慶應義塾大学SFC 総合政策学部 英語 2002年 大問二 本文対訳

1:1 It has been recognized since earliest times that some restraints should be observed during armed conflict.
1:2 Already in the Old Testament* there are instances of limitations set by God.
1:3 Sun Tzu* maintained that in war one should attack the enemy armies, and that “the worst policy is to attack cities.
1:4 Attack cities only when there is no alternative.”
1:5 In ancient India it was considered that war should be conducted on a basis of equality between the opponents:
1:6 “A car warrior should fight a car warrior.
1:6 つまり、「二輪馬車の戦士は二輪馬車の戦士と戦わなければならない。
1:7 One on horse should fight one on horse.
1:8 Elephant riders must fight with elephant riders, as one on foot fights a foot soldier.”
1:9 According to Homer*, the ancient Greeks considered that the use of poison on weapons was forbidden by the gods;
1:9 ホメロスによると、古代ギリシア人は、武器に毒を塗ることは神によって禁止されていると考えていた。
1:10 and among the city states, temples and priests and embassies could not be attacked.
1:10 また、都市国家の中では、寺院や神宮や外国の大使館を攻撃することはできなかった。
1:11 The Romans were more regular and disciplined soldiers than those of any other ancient nation.
1:11 ローマ人は、他のいかなる古代国家の兵士よりも組織化され、規律のある兵士であった。
1:12 They did not, as a rule, lower themselves to indiscriminate massacre and [1](1. unrestrained 2. unavailable 3. spotted) destruction.
2:1 By the seventh century some of these principles had spread to the Islamic world.
2:1 これらの原則の中には、7世紀までにイスラム世界にまで広がっていたものもあった。
2:2 The leading Islamic statement on the law of nations written in the ninth century to some extent reflects principles laid [2](1. upon 2. down 3. by) in the Old Testament, with its ban on the killing of women, children, the old and [3](1. the helpless 2. the help 3. helpful).
2:2 9世紀に書かれた国家の法律に関する主要なイスラム教の記述は、旧約聖書に規定されていた原則をある程度反映していて、女性、子供、老人、無カの者を殺すことを禁じていた。
2:3 Moreover, a prisoner of war should not be killed, but he may be ransomed* or set free.
2:3 さらに、捕虜は殺すべきではなく、身代金を払わせるか自由にするかであろう。
2:4 But, prisoners might be killed if it were considered advantageous in conducting a war [4](1. therefore 2. however 3. despite), this would not be so if the prisoners converted to Islam.
2:4 しかし、戦争を行っていく上で有利と考えられるならば、捕虜は殺されるかもしれない。しかしながら、もし捕虜がイスラム教に改宗するならば、こういうことにはならないだろう。
3:1 By the Middle Ages the power of the Church was such that it was able to forbid Christian knights [5](1. to 2. from 3. against) using certain weapons as hateful to God.
3:2 Thus, in 1139, the Second Lateran Council condemned the use of the crossbow and arc*, a view that matched the concept of chivalry* which regarded such weapons [6](1. as 2. such 3. very) disgraceful, since they could be used from a distance enabling a man to strike [7](1. with 2. before 3. without) the risk of himself being struck.
3:2 その結果、1139年に第2回ラテラノ公会議は戦闘用大弓の使用を非難したが、この考えはそのような武器を卑劣なものとみなす騎士道の概念に合致したものであった。なぜなら、それらは距離をおいて使用できるため、自分が攻撃される危険はなく他を攻撃することを可能にするものであるからだった。
3:3 In fact, the feudal knights were aware of what they knew as the “law of chivalry,” a customary code of chivalrous conduct that controlled their affairs and which was enforced by specially appointed arbitrators* or, in the case of England and France, by Courts of Chivalry.
3:4 However, these limitations only covered those who shared the code of chivalry, such as knights of noble birth, and did not cover common soldiers.
3:4 しかしながら、このような制限は、貴族生まれの騎士などのような騎士道の法を共有する者にしか及ばず、一般の兵士に及ぶことはなかった。
4:1 [8](1. Such 2. Forbidden 3. It) was not only through the military codes or the rules of chivalry that basic rules for the conduct of war were developing.
4:2 During the Crusades*, religious hatred tended to lead to the total destruction of the enemy.
4:3 However, by the twelfth century, the Knights of the Order of St. John had established a hospital in Jerusalem for the care of the sick as well as for [9](1. dead 2. injured 3. killed) soldiers.
4:3 しかしながら、12世紀までに聖ヨハネ勲爵士団が負傷した兵士のためだけでなく病人の看護のためにエルサレムに病院を設立していた。
4:4 In 1552, French Commander François de Guise ordered the French army doctor Amboise Para to take care of the abandoned wounded soldiers of the enemy and to make arrangements for their transport back to their army.
4:4 1552年に、フランスの指揮官であったフランソワ=ド=ギーズは、フランス人軍医のアンプロワーズ=パラに対して、見捨てられた敵の負傷兵の世話をし、彼らの軍へ運び戻す手配をするようにと命じた。
5:1 The first international agreement aimed at limiting the conduct of armed conflict was drawn up at the end of Crimean War in 1856.
5:2 In terms of its contents, a more important agreement was the Geneva Convention* of 1864 for the proper treatment of the wounded in armies in the field, signed only a year after the founding conference of the Red Cross.
5:3 The 1864 Convention was [10](1. legalized 2. reconstructed 3. revised) by the latter Geneva Conventions of 1906, 1929 and 1949.
5:3 1864年の条約は、その後1906年、1929年、1949年のジュネーヴ条約によって修正された。
5:4 The contents of the Geneva Conventions include the protection of the sick and the wounded in the field, prisoners of war, as well as the civilian population.
5:4 ジュネーヴ条約の内容には、民間人だけでなく戦場での病人と負傷者の保護、捕虜の保護が含まれていた。
5:5 [11](1. However 2. In sum 3. On the contrary), the Geneva Conventions, collectively known as the Geneva Law, are related to the humanitarian treatment of people, soldiers and civilians, even in the midst of armed conflict.
6:1 In contrast to the Geneva Law is the law concerning the means and methods of conducting actual military operations in armed conflict.
6:1 ジュネーヴ法と対照をなすのが、武器による戦闘中において、実際に軍事行為を行うときの手段と方法に関する法律である。
6:2 This is generally known as the Hague Law.
6:2 これは一般にハーグ法として知られている。
6:3 The Hague Law has evolved mainly through the disarmament conferences, which were held at the invitation of Russian Emperor in 1899 and 1907.
6:3 ハーグ法は主に軍縮会議を通して発展してきたが、その会議は1899年と1907年にロシア皇帝の招きで開かれた。
6:4 In 1899, 26 countries met at The Hague and adopted Conventions concerning the ban of gas weapons [12](1. besides 2. addition to 3. as well as) certain methods of military operations such as attacking civilian population and denial of quarter*.
6:4 1899年に、26カ国がハーグに集まり、民間人の攻撃や命乞いの拒絶などといった軍事行為についての方法とガス兵器の禁止に関する条約を採択した。
7:1 At the time of the Hague Conferences both in 1899 and 1907, it was not understood that aerial warfare might be [13](1. as much as 2. no more than 3. of) major significance.
7:1 1899年と1907年のハーグ会議のどちらのときも、空中戦が非常に重要であろうとは思われていなかった。
7:2 However, the role played by aircraft during World War I made it clear that some rules were necessary to regulate aerial conflict.
7:2 しかしながら、第一次世界大戦中に飛行機が果たした役割によって、空中戦を規定する法律が必要であることが明らかになった。
7:3 As a result, a commission of legal experts met at The Hague in 1922 to agree on the Rules of Air Warfare.
7:3 その結果として、1922年、空中戦の法律に関する協定を結ぶため、法律の専門家の委員会がハーグで聞かれた。
7:4 These rules were never put into any international treaty and are, as such, not legally binding.
7:4 これらの協定は決して国際条約になることはなく、そのようなものとして、法的な拘束力はない。
7:5 To be a legally binding international law, the agreement between countries has to be in a form of a treaty signed and approved by representatives of these countries.
7:6 Alternatively, there is international customary law, which is not a written treaty but an unwritten law made of generally accepted state practices around the world.
7:6 また別に、国際的な慣習法があるが、それは成文化された条約ではなく、世界中で一般的に受け入れられている国家慣習からできた不文律である。
7:7 Any other rule is just a political declaration or a moral recommendation although it may sometimes be influential and widely supported by peoples around the world.
7:7 それ以外の決まりは、影響力をもっていたり、世界中の国民によって広く支持されたりすることはあるかもしれないが、単なる政治宣言や道徳上の勧告にすぎないのだ。
8:1 So how does the ambiguity of international customary law affect a contemporary issue of the laws of war such as nuclear weapons?
8:1 それでは、国際的な慣習法のあいまいさが、核兵器などのような「戦争に関する法律」の現代的な問題にどのような影響を与えているのだろうか。
8:2 What is the legal status of nuclear weapons?
8:3 Are they prohibited or not?
8:4 There are treaties regulating the use of particular weapons such as biological and chemical weapons, but as yet there is no established law concerning the use of nuclear weapons, [14](1. though 2. and 3. no less than) there are treaties directed against the testing of such weapons and limiting the number of such weapons.
8:5 Consequently, there are various legal opinions on this issue.
8:5 その結果、この問題に関してはさまざまな法律上の意見がある。
9:1 During World War II, it became clear that the Laws of Geneva and Hague as they existed were inadequate in relation to the new methods of conducting war that widely involved civilian populations, and to the newly invented weapons such as the atomic bomb.
9:1 ジュネーヴ条約とハーグ条約は確かに存在していたが、これらは民間人を広く巻き込む戦争を行う新しい方法や、原子爆弾などの新しく発明された武器に関しては不十分なものであることが、第二次世界大戦中に明らかとなった。
9:2 Therefore, the rules of armed conflict did not correspond to the new methods of modern war.
9:2 したがって、武器による戦闘の法律が近代戦争の新しい方法には対応しなかった。
9:3 Nevertheless, if a case were brought before a court, the legality of such new methods of war had to be [15](1. evaluated 2. invented 3. Speculated) based on the existing law.
9:3 それにもかかわらず、訴訟が裁判所に持ち込まれると、そのような新しい戦争の方法の合法性が、既存の法律に基づいて判断されなければならなかった。
9:4 In 1963, in an opinion on the use of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the District Court of Tokyo held that even though the rules of Air Warfare were not written in a treaty they had become international customary law by the start of the World War II, and the indiscriminate aerial bombardment on [16](1. a disdefended 2. an antidefense 3. an undefended) city was perceived to be contrary to the rules of international customary law.
9:4 1963年、広島と長崎の原子爆弾の使用に関する意見の中で、東京地方裁判所は、空中戦に関する法律は条約には書かれていないが、第二次世界大戦開戦までには国際的な慣習法になっていて、無防備な都市を無差別に空中から爆撃することは、国際的な慣習法に反すると思われると判断を下した。
10:1 Another opinion was offered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
10:2 In 1996, [17](1. anonymously 2. unanimously 3.necessarily) held that “A threat or use of force by means of nuclear weapons that is contrary to Article 2, paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter* and that fails to meet all the requirements of Article 51 [relating to self-defense], is unlawful.”
10:2 1996年に、ICJは、「国連憲章第2条第4項に反し、第51条(正当防衛に関する)の要件をすべて満たすことのできない、核兵器を手段とする武力による威嚇または行使は非合法である」と全員一致で判断を下した。
10:3 Nevertheless, it went [18](1. toward 2. again 3. on) to hold that in the current state of international law, the Court cannot conclude definitively whether the threat or use of nuclear weapons would be lawful or unlawful in an extreme circumstance of self-defense, in which the very survival of a State would be at stake.
10:3 それにもかかわらず、ICJは続けて、国際法の現在の状態では、まさに国家の存続が危うくなっているような正当防衛の極端な状況の中では、核兵器の威嚇または行使が合法か非合法かどうかを同裁判所が最終的に結論づけることはできないとも判断を下した。
11:1 In general, in the absence of any specific treaty or international customary law relating to a particular weapon and restricting or controlling its use, the employment of such weapons is subject to the general rules of the law of armed conflict.
11:2 The question of the legality of such weapons should be decided in accordance with those rules, particularly those concerning unnecessary suffering and proportionality.
11:2 そのような兵器が合法かどうかという問題は、そういった一般的な規則、特に不必要な苦しみや広がりに関する規則に従って決定されるべきである。
11:3 In view of the effects of a nuclear explosion, the long-term nature of its radioactive fallout, and the existence of treaties banning the use of poison or other biological weapons, it might be expected [19](1. to 2. although 3. that) nuclear weapons would fall under the ban on those weapons causing unnecessary suffering and adversely affecting the environment.
11:4 However, some schools of international lawyers hold that war employing nuclear weapons to prevent new nuclear powers from emerging would be reasonable in some circumstances.
11:4 しかしながら、国際的法律家たちの派閥の中には、新しい核保有国が現れるのを防ぐために核兵器を使用する戦争は、ある状況下では道理にかなっているとする説をとる者もある。
12:1 The debate over the legal status of nuclear weapons continues to dominate contemporary international politics.
12:2 The inability of international conferences to come up with an agreed resolution on the rules of conflict and disarmament has led in recent years to a growing grassroots movement on the part of war-weary [20](1. populations 2. lawyers 3. politicians).
12:3 More and more, the frontline work of disarmament and weapons control has been carried out by NGOs around the world.
12:3 ますます、軍縮と兵器規制の最前線での取り組みが世界中のNGOによって行われてきている。
12:4 Whether successful or not, these organizations have been crucial in bringing the issue of peace to world attention, and making the issue of arms control part of an international public debate.
* The Old Testament 旧約聖書
* sun Tzu 孫子(古代中国の兵法家)
* Homer ホメロス(古代ギリシャの詩人)
* ransom 身代金を払って自由の身とする
* crossbow and arc 戦闘用大弓(中世の武器)
* chivalry 騎士道
* arbitrators 仲裁者
* Crusades 十字軍
* convention 条約
* quarter 助命、命乞い
* Article 2, paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter provides:
“All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.” 国連憲章第2条4項は、「すべての加盟国は、その国際関係において、武力による威嚇又は武力の行使を、いかなる国の領土保全又は政治的独立に対するものも、また、国際連合の目的と両立しない他のいかなる方法によるものも慎まなければならない」と規定する。




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