慶應義塾大学SFC 英語 語法三択テクニック 『語源から類推する問題』

環境情報学部 1,995 問1、
■第2段落
2:1 The information involved in animal communication can come from many sources; any facet of the environment (1)( 1. created 2. perceived 3. imagined) is considered information.
2:2 In linguistic communication the primary function of words is to convey information.
2:3 Similarly, animals (including man) have modes of behaviour that, in the course of evolution, were selected for their value in providing vehicles for conveying information.
2:4 During the evolutionary process some of these vehicles also (2)(1. remained 2. retained 3. underwent) more direct functions, but many became specialized for a communicative function alone.
2:5 These communicative acts, known as displays, include various posturings and movements; sounds; particular ways of making contact among individuals; the release of specialized chemicals called pheromones; and even electrical discharges.
2:6 Displays have been studied as important means for transmitting information in animal communication.
2:7 There are, of course, other information sources in animals, some of which have also undergone evolutionary (3)(1.specification 2. specialization 3. generalization) toward a communication function.
2:8 Among them are what may be called badges — i.e., attributes that are merely structural and nonbehavioral in nature: the red breast of the robin, the red underside of the breeding male stickleback fish, and the mane of the male lion.
2:9 Many other sources of information can be found in the repeated forms of interaction that develop during prolonged relationships between two individuals and in individual expectations about the nature of the roles in which they encounter others, both familiar associates and strangers.
2:10 The activities of individuals who interact socially provide a constant and usually rich information source, but, in the study of nonhuman communication, the bulk of systematic research
thus far has been (4)(1. directed 2. induced 3. stipulated) toward displays and badges; it is, therefore, these highly specialized categories that are of the greatest concern here.

■第3段落
3:1 Because the complexity of social interactions makes experimental manipulation difficult, human understanding of the signalling in the social life of animals remains largely based upon inference.
3:2 It is difficult to repeat an example many times with rigid control of all (5)(1. variations 2. variables 3. functions) except the one being investigated, and attempts to structure the testing situation to simplify the form of interaction often obviate the interaction.
3:3 Displays are universal among animals of any degree of structural complexity, however, so that they would not have been evolved and retained if they lacked important function.
3:4 But the function of a display is likely to differ, depending upon the individuals involved.
3:5 A small bird seeing an approaching hawk, for example, may utter a vocal display indicating the high probability that it (the communicator) is, or soon will be, engaged in an attempt to escape.
3:6 Other small birds, upon hearing the vocalization, may seek cover immediately.
3:7 Hence, the function of the vocalization is to give them a better opportunity to remain alive and not to increase the immediate chances of survival of the communicator — indeed, its chances for survival may slightly decrease.
3:8 The display functions for the communicator (6)(1. in that 2. for which 3. for whom) it protects individuals whose continued existence provides a benefit to him greater than the cost of using the display.
3:9 These individuals may be his offspring or associates whose similar responses to the environment will provide him future protection and, through their alertness in the future, make it
possible for him to spend less time (7) ( 1. glancing 2. looking 3. scanning) his surroundings for predators.

■第9段落
9:1 The functions in which communication appears to be used vary considerably among different species; each has specialized features, some quite remarkable.
9:2 It has been demonstrated, for example, that vocalizations and other sounds made during hatching by chicken-like birds influence the rate of hatching of sibling chicks, so that all members of the brood can leave the nest simultaneously.
9:3 It has been suggested that birds (17)(1.immigrating 2. emigrating 3. migrating) in flocks may use signals in order to inform each other of their position in the night sky, so that the individuals in the flock can perhaps (18)(1. confiscate 2. compensate 3. commensurate) for small individual navigational errors.

環境情報学部 1,995 問2
■第6段落
6:1 Origin of Liberalism — Because liberalism, in its most abstract sense, is a belief in the value of individual liberty with a minimum of state intervention in personal life, its origin may be sought as far back in remote times as one chooses.
6:2 The Devil has been called the first Whig (liberal), because, in the form of a serpent, he persuaded Eve to (7) (1. worship 2. confer with 3. throw off) the authoritarian yoke of God.
6:3 But not until the 16th and the 17th centuries did a political doctrine arise that may confidently be regarded as liberal.
6:4 This was the social contract theory, which asserted that political authority had originally been established by free and rational individuals as a device for combining freedom with the fruits of social cooperation.
6:5 Government, accordingly, rested on consent.

■第4段落
4:1 From the ways and circumstances in which displays are used and from the apparent responses of recipients, it is possible to (8) (1.emancipate 2. emulate 3. enumerate) the general functions of animal communication.
4:2 First, displays guide animals to one another, (9) (1. thereby 2. therefore 3. thereof) enabling one to advertise its presence and behavioral predispositions to potential recipients.
4:3 Displays enable individuals in a group to respond selectively to particular associates at appropriate times.

■第6段落
6:1 Third, communication reduces the amount of actual fighting and fleeing among animals, an excess of which could (10)(1. dislocate 2. disrupt 3. distribute) social encounters.
6:2 In functionally aggressive encounters, such as territorial or dominance disputes, this reduction is achieved by threat displays that often lead to some form of capitulation by one opponent before fighting occurs.
6:3 In less aggressive circumstances, communication enables animals to appease and (11)(.1. reassure 2. confirm 3. assess) one another that each is not likely to be initially aggressive in his present state.
6:4 Fourth, communication aids in (12) (1. positing 2. contracting 3. synchronizing) the behaviour of individuals who must come into appropriate physiological states in order to breed.
6:5 This is necessary within pairs and, in some species, among whole colonies of pairs.

環境情報学部 1,996 問1、
■第4段落
4:1 There is, however, a second and even more fundamental way in which the environment appears to condition or even mould leadership : the circumstances are not equally advantageous to all those who hold top positions.
4:2 Of course, a “real” leader is the one who can (10)(1. lose 2. hold 3. seize) the opportunities and (11)(1. exploit 2. explain 3. extort) them to the full; but the opportunities may be rare.
4:3 Some leaders may benefit from the disunion of their enemies at home and abroad; others may benefit from the fact that external circumstances are favorable.
4:4 Indeed, it is in the context of foreign affairs that the characteristics of leadership have tended to (12)(1. indulge 2. submerge 3. emerge) most strongly, in part because foreign affairs have always been more glamorous than internal policy making and in part because, the stakes being much higher, up to and including the destruction of the country, the successes can be immense.
4:5 Machiavelli knew this well: most of his 1ecommendations to the Prince were connected to the aim of establishing leadership through prestigious victories against (13)(1. domestic 2. foreign 3. native) enemies.
4:6 Closer to our own day, one wonders how Winston Churchill would have fared — indeed whether he would still play a part in the history books, despite having been minister several times
— had he not “met with destiny” in 1940; the same might be said of Charles de Gaulle, as a result of the brutal French defeat of the same year.

環境情報学部 1,996 問2、
■第2段落
2:1 (3)(1. Change 2. Consideration 3. Coinage) of terminology also raises the question of festival’s relationship to ritual.
2:2 The separation of the two types of symbolic enactment evolved as a consequence of modern religious systems’ attempts to obliterate native religions.
2:3 Quite commonly, however, indigenous practices (4)(1. survived 2. predominated 3. died down)
under a new name, disguising their origins.
2:4 These became known as festival or fiesta, in contrast to ritual, which became the serious occasions focusing on male authority legitimated by modern official religion.
2:5 In an effort to denigrate indigenous religious practices, modern religion thus assigned festival to a position (5)(1.through 2. crucial to 3.peripheral to) the core of ritual life.
2:6 The most recent modern religions, such as Protestantism, completely dissociate festival from religion, and it then becomes a secular event.
2:7 As a result, ritual is associated with official religion, whereas festival designates occasions considered to be pagan, recreational, or for children.
2:8 Like play and creativity, festival explores and (6)(1. copes 2. experiments 3. defines itself) with meaning.
2:9 Both forms utilize multiple codes and channels.
2:10 Examples of contemporary festivals and holidays with ancient roots include celebrations of saints’ days, the Virgin Mary, Christmas, the new year, Easter, May Day, and Halloween, all of which represent a fusion of early Indo-European and/or Native American religious rituals with modern religion and culture.

■第5段落
5:1 In the second of these dimensions of temporality, expressions of tradition and change confront each other.
5:2 Meaning in festival derives from (10)(1. experience 2. natural power 3. establishment) : thus, festival emphasizes the past.
5:3 Yet festival happens in the present and for the present, directed toward the future.
5:4 Thus, the new and different are legitimate dimensions of festival, contributing to its vitality.

環境情報学部 1997 問1
■第8段落
8:1 What is a mass medium today?
8:2 Let’s try to imagine a not so imaginary situation.
8:3 A company produces polo shirts with an alligator on them and advertises them.
8:4 A (12) (1. member 2. generation 3. character) begins to wear the polo shirts.

8:5 Each consumer of the polo shirt advertises, via the alligator on his chest, this brand of polo shirt (just as the owner of a Toyota is an unpaid, and paying, advertiser of the Toyota line and the model he drives).
8:6 A TV broadcast, to be faithful to reality, shows some young people wearing the alligator polo shirt.
8:7 The young (and the old) see the TV broadcast and buy more alligator polo shirts because they
(13) (1. have 2. take 3. give) “the young look.”

環境情報学部 1998 問1
■第5段落
5:1 Ultimately (9)(1. implicit 2. incremental 3. incidental) improvements in computer and screen technology will give us a lightweight, universal electronic book, or “e-book,” that will approximate today’s paper book.
5:2 Inside a case roughly the same size and weight as today’s hardcover or paperback book, you’ll have a display for high-resolution text, pictures, and video.
5:3 You’ll be able to (10)(1. write 2. flip 3. edit) pages with your finger or use voice commands to search for the passages you want.
5:4 Any document on the network will be accessible from such a device.

環境情報学部 1998 問2
■第7段落
7:1 Often the process of our artwork is thrown onto a new track by the inherent balkiness of the world.
7:2 Murphy’s Law states that if anything can go wrong, it will.
7:3 Performers experience this daily and hourly.
7:4 When dealing with instruments, tape recorders, projectors, computers, sound systems, and theater lights, there are inevitable breakdowns before a performance.
7:5 A performer can become sick.
7:6 A valued assistant can quit at the last minute, or lose his girlfriend and become mentally incapacitated.
7:7 Often it is these very accidents that give rise to the most (6) (1. ingenuous 2. indigenous 3. ingenious) solutions, and sometimes to off-the-cuff creativity of the highest order.

環境情報学部 2,000 問2
■第4段落
4:1 The photograph [9] (1. calls for 2. opens for 3. goes for) words to answer other questions.
4:2 How did Carter allow the vulture to get so close without doing something to protect the child?
4:3 What did he do after the picture was taken?
4:4 Was it in some sense posed?
4:5 [10] (1. Despite the fact that 2. Questioning that 3. Inasmuch as) Kevin Carter chose to take the time, minutes that may have been critical at this point when she is near death, to compose an effective picture rather than to save the child, is he not also to blame for the child’s situation?

総合政策学部 1996 問1、
■第3段落
3:1 Persuasion has often been defined as an act of human communication that has the specific goal of influencing the beliefs, opinions, and attitudes, and/or behavior of others.

3:2 In many instances this definition does not describe the full range of conditions under which persuasion takes place.
3:3 Specifically, when receiver factors are taken into account one message may be a clear example of persuasive communication to a specific audience or individual, while presented to another it may simply (2)(1. devalue 2. impair 3. validate) existing beliefs and opinions and thus fail to present a clear distinction of persuasion.
3:4 Furthermore, instances of coercion can be (3)(1. misguided 2. misplaced 3. misconstrued) as acts of persuasion since there is a fine boundary between forced change and persuasive change.
3:5 For practical purposes, we will focus on the more (4)(1. salient 2. opaque 3. congenial) instances of persuasion and contrast them with examples that are not as distinct.

■第4段落
4:1 Within the large body of theory and research on persuasion the concept of attitude has received a great deal of attention since itis closely linked to the success of persuasive communication.
4:2 The mental state of the receiver is an important part of persuasion and in many instances the ultimate goal of the persuader is to bring about some form of attitude change.
4:3 Furthermore, in many cases attitudes are the (5) (1. precedents 2. precursors 3. premises) to behavior, and many theories of persuasion involve the concept of attitude.

 

■第6段落
6:1 Credible communicators are looked upon as experts.
6:2 That is, they display a degree of competence in their field and are commonly viewed as knowledgeable and experienced.
6:3 Furthermore, receiver judgments of competence are significantly influenced by the communicator’s level of training, occupation, and experience.
6:4 This value judgment made on the part of the receiver is important in whether the message is accepted or rejected.
6:5 If the receiver believes the communicator has (6)( 1. disposed 2. displayed 3. dismissed) a high degree of competence, then it is much more likely that the message being conveyed will have an impact.
6:6 In addition to this, a communicator’s degree of trustworthiness is also (7) (1. assessed
2. assured 3. accorded) by the receiver.
6:7 If a communicator is viewed as being truthful then the message will seem much more reliable and acceptable.
6:8 On the other hand, if a persuasive message is remembered but not its source, then the influence of a communicator of high credibility may have a diminishing effect over time.
6:9 However, low credibility communicators may receive a beneficial gain in this situation which would result in having a more persuasive response to their message after a period of time has passed.
6:10 This is a phenomenon known as the sleeper effect that occurs under circumstances in which the receiver remembers the message but not reasons that may (8)(1. discount 2. support 3. discourage)it.
6:11 For example, a receiver may remember factual information from a message but forget about the credibility of the communicator and other source factors which we normally rely upon to judge information.
6:12 (9)(1. Thus 2. On the contrary 3. In addition), practical issues that may influence the credibility of communicators include their rate of delivery and the degree of confidence in their tone.
6:13 A communicator is viewed as more credible if his or her speech contains no hesitations and is delivered at a rapid pace.

総合政策学部 1,998 問1、
■第2段落
2:1 Alice was the admissions officer’s dream.
2:2 She was easily admitted to our graduate program.
2:3 She came with (1) (1. average 2. stellar 3. satisfactory) test scores, outstanding college grades, excellent letters of recommendation, and, overall, close to a perfect record.

2:4 Alice proved to be more or less what her record promised.
2:5 She had excellent critical and analytical abilities, which earned her outstanding grades during her first two years at our school.
2:6 When it came to taking tests and writing papers, she (2) (1. had no peer 2. had no help
3. was popular) among her classmates.
2:7 But after the first two years, Alice no longer looked quite so outstanding.
2:8 In our graduate program, as in most, emphasis shifts after the first couple of years.

2:9 It is not enough just to criticize other people’s ideas or to study concepts that other people have proposed.
2:10 You must (3) (1. not rely on 2. begin reviewing 3. start coming up with) your own ideas and figuring out ways of implementing them.
2:11 Alice’s synthetic abilities were far inferior to her analytic ones.
2:12 But there was no way of knowing this from the evidence available in the admissions folder, for (4) (1. although 2. however 3. whenever) conventional measures can give us a good reading on analytic abilities, they give virtually no assessment of synthetic abilities.

2:13 Thus, Alice was “IQ test” smart, but not equally (5)(1. discreet 2. disciplined 3. distinguished) in the synthetic, or practical, areas of intelligence.

■第8段落
8:1 The (13) (1. convergence 2. divergence 3. incompatibility) of my analysis of the research literature and my personal experience convinced me that what was needed was a “triarchic” theory of human intelligence — one that did justice to each of these three aspects of intelligence.
8:2 It is important to mention that my goal in constructing the tribrachic theory was quite
(14) (1. contrary to 2. interchangeable with 3. compatible with) that of most psychologists who have developed theories of intelligence.

8:3 The field has been (15)1. Exceptionally focused 2. Notoriously contentious 3. Unusually harmonious), with every theorist setting out to prove that his theory is right and everyone else’s is wrong.
8:4 For example, Arthur Jensen argues for the predominance of a single, general factor in human intelligence, while Howard Gardner maintains that there are at least seven or eight multiple intelligences.
8:5 For me, the most disturbing element of these and other opposing theorists has been that while they have done reasonably well in (16) (1. amassing 2. refuting 3. responding to) evidence to support their own point of view, they have generally failed to disprove the views of others.
8:6 How could this be?
8:7 After reviewing earlier theories, I came to the conclusion that the reason for this was that virtually all of them have been (17)(1. inaccurate 2. incomplete 3. inconsistent) .
8:8 Though proposed as full theories of intelligence, each has dealt with only some limited aspects.
8:9 Often, too, these theories have proved to be complementary rather than contradictory, as might be expected.
8:10 It is not difficult to show that a theory of general intelligence and the theory of multiple intelligences can be (18) (1. infused 2. installed 3. integrated) in a hierarchical framework, with general intelligence at the top of the hierarchy and multiple intelligences lower down.

8:11 More specific abilities would then be viewed as sub-abilities.
8:12 The point to be made, then, is that often the competition among theorists has been
(19) (1. fierce 2. spurious 3. accommodating).
8:13 Their theories are really theories of different aspects of intelligence.

■第9段落
9:1 The goal of the tribrachic theory is not to compete with other theories, but to (20) (1. subsume 2. submerge 3. sublet) them in a sense; that is, to view them as subdivisions of a more general theory.
9:2 The tribrachic theory is so named because it attempts to deal with each of the three aspects of intelligence described earlier.
9:3 It is not the only possible theory that might successfully account for the interplay of intelligence with the internal world of the individual, with experience, and with the external world of the individual.
9:4 Indeed, I hope other theories will be proposed.
9:5 But for the present, it does seem to have somewhat fewer gaps than existing theories.

総合政策学部 1,998 問2、
■第4段落
4:1 The deliberate visual recording of language means not only a search for words but a search for genres.
4:2 Oral discourse, even when not informal, often trails off into another activity, being punctuated by a drink of water, a mouthful of food, the rustle of paper, the closing of a door, or, in other words, by another nonlinguistic activity.
4:3 Written composition, however, has to have a formal beginning and an end; “Dear Christine” is completed by “Yours sincerely, Stephen,” (7) (1. put out 2. put forward 3. laid out) in a particular format, with the specification of place and date.
4:4 Apart from the letter, there is a gamut of genres from the report to the passport, as well as the literary genres ranging from the novel to the poem.
4:5 These developments appear gradually over time, but eventually not only each composition but each subunit (8) (1. takes after 2. takes on 3. takes in) a specific form each topic requires a paragraph, each sentence a capital letter and full stop, each word its break.
4:6 Syntax and punctuation become more precise and more formal as a result of becoming visual.
4:7 Part of the reason behind these changes is that whereas speech (9) (1. operates as 2. addresses 3. defines) one of the channels in face-to-face communication, writing as a register stands on its own.
4:8 It is “decontextualized,” or rather the context is highly (10) (1. restricted 2. redundant 3. reserved) .
4:9 Hence, clarity of expression and precision of genre, syntax, and punctuation are encouraged by the visual representation of language.

総合政策学部 1999 問1
■第11段落
11:1 Botstein does worry about healthcare discrimination, (8) (1. giving 2. making 3. calling) it a serious social problem.
11:2 But he points out that it is mostly a problem in the United States — in Europe, there is
(9) (1. some 2. little 3. a little) incentive to discriminate because everyone is guaranteed some level of healthcare.
11:3 Paul Billings, deputy chief of staff at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Palo Alto, says that people like Botstein are (10) (1.deluding 2. cheating 3. camouflaging) themselves if they think that healthcare is the only arena where genetic information is misused.
11:4 He cites a number of nightmarish cases: The 24year old woman fired from her job after her employer learned of her risk of Huntington’s disease, an ailment that usually doesn’t strike until after 40; their recruits turned down by the Air Force because they were
(11) (1. carriers 2. patients 3. agents) of sickle cell disease; the two Marines court- martialed for refusing to take a gene test.

 

■第23段落
23:1 Those are just the complexities for the few hundred diseases, like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia, that are (19)(1. unintentionally 2. unreasonably 3. unquestionably)caused by genes.
23:2 Much of the research linking genes to traits like obesity or alcoholism is preliminary, based on only a few human subjects — and still on shaky scientific ground, Cox and Billings say.

■第24段落
24:1 Some geneticists now doubt whether gene tests will be (20) (1. sensitive 2. Sensuous 3. Sensory) risk detectors after all.
24:2 The comprehensive gene profile may not be the fortune-teller people imagined.

総合政策学部 2,000 問1
■第14段落
14:1 Kay: One of the things that Marshall McLuhan pointed out in Gutenberg Galaxy was that the sense of the individual [18](1. One 2. People 3. Self) in the Renaissance was somehow connected with the fact that you could take a book by yourself under a tree and think your own thoughts for the first time.

総合政策学部 2006 問1
■第4段落
4:1 Ed Diner thinks of this predilection as a “gift” bestowed on people by evolution that helps us adapt and flourish even in fairly trying circumstances.
4:2 But there are other [6] (1. theories 2. conditions 3. facts).
4:3 Maybe, he thinks, were “socialized” to be happy, in order to facilitate smooth social functioning.
4:4 Whatever the reasons for this gift, however, its benefits don’t seem to be [7] (1. positively 2. evenly 3. exactly) distributed around the globe.

総合政策学部 2,008 問1
■第4段落
4:1 The use of the hypothesis in scientific investigation is similar to playing a game of chance.
4:2 The rules of the game are [8]( 1. held forth 2.Set up 3. taken over), and bets are made, in advance.
4:3 One cannot change the rules after an outcome,[9] ( 1. seldom 2. Never 3. Nor) can one change ones bet after making it.
4:4 That would not be fair.
4:5 One cannot throw the dice first and then bet.
4:6 Similarly, if one gathers data first, then [10] (1. selects 2. throws 3. spares) only a few data and comes to a conclusion on the basis of those few data, one has violated the rules of the scientific game.
4:7 The game would not be fair because the investigator could easily [11] (1. capitalize on 2. take over 3. give in) , say, two significant relations out of five tested.
4:8 What happens to the other three?
4:9 They might be forgotten.
4:10 But in a fair game every throw of the dice is counted, in the [12] (1. game 2. hypothesis 3. sense) that one either wins or does not win on the basis of the outcome of each throw.
4:11 The main point is that the purpose of hypotheses is to direct inquiry.
4:12 As Darwin pointed out long ago, all observations have to be for or against some view, if they are to be of any U1Se.

総合政策学部 2008 問2
■第10段落
10:1 Indeed, the practice of “do ecology” can be [47] (1. triggered 2. followed 3. symbolized) by an ecological disaster.
10:2 Preaching does not help.
10:3 We see this being demonstrated in areas of the Punjab too.
10:4 Thirty years ago, when it was pointed out to Punjab farmers that their livelihoods would be threatened by the [48](1. modest 2. specified 3. excessive) use of chemical
fertilizers and the overexploitation of ground water, they listened politely, but did not change course.
10:5 Now, in a despairing mood, they are ready to change.
10:6 The adverse economics of unsustainable farming has led to indebtedness and occasional suicides.
10:7 The timing has become [49] (1. inappropriate 2. tricky. opportune) for farmers to take to conservation farming.

■第5段落
5:1 Some economists say that one of the most common miscalculations in households is “outsourcing” child care, in order to free both parents to [40](1. contribute 2. attribute 3. conform) to the household income.
5:2 Many parents stay in the labor force because they enjoy their jobs, but others stay because they think that they cannot [41](1. prefer 2. begin 3. afford) to quit.
5:3 Yet sometimes a mathematical calculation proves otherwise.
5:4 One example was found in a couple who earned a combined income of 120,000 per year.
5:5 They looked at what the mothers job was actually costing” the household.

5:6 Child care was costing 15,000 per year, and because their combined income was [42] (1. estimated 2. high 3. realized), they were losing another 12,000 in taxes.
5:7 They also calculated the “work-related costs,” such as car parking at the office, dry cleaning, and restaurant meals because they ate out frequently.
5:8 Finally, they determined that if the mother quit her job, they would not lose too much money.

■第2段落
2:1 Is it possible that it was worth her time?
2:2 This is a question that economists have been [31](1. denying 2. tackling 3. formulating) for some time.
2:3 Economists have spent decades using time value formulas to help companies maximize productivity.
2:4 Now, researchers and governments are looking at how those concepts apply to the household in many advanced countries.
2:5 In the present day economy of [32] (1. convenience 2. waste 3. scale), time can be purchased.
2:6 Everything from bags of pre washed salad to dog walking services is now available for people who are starved for time.
2:7 Economic studies of time use aim to answer the global question:
2:8 How do we measure whether we can afford a babysitter, a gardener, or other services, [33] (1. better 2.worse 3. rather) than doing them ourselves?

■第6段落
6:1 Arguments [6](1.related 2. responsible. resistant) to direct experience are not new.

6:2 The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued in The Rhetoric that temporal distancing [7](1. compares with 2. contrasts with 3. contributes to) a lack of sympathy, because it is difficult for people to feel close to events of the past or future.
6:3 The English philosopher David Hume made similar comments about spatial distancing in A Treatise on Human Nature (1740), maintaining that it is difficult for people to feel any relation to objects from which they are [8](1. logically derived 2. far removed 3. separated by time).

■第7段落
7:1 Defenders of conventional schooling make parallel arguments, claiming that children need the physical and emotional peer connections that they experience in classroom activities, school assemblies, club meetings, and the like in order to develop the social skills they will need to [9]( 1 .participate in 2. borrow from 3. retreat from) democratic society.
7:2 On the other hand, some argue that virtual schooling can actually promote civic participation because it provides a [10](1.measurement 2. mechanism 3. messenger) by which thoughtful communication can take place among a nearly limitless range of students.

■第8段落
8:1 This point, however, is called into question by the fact of socioeconomic inequality.

8:2 Technology mediated education may, at least in the short term, prevent people at the lower end of the income scale from participating in online education.
8:3 Indeed, students whose families can afford Internet access and the required hardware and software currently [11] (1. regulate 2. reduce 3. constitute) the majority of those participating in virtual schooling.
8:4 However, as computers and Internet access become less expensive, they will come within reach even of disadvantaged groups.
8:5 At that point, debate will likely focus on the overall quality of the online educational experience rather than on [12] (1. access 2. excess 3. success) itself.
8:6 Therefore, it will probably become necessary to demonstrate to potential users that high-quality education is being provided.
8:7 One way this can be accomplished is by establishing standards for teacher certification and course content with which virtual schools must [13](1.comply 2. contend 3. contract) .

■第4段落
4:1 Over the past several years, virtual schools have dramatically proliferated around the globe.
4:2 A major educational technology research and consulting firm estimates that in the United States alone, more than one million students now enroll in virtual schools each year.
4:3 Virtual schools have indeed arrived, and brought with them a [3](1. heart 2.host 3. whole) of new challenges to the concept of schooling.

総合政策学部 2,009 問1
■第2段落
2:1 That’s because Shackleton failed only at the improbable; he succeeded at the unimaginable.
2:2 “I love the fight and when things are easy, I hate It.” he once wrote to his wife, Emily.

2:3 He [2] (1.fought his way toward 2.managed to reach 3.lost track of) the South Pole in 1902 when he was part of a three-man Farthest South team on the Discovery expedition of the renowned explorer Robert F. Scott.
2:4 But the men turned back only after walking their ravaged bodies to within 460 miles of the Pole in a terrifying cold experienced by only a handful of human beings at that time.
2:5 Six years later, commanding his own expedition, Shackleton was forced to turn back a [3] (1.heartfelt 2. hearty 3. heartbreaking) 97 miles short of the Pole, but only after realizing it would be certain death by starvation had his team continued.
2:6 He was forgiven that [4] (1. accomplishment 2. failure 3. crisis) in light of the greatness of the effort;
2:7 he was knighted by King Edward Wall and honored as a hero throughout the world.

■第7段落
7:1 When the weather was its most brutal, the men endured temperatures that were so low they could hear the water freeze.
7:2 The bitter cold froze their garments [13] (1. sharp 2. fragile 3. solid) and burned their hands and feet.
7:3 They slept in tents so flimsy they could see the moon through them.
7:4 They spent nearly four months in the frigid darkness of the long polar night.
7:5 When the Antarctic summer finally brought warmer temperatures and the [14] (1.protection 2. promise 3. progress) of some relief, the men awoke every morning in cold puddles of water as their body heat melted the icy floor of their tents.
7:6 They subsisted on a [15] (1. diet 2. feast 3. recipe) of mostly penguin, seal, and sometimes dog.

総合政策学部 2010 問1
■ 第5段落
5:1 But most of us are, like Molly’s parents, terrible [9] (1.. risk takers 2. risk assessors 3. risk controllers) .
5:2 Peter Sandman, a self-described “risk communications consultant” in Princeton, New Jersey, made this point in early 2004 after a single case of mad-cow disease in the United States prompted an anti-beef frenzy.
5:3 “The basic reality,” Sandman told The New York Times, “is that the risks that scare people and the risks that kill people are very different.”

総合政策学部 2009 問2
■第2段落
2:1 That path is now gravely threatened.
2:2 An extreme individualism equating happiness [31] (1. for 2. with 3. as) “value” alone now trumps choices and policies made in markets of all kinds, political and otherwise.

2:3 “Value” and “I” can never migrate back into a sustainable blend with values” and “we must think differently about the real “we’s” of our lives – especially our organizations – and [32] (1. purposefully 2. accidentally 3. incidentally) blend “value” and “values” in those “we’s.”

 

■第3段落
3:1 It is to be noted here that people use the words “value” and “values” in different ways.

3:2 On the one hand, the singular “value” arises in conversations about economics, finance, business, and markets.
3:3 Value connotes a pointed [33] (1. estimation 2. escalation 3. investment) of current or anticipated worth not distant from monetary equivalence.
3:4 On the other hand, the plural term ”values” crops up when people talk about beliefs and behaviors regarding how human beings do or do not get along with one another and with gods, spirits, and nature.
3:5 “Values” is a noun, but a noun concerned with attitude and action.
3:6 Values are sorted into several categories: social values, political values, family and religious values, and environmental values.
3:7 Unlike value, talk of values [34] (1.increases 2. incorporates 3. ignores) money.
3:8 There is a deep, backward and forward-looking quality to values.
3:9 If value makes us wealthy, values make us human.

総合政策学部 2012 問1、
■ 第8段落
8:1 The American president Franklin Roosevelt at the time of the Great Depression said, “We have nothing to fear but fear itself.”
8:2 Perhaps as we turn to the 21st century, we should say one of the most worrisome things is fear itself.
8:3 If we can keep a balanced [19](1. assembly 2. assortment 3. assessment) of the overall distribution of power, and figure out ways to deal with these common challenges that we face―we, meaning the United States, Japan, China, Europe and others we can indeed have a [20](1. win-win 2. win-lose 3. lose-lose) situation.

総合政策学部 2012 問2、
■ 第6段落
6:1 The book guides readers through the field, [39](1. presenting 2. presents 3. presented) findings from medicine, biology, sociology, anthropology, political science, economics, mathematics, and beyond.
6:2 The authors discuss the spread of laughter, tastes in music, sexual behavior, and anxiety over nut allergies.
6:3 The authors note one study that carefully compared the structure of networks of many phenomena and found a strong similarity between the voting patterns of U.S. senators and social bonding among cows.
6:4 They also report on Japanese biologist Toshiyuki Nakagaki’s findings that a kind of mold**** can “collaborate” by spreading out in the form of a network to explore all possible paths to a goal, and that it is more efficient than his graduate students in finding the shortest route [40](1. on 2. beyond 3. through) a maze.
6:5 The book also presents his follow-up studies, in which the mold was as good as or better than humans at creating maps for railway systems in Great Britain and Japan.
6:6 These studies, they say, demonstrate the problem-solving power [41](1. capable of 2. possessed by 3. used for) networks.

総合政策学部 2013 問1、
■ 第4段落
4:1 Decision fatigue is the newest discovery [4] (1. challenging 2. involving. intensifying) a 4:1 phenomenon called ego depletion, a term coined in honor of Sigmund Freud’s idea that the ego depended on the transfer of energy.
4:2 This idea was generally ignored until the end of the century, when an American researcher named Roy Baumeister began studying mental discipline with hisI graduate students.

■ 第8段落
8:1 Shopping can be especially tiring for the poor, who have to struggle continually with trade-offs.
8:2 Most of us in developed countries won’t spend a lot of time agonizing over whether we can afford to buy soap, but it can be a depleting choice in rural India.
8:3 An economist offered people in 20 villages in northwestern India the chance to buy a couple of bars of brand-name soap for the equivalent of less than 20 US cents.
8:4 It was a [11] (1. scant 2. shallow 3. steep) discount off the regular price, yet even that sum was a strain for the people in the 10 poorest villages.
8:5 Whether or not they bought the soap, the act of making the decision left them with less willpower, as measured afterward in a test of how long they could squeeze a hand grip.
8:6 In the slightly more [12] (1. sanitary 2. affluent 3. determined) villages, peoples willpower wasn’t affected significantly.
8:7 Because they had more money, they didn’t have to spend as much effort weighing the merits of the soap versus, say, food or medicine.

■ 第12段落
12:1 The benefits of glucose were [18] (1. unmistakable 2. inconsequential. unobservable) in the study of the Israeli parole board mentioned at the beginning of this article.
12:2 In midmorning, the parole board would take a break, and the judges would be served a sandwich and a piece of fruit.
12:3 The prisoners who appeared just before the break had only about a 20 percent chance of getting parole, but the ones appearing right after had around a 65 percent chance.
12:4 The odds dropped again as the morning wore on, and prisoners really didn’t want to appear just before lunch: the chance of getting parole at that time was only 10 percent.
12:5 After lunch it soared up to 60 percent, but only [19] (1. somewhat 2. briefly. nominally).
12:6 Remember that Jewish Israeli prisoner who appeared at 3:10 p.m. and was denied parole from his sentence for assault?
12:7 He had the misfortune of being the sixth case heard after lunch.
12:8 But another Jewish Israeli prisoner serving the same sentence for the same crime was lucky enough to appear at 1:27 p.m., the first case after lunch, and he was rewarded with parole.
12:9 It must have seemed to him like a fine example of the justice system at work, but [20] (1. in addition 2. in actuality 3 . In sum), it probably had more to do with the judge’s glucose levels than the details of his case.

総合政策学部 2013 問2、
■ 第3段落
3:1 For most political ecologists, this approach is somewhat too sharp a double-edged sword.
3:2 While it [34](1. defies 2 undergoes 3. allows) a critical examination of how politically empowered environmental science has influenced and created the environments of the world around us, which is an important political ecological project, this approach does not allow us to make [35](1. adaptations 2 contributions 3. references) to non-human actors and processes (like soil, trees, and climate) In explaining outcomes.
3:3 This makes hard constructivism unattractive to many researchers.
3:4 while producing a valuable open space for accepting and appreciating alternative constructions of the environment held by other social communities, like forest dwellers, nomadic herders, and religious philosophers, this approach makes the symbolic systems of humans [36](1. sovereign 2. go 3. carry) over all other reality, apparently disabling empirical Investigation In traditional environmental science.

■ 第9段落
9:1 An alternative soft constructivist approach, “social institutional constructivism,” allows that such biases are a structural part of scientific practice, but that they nevertheless do not solely determine the conditions of the objective material world.
9:2 [46](1. Rather 2 Moreover 3. Hence) these conceptual biases in science help to explain why science some times gets facts wrong.
9:3 For social institutional constructivists, wrong ideas about nature are a product of the inevitable “socialness” of scientific communities.
9:4 Overtime, however, and through progressive experimentation and refutation the “social” ideas are purged from our understanding of nature, moving towards a true understanding of the objects of the natural world.
9:5 This is especially true, a social institutional constructivist might argue, as contemporary ecology and life sciences become more and more reflexive about the metaphors that [47] (1. understand 2. underpin 3. underestimate) their analysis of objective systems.

総合政策学部 2014 問1、
■ 第8段落
8:1 What explains these differences?
8:2 As it turns out, the Gnau tribe had customs of gift exchange, according to which receiving a gift [13](1. obligates 2. expects 3. persuades) the receiver to reciprocate at some point in the future.
8:3 Because there was no equivalent of the ultimatum game in the Gnau society, they simply “mapped” the unfamiliar interaction onto the most similar social exchange they could think of―which happened to be gift exchange―and responded [14](1. casually 2. belatedly 3 accordingly).
8:4 Thus what might have seemed like free money to a Western participant looked to a Gnau participant very much like an [15](1. unearned 2. unwanted 3.
unpredicted) obligation.
8:5 The Machiguenga, by contrast, live in a society in which the only relationship bonds that carry any expectation of loyalty are with immediate family members.
8:6 When playing the ultimatum game with a stranger, therefore, Machiguenga participants―again mapping the unfamiliar onto the familiar―saw little obligation to make fair offers, and experienced very little of the [16](1. resentment 2. contentment 3. euphemism) that would well up in a Western player upon being presented with a split that was patently unequal.
8:7 To them, even low offers were seen as a good deal.

■第2段落
2:1 Is it possible that it was worth her time?
2:2 This is a question that economists have been [31](1. denying 2. tackling 3. formulating) for some time.
2:3 Economists have spent decades using time value formulas to help companies maximize productivity.
2:4 Now, researchers and governments are looking at how those concepts apply to the household in many advanced countries.
2:5 In the present day economy of [32] (1. convenience 2. waste 3. scale) , time can be purchased.

2:6 Everything from bags of pre washed salad to dog walking services is now available for people who are starved for time.
2:7 Economic studies of time use aim to answer the global question:
2:8 How do we measure whether we can afford a babysitter, a gardener, or other services, [33] (1. better 2.worse 3. rather) than doing them ourselves?

■第3段落
3:1 Some economics professors regard a household as a small company that employs labor, buys technology, and makes decisions about what services to outsource.
3:2 But the household is a “company” that nowadays needs [34] (1. welfare 2. management 3. tax) consultants.
3:3 People often make drastic miscalculations about the [35](1. value 2. pace 3. amount) of their time, and take a do-it-yourself approach to tasks that might be less costly in time and money if they were hired out.
3:4 A simple oil change for your car, for example, costs the equivalent of $25 at some gasoline
stations, [36] ( 1. or 2. if 3. while) buying the supplies to do it yourself costs at least 20, meaning it is cost-efficient to let the gasoline station do it for you.
3:5 Yet millions of people say that they change the oil in their cars themselves.

 

■第4段落
4:1 It the past, economists looked [37](1. liberally 2. unwillingly. strictly) at your income in order to calculate the value of your leisure hours.
4:2 Now, the study of the “household economy” is getting fresh encouragement.

4:3 It is even beginning to take into account intangible factors such as satisfaction and pleasure.

4:4 Many governments have conducted surveys on the use of time within the household, in an effort to provide reliable data.
4:5 Some use a monthly survey, [38](1. if 2. where 3. which) they ask people to report how much time they spend doing such things as exercising or driving their kids to various places.
4:6 A large number of academic essays on this topic are also circulating.

4:7 Some of them address issues such as the impact of timesaving technology, including microwave ovens and washing machines.
4:8 This kind of scholarship is gaining new relevance now that lower household budgets are [39] (1. forcing 2. requesting 3. helping) some people to work longer hours, which emphasizes the importance of the cost-effective use of free time.

■第5段落
5:1 Some economists say that one of the most common miscalculations in households is “outsourcing” child care, in order to free both parents to [40](1. contribute 2. attribute 3. conform) to the household income.
5:2 Many parents stay in the labor force because they enjoy their jobs, but others stay because they think that they cannot [41](1. prefer 2. begin 3. afford) to quit.
5:3 Yet sometimes a mathematical calculation proves otherwise.

5:4 One example was found in a couple who earned a combined income of 120,000 per year.

5:5 They looked at what the mothers job was actually costing” the household.

5:6 Child care was costing 15,000 per year, and because their combined income was [42](1. estimated 2. high 3. realized) , they were losing another 12,000 in taxes.
5:7 They also calculated the “work-related costs,” such as car parking at the office, dry cleaning, and restaurant meals because they ate out frequently.
5:8 Finally, they determined that if the mother quit her job, they would not lose too much money.

 

■第6段落
6:1 But economists recognize that for many families, you must adjust these calculations using what they call “psychological variables.”
6:2 Some divide household [43](1. expenditures 2. management 3. activities) into two categories:

6:3“consumption,” which should be something you enjoy, and “production,” which is anything that feels like work.
6:4 If you love gardening, it is consumption, but if you hate gardening, it is production and you will be more [44](1. reluctant 2. inclined 3. able) to hire someone else to do it.
6:5 As one economist says, “it’s not just about the money.”
6:6 That was how Sarah Kallie [45] (1. justified 2. uncovered 3. undermined) her long battle with the telephone company.
6:7 It was worth it for the satisfaction, says Ms. Kalliney.

 

■第7段落
7:1 A more traditional economic approach measured the value of leisure time based on one’s hourly wage, and it was made famous by the American economist Gary Becker in 1965.
7:2 The idea was that any time that went toward leisure could be reinvested in work.

7:3 But income based formulas have [46](1. negligible 2. contrasting 3. obvious)limitations.

7:4 For instance, many people on a fixed salary do not have the choice of getting extra pay if they work overtime.
7:5 In addition, some people’s work is keeping house, which usually does not [47](1. come 2. advance 3. decrease) with a salary.
7:6 Yet in figuring out how to maximize your time, salary is a logical starting point.
7:7 Economists suggest that you begin by calculating what an hour of your time is worth, based on your salary.
7:8 Using that figure, you can then compare the cost of doing a task yourself versus outsourcing it.

7:9 If you do it yourself, you have to add the price of materials or supplies.

7:10 If you hire someone else, of course, you have to calculate the time it takes to find and manage that person.
7:11 Then you are [48](1. ready 2. opposed 3. ineligible) to tackle the other half of the calculation.

7:12 This looks at the non financial costs and benefits.
7:13 Among the factors to consider are how much you enjoy doing the job yourself, and what you are willing to give up in order to do it.

■第8段落
8:1 Many do-it-yourself veterans are grappling with these same issues.

8:2 We tried two tasks: 8:2我々は2つの課題を試した。
8:3 one, filling in our tax forms by ourselves versus hiring a tax accountant;

8:4 two, buying a jar of pre-chopped garlic versus buying a garlic press device and doing it ourselves.
8:5 The tax accountant finished his work only two minutes faster than we did ourselves when we used a software program, if we include the time it took to travel to his office.
8:6 However, employing him cost $100 more.
8:7 Buying the jar of garlic saved us 22 minutes of chopping and slicing by ourselves, making it worthwhile, but the garlic in the jar does not taste as good as fresh garlic.
8:7 We then hired a professional to organize our desk.

8:8 She did half of it, but [49](1. charged 2. paid 3. saved) nearly $100 per hour, during which we had to stay with her to help her understand the piles of papers, making it not worthwhile.

■第9段落
9:1 One financial consultant, who earns over %150 per hour at his job, tried holding a garage sale at his home to earn extra money.
9:2 It took many hours of planning and standing outside in the summer sun, at the [50] (1. location 2. end 3. duration) of which he had earned only $4.けであった。
9:3 He says that he will never try this again.

■第2段落
2:1 During the 19th century, however, education by postal correspondence was established in some areas of England, Germany, the U.S., and Sweden.
2:2 In the 20th century, additional forms of distance education that made use of radio and television emerged.
2:3 Virtual schooling, another [1](1. ancestor of 2. type of 3. alternative to) distance learning that uses online computers to provide some or all of a student’s education, first appeared in the closing years of the 20century.

■第3段落
3:1 Virtual schools make it possible for students to do coursework at convenient times, in their homes or elsewhere, rather than being subject to meeting at specified times and places.
3:2 Because computers serve as the [2](1.preceding 2. principal 3. principle) media of instruction, virtual school courses tend to be rich in audio, video or other graphic contents, and usually incorporate email, instant messaging blogging, and other forms of online interactivity.

■第5段落
5:1 Perhaps the most serious concern about virtual schools is whether they can teach students to work cooperatively, and to [4](1. acquire 2. interrupt 3. reject) the humanistic and egalitarian values that are the foundations of democratic society.
5:2 Many who oppose on demand virtual schools claim that, because such schools do not [5](1. prevent 2. provide 3. propose) live interaction, they are destined to diminish civic engagement and deepen the social isolation that can be seen among so many of today’s young people.

■第6段落
6:1 Arguments [6](1.related 2. responsible. resistant) to direct experience are not new.

6:2 The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued in The Rhetoric that temporal distancing [7](1. compares with 2. contrasts with 3. contributes to) a lack of sympathy, because it is difficult for people to feel close to events of the past or future.
6:3 The English philosopher David Hume made similar comments about spatial distancing in A Treatise on Human Nature (1740), maintaining that it is difficult for people to feel any relation to objects from which they are [8](1. logically derived 2. far removed 3. separated by time) .

■第8段落
8:1 This point, however, is called into question by the fact of socioeconomic inequality.

8:2 Technology mediated education may, at least in the short term, prevent people at the lower end of the income scale from participating in online education.
8:3 Indeed, students whose families can afford Internet access and the required hardware and software currently [11] (1. regulate 2. reduce 3. constitute) the majority of those participating in virtual schooling.
8:4 However, as computers and Internet access become less expensive, they will come within reach even of disadvantaged groups.
8:5 At that point, debate will likely focus on the overall quality of the online educational experience rather than on [12] (1. access 2. excess 3. success) itself.
8:6 Therefore, it will probably become necessary to demonstrate to potential users that high-quality education is being provided.
8:7 One way this can be accomplished is by establishing standards for teacher certification and course content with which virtual schools must [13](1.comply 2. contend 3. contract).

■第9段落
9:1 Another point in favor of virtual schooling can be seen in the positive effects of on demand discussions.
9:2 In most conventional school classes, discussions tend to be dominated by the few, most [14] (1. excluded 2. extroverted 3. indifferent) students.
9:3 Also, the number and variety of students in a given class are [15](1. limited 2. multiplied 3. unrestricted) by the size and location of the classroom in which they gather.
9:4 In the online classroom environment, spatial barriers are removed, and discussions enter a new dimension.
9:5 When a virtual school instructor posts a question on an online discussion board, students are given a certain number of days in which to respond.
9:6 For many introverted students, this type of discussion [16](1. rejects 2. revives 3. represents) a first opportunity to “speak up” in class.
9:7 Also, the fact that classmates cannot see each other promotes the participation of students who are socially marginalized for one reason or another.
9:8 Finally, because the discussions do not take place in [17](1. broadband 2.cyberspace 3. real time) , non native speakers have the extra time they need to contemplate questions and contribute their points of view.

■第10段落
10:1 Supporters of virtual schooling also argue that, while virtual Schools may not be for everyone, they play an [18](1. questionable 2. trivial 3. vital) role as policy levers in contemporary educational politics.
10:2 Their very presence and proliferation continue to challenge the status quo on issues of instructional equality, the quality of teaching, and the way schools are organized to deliver services.

■第11段落
11:1 Over the past century, we have witnessed an evolution of approaches, structures, and technologies related to distance education.
11:2 Since the advent of the computer and the Internet, this evolution has [19] (1. accelerated 2. accentuated 3. accorded) to the point that no one can confidently predict how the educational landscape will look in the future.
11:3 While there is ample research on distance education, research on virtual schooling is still in its infancy.

■第12段落
12:1 As virtual schools become more prevalent, they will compete with conventional schools for funding, teachers, and students.
12:2 It is likely that there will be [20] (1. a lack of interest in 2. harmonious discussions on 3. heated debates on) issues such as teacher training, course certification, academic standards, teaching methods, access, and socialization.
12:3 It is to be hoped that the result of these exchanges will be a renewed consideration of the means and ends of education in contemporary society.

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