環境情報学部 1,995 問1、
8:1 Finally, communication facilitates the maintenance of special relationships between individuals
by making (14)(1. possible 2. available 3. relevant) information about the readiness of each to
engage in certain activities.
8:2 The maintenance of individual relationships in cohesive groups is (15)(1.affirmed 2. tied 3.
furthered) by communication, which keeps members aware both of the behaviour of associates
whom they may not be able to see and of the readiness of associates to change their activities.
8:3 For example, vocal displays usually precede flight by a member of a resting family of geese,
and the family then tends to depart as a unit.
8:4 Within some types of relationship, display behaviour also aides in (16)(1. eliciting 2. eliminating
3.preventing) general classes of responses; for example, offspring usually signal to arouse various
forms of care-giving behaviour from their parents.
環境情報学部 1,995 問２
5:1 Wherever and whenever it has become current, “liberal” has acquired local (5) (1. overtones 2.
syndicates 3. predominance).
5:2 In France it has been associated with anticlericalism, because the Roman Catholic Church was
viewed as the embodiment of feudalism.
5:3 In Germany liberals have always supported party politics against the old Prussian tradition of
5:4 In Russia and Spain the liberals traditionally have supported a policy of political democracy and
industrial modernization, in contrast with those who believed that such innovations would (6) (1.
destroy 2. upgrade 3. restore) the unique moral qualities of Russian or Spanish life.
環境情報学部 1997 問1
5:1 So much for the difference between the media and the traditional “high” arts.
5:2 What about the way we deal with material goods?
5:3 Our relationship with mass-produced goods has changed as it has with the products of “high”
5:4 Differences have been (7) (1. induced 2. reduced 3. produced), or erased; but along with the
differences, temporal relationships have been distorted.
5:5 Scholars may still be (8) (1. ignorant 2. unconscious 3. aware) of them, but not the ordinary
5:6 We have achieved what the culture of the 60s was demanding, that there should not be one set
of products for the masses and, other, more difficult products for the cultivated, (9)( 1. responsive 2
.renowned 3 .refined) public.
環境情報学部 2,001 問1、
3:1 How do children do it?
3:2 It is possible that Project Washoe may indicate an answer.
3:3 This project was an attempt to teach a form of human language, namely American Sign
Language, or ASL, to a chimpanzee named Washoe.
3:4 She acquired about 240 signs and produced them in sequences.
3:5 Her progress in learning ASL could help answer the question by  (1. pulling 2.switching 3.
Shedding) light on the origins of language.
3:6 Until she began signing, it was assumed that sometime after our ancestors diverged from
Washoe’s ancestors about six million years ago, we evolved an anatomical structure that enabled us
to develop language.
3:7 But if Washoe could learn a human sign language it meant that the common ancestor of both
humans and chimps also must have had the  (1. capacity 2. longing 3. admiration) for gestural
環境情報学部 2002 問1、
8:1 Ethnicity also gives little clue to subjective well-being.
8:2 African-Americans are only slightly less likely to feel “very happy” when compared to European-
8:3 The National Institute of Mental Health found that the rates of depression and alcoholism
among blacks and whites are roughly equal.
8:4 Social psychologists at the University of California have also found that people in (1.
discovered 2. aristocrat 3.disadvantaged) groups maintain self-esteem by valuing things at which
they excel, by making comparisons within their own groups and by blaming problems on external
sources such as prejudice.
総合政策学部 1996 問1、
10:1 Moreover, emotional appeals have been found to be quite effective, especially when they are
incorporated with factual information.
10:2 For example, the American Lung Association’s antismoking campaign and the driver
education programs in high schools that show horrible traffic accidents both share a common
element of fear with the (13)(1. intention 2. pretension3. contention) to persuade.
10:3 Research suggests that fearful and emotional appeals that are successful in producing
greater fear will, in fact, strengthen the message’s effectiveness.
10:4 The degree of fear appeals in a message and the amount of fear (14)(1. established 2. erased
3. evoked) in an audience are prime determinants of successful persuasion.
10:5 However, if a message contains an extremely high degree of fear it may persuade an
audience but it might also (15)(1. attract 2. detract from 3. diversify) the message content,
producing an opposite effect.
5:1 Extensive control over women by men may result for many women in traits of passivity,
childlike dependence, and the inability to function as responsible adults.
5:2 (9) (1. At last 2. At best 3. At the very least) women come to be stereotyped in this manner.
5:3 In turn, such traits and or stereotypes further suggest the “need” for male domination.
5:4 Denied the opportunity to become responsible and independent, women come to be defined as
fit only for the domestic role, which is relatively devalued in surplus producing societies.
5:5 On this basis women become objectified in a second way.
5:6 To the extent that they conform to their domestic role and behave in a proper manner sexually,
they may be admired, even (10) (1. worshipped 2. ridiculed 3. Despised), but only as idealized
mothers, a role nature has ostensibly created them for.
総合政策学部 1,999 問２
4:1 A gorgeous butterfly species whose males and females differ in color is the Little Yellow.
4:2 Both sexes appear an identical yellow to the human eye.
4:3 The shade being produced by pigments in the females looks quite different to butterflies,
however, which (4) (1. perceive 2. filter 3. shed) light at wavelengths beyond the human visible
range and into the ultraviolet.
4:4 Yellow wing scales on the upper surface of the males’ wings reflect ultraviolet light, and those
of females do not.
4:5 On encountering a female, a Little Yellow male flutters about her briefly before landing and
attempting to copulate.
4:6 On confronting another (5) (1. sex 2. male 3. female), he speeds away and continues his
4:7 These simple behaviors allowed me to develop a test for the cues males use to recognize
4:8 I first glued Little Yellow wings to cards and presented them to males.
4:9 Males landed on, and even attempted to copulate with, female wings.
4:10 But male study subjects paid scant attention to male wings similarly mounted.
8:1 Mousetraps, however, are not created by nature but are manufactured by people.
8:2 Then, we must ask what part of natural life is so complex that it cannot be fully explained by
8:3 Some have suggested that the human eye is one such example.
8:4 But the eye has been studied for decades with results that strongly  (1. deny 2. doubt 3.
suggest) it has evolved.
8:5 At first there were light sensitive plates in prehistoric creatures that enabled them to move
toward and away from illumination.
8:6 In a few animals, these light sensitive plates were more precise.
8:7 This was the result of genetic differences.
8:8 Just as only a few people today can see a baseball  (1. as long as 2. as poorly as 3. as well
as) Ted Williams could, so then some creatures were able not only to detect light but to see shapes
or colors in the light.
10:1 But if an intelligent designer indeed created the human eye, that designer made some big
10:2 The eye has a blind spot in the middle that  (1. enhances 2. induces 3. reduces)its
capacity to see.
10:3 Other creatures, more dependent on sharp eyesight than we are, do not have this blind spot.
10:4 Some people are colorblind and others must start wearing glasses when they are small
10:5 All of these variations and shortcomings are consistent with evolution.
10:6 None is consistent with the view that the eye was designed by an intelligent being.
12:1 Some people claim that if evolution is a useful (and, so far, correct) theory, we should still see
it at work all around us in humans.
12:2 We do not.
12:3 But we can see it if we adopt a long enough time frame.
12:4 Mankind is believed to have been on this earth for about 100,000 years.
12:5 In that time there have been changes in people’s appearance, but those changes have
occurred very slowly.
12:6 After all, 1,000 centuries is just a  (1. blank 2. blink 3. block) in geological time.
12:7  (1. Besides 2.Therefore 3. However), the modern world has created an environment by
means of public health measures, the reduction in crime rates, and improved levels of diet that
have sharply reduced the environmental variation that is necessary to  (1. reconstruct 2. renew
3. reward) some genetic accidents and penalize others.
12:8 But 100,000 years from now, will the environment change so much that people who now have
unusual characteristics will become the dominant group in society?
1:1 If we look at the languages spoken in the world today, we notice wide differences in the use to
which they are put.
1:2 Most languages are the first language of some community and serve the everyday functions of
that community perfectly well.
1:3 On the other hand, some languages have wider functions than that of everyday communication
and are used as official languages in the administration of whole nations.
1:4 Yet other languages enjoy an international role.
1:5 English, for instance, is the language of international air traffic, business communication, and
scientific publication, and is the lingua franca of tourism.
1:6 (1. Fortunately 2. Unfortunately 3. Hopefully), the differences in the roles that languages play
frequently lead some people to believe that some languages which do not fulfill a wide range of
functions are in fact incapable of doing so.
1:7 In the view of some people, some languages are just not good enough.
9:1 Minority languages, like Maori and Romansh, are today doing very much the same thing as
Cicero did for Latin, constructing vocabulary out of existing resources within the languages,
precisely so that they can be used to talk about areas like computers, law, science, and so on, for
which they have not been used so much in the past.
9:2 These two languages are  (1. likely 2. unlikely 3. inclined) ever to become international
languages of science or diplomacy, but if history had been different, they could have, and then we
might have been wondering whether perhaps English was ‘just not good enough’.
総合政策学部 2010 問1
1;1 Over the recent decades, a vast and diverse flock of parenting experts has arisen.
1:2 Anyone who tries even casually to follow their advice may be stymied, for the conventional
wisdom on parenting seems to shift by the hour.
1:3 Sometimes it is a case of one expert differing from another.
1:4 At other times, the most vocal experts suddenly agree en masse that the old wisdom was
wrong and that the new wisdom is, for a little while at least, irrefutably right.
1:5 The typical parenting expert, like experts in other fields, is  (1. prone 2. unlikely 3. afraid) to
sound exceedingly sure of himself.
1:6 An expert doesn’t so much argue the various sides of an issue as plant his flag firmly on one
1:7 That’s because an expert whose argument reeks of restraint or nuance often doesn’t get much
1:8 An expert must be bold if he hopes to alchemize his homespun theory into conventional
1:9 His best chance of doing so is to  (1. dispute 2. ignore 3. engage) the publics emotions, for
emotion is the enemy of rational argument.
1:10 And as emotions go, one of them―fear―is more potent than the rest.
1:11 Mad-cow disease, crib death, avian flu―how can we fail to heed the expert’s advice on these
horrors when, like that mean uncle telling too-scary stories to too-young children, he has reduced
us to quivers?
総合政策学部 2011 問1、
6:1 In preparing the background research for the article, the Financial Times collaborated with the
London-based NPO, the Bureau of Investigative Journalism (BIJ).
6:2 On its web site, the BIJ states that its goal is “to bolster original journalism by producing highquality
investigations, and to explore new ways of conducting and funding investigative
6:3 By working in collaboration with other news groups, it aims to  ( 1. call 2. address 3.
support) the difficulty that national and international media often face in  (1. funding 2. avoiding
3. finding) expensive long-term investigations.
6:4 The joint investigation by the Financial Times and the BIJ alleges that eight large hotels used a
special environmental status to promote their business and to help  (1. clarify 2. qualify .
exemplify) for the 23.6 million euros in loans to help generate employment in the area.
6:5 According to their research, before the development boom Lanzarote received a “Reservation
of the Biosphere” status (hereafter called Biosphere status) in 1993 under the UNESCO “Man and
the Biosphere” (MAB) Program.
6:6 This status helped the island win special funding for sustainable development.
総合政策学部 2011 問2、
5:1 Consider this fact, however: For more than forty years, it has been illegal to discriminate in the
workforce on the basis of race or gender.
5:2 As interpreted by the courts, the law now says that if the statistical appearance of lower wages
for women or minorities is present in a workplace, the employer is presumed to be guilty of
discrimination and must prove  (1. otherwise 2. it 3. so).
5:3 No one thinks that federal agencies do a perfect job at enforcing the law here or elsewhere, but
it is hard to believe that a persistent 20 percent pay difference could escape the notice of even the
most  (1. oversight 2. farsighted 3. nearsighted) federal bureaucrat.
12:1 The extent of gender discrimination in the workplace is  (1. assumed 2. inclined 3.
unlikely) to be definitively settled anytime soon.
12:2 Measured earnings differences, even those that account for experience, education, and other
factors, clearly overstate the true pay gap between equally qualified men and women.
12:3 Just as surely, however, given the heavier parenting demands typically made on women, even
when they receive equal pay, it is not for equal work.
総合政策学部 2012 問2、
4:1 The basic elements of a network are simple: it consists of nodes*** connected by links (also
4:2 But as the numbers of nodes and links increase, the number of possible forms of the network
4:3 (1. Conversely 2. Otherwise 3. Likewise), there are innumerable possibilities for what a
node and a link can represent.
4:4 Structurally simple, yet analytically incredibly complex, networks hold the answers to so many
questions that at Harvard alone, the number of researchers studying them may reach three digits.
4:5 Here is a sampling of the newest work in this (1. unchanging 2. unfashionable 3. dynamic)
総合政策学部 2014 問1、
5:1 As remarkable as it is, common sense exhibits some mysterious traits, one of the most striking
of which is how much it varies across cultures.
5:2 Several years ago, a group of economists and anthropologists (1. set out 2. put out 3 . came
off) to test how different cultures play a particular kind of game, called an ultimatum game.
5:3 The game goes something like this: First, pick two people and give one of them $100.
5:4 That person then has to propose a split of the money between himself and the other player,
ranging from offering them the whole amount to nothing at all.
5:5 The other player then gets to accept the deal or reject it.
5:6 If the second player accepts the deal, they get what they were offered and both players go on
their (1. contented 2. satisfied 3. merry) way.
5:7 But if they reject the offer, neither player gets anything; hence the ultimatum.”