to religious and social strictures (the lady) versus the polluted whore like temptress, the fallen woman who has rebelled against God and society.
4:7 There is no counterpart bifurcation of males on the basis of sexuality.
4:8 Language often reflects this phenomenon by producing a vast terminology of dirty words” to refer to women who step (8) (1. out of sight 2. out of hand 3. out of bounds) and more generally to specific parts of the female anatomy.
4:9 Women are thus defined essentially on the basis of their sexuality and sexual conduct, resulting in the irony that in attempting to repress female sexuality women are made into sexual objects.
4:10 Moreover, when the repressive aspect is removed the objectification does not quickly disappear, as manifested by contemporary advertising and pornography.
[5] “Women are thus defined essentially on the basis of their sexuality and sexual conduct, resulting in the irony that in attempting to repress female sexuality women are made into sexual objects.” What is the basis of the irony described in this passage?
1. The contrast between sexuality and sexual conduct.
2. The contrast between advertising and pornography.
3. The contrast between intention and result.

 

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