慶應義塾大学SFC 総合政策学部 英語 2006年 大問二 内容一致問題

1:1 Rural areas of the Southeast Asian mainland and the agricultural sector in general, form the majority of Southeast Asia’s population.
1:2 Rural agricultural areas, including forested land, constitute more than half of Southeast Asia’s land area.
1:3 The number of persons [31] (1. taken 2. engaged 3. residing) in agriculture, part or full time, varies from country to country.
1:4 It averages, however, between 70% and 80%.
1:4 しかし、平均70%から80%の間になる。
1:5 In terms of these factors, that is, land and population, the rural areas are important.
1:5 こうした要因、すなわち、土地と人口の観点からすれば、農村地帯は重要である。

1:6 Even more important are the local people’s ways of [32] (1.responding 2. opposing 3. appealing) to modern development, especially in terms of their economic and social benefits and costs.
1:6 さらに重要なのは、とりわけ、経済や社会の利益と費用という観点からみた、近代的な開発に対する地元民の反応の仕方である。
[51] According to the article, why are rural areas of Asia important?
1. They comprise more than half of the population and land area of Asia.
2. They have an ever greater voice in electing the leaders of their nations.
3. They have many geographical and natural features to attract developers.
4. The great majority of the people living there resist modern economic development.

・解答  [51]―1

2:1 Looked at [33] (1. with 2. from 3. as) an economic point of view, the agricultural sector becomes extremely important.
2:2 Developing nations throughout Asia depend on agricultural production both for domestic consumption and for their export economies.
2:2 アジア一帯の発展途上国は、国内消費と輸出経済の両方において、農業生産に頼っている。

2:3 Further, close to 45% of Southeast Asia’s economy in terms of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) depends on agriculture.
2:3 さらに、GDP(国内総生産)でみると東南アジアの経済の45%近くは、農業に依存している。
2:4 These developing countries’ livelihood itself comes from their agricultural products.
2:5 Further, rural people in small communities contribute in [34] (1. erratic 2. probable. direct) ways to the whole society as well as the environmental conservation of Southeast Asia.
2:5 さらに、小さな地域の農民が、東南アジアの環境保全ばかりでなく、社会全体に直接的に寄与しているのである。
2:6 But they also bear new costs related to the stresses of economic development.
2:6 しかも、彼らは経済発展の重要性に関連してあらたな費用も負担する。
[52] According to the article, what is the relation of Asian rural areas to their countries’ economies?
1. They produce the crops that feed their entire country.
2. They are expected by their governments to increase production.
3. They are the main producers of various goods for export.
4. They constitute nearly half of the economic activity of Southeast Asia.

・解答  [52]―4

3:1 In order to examine how rural people develop their own ways of [35] ( 1. governing 2. handling 3. producing) modern economic and social demands, we must first keep in mind that the states of Asia show a great variety in their physical and geographical features as well as in the populations that have traditionally lived in these diverse areas.
3:2 Of these, the most important distinction is that between “lowland” and “highland” areas.
3:2 これらのうち、最も重要な区別は、「低地」と「高地」の違いである。
3:3 “Lowland” refers to the lower-altitude areas where most urban and rural areas lie, and also to their populations, which are the majority.
3:3 「低地」は標高の低い地域のことであり、ほとんどの都市部と農村部がそこに存在する。また、多数派民族であるそこにいる住民のことでもある。
3:4 “Highland” refers to the hill and mountain areas that have far fewer, usually minority, people, but that are [36] (1. rich 2. located 3. consistent) in forests and other resources.
3:4 「高地」は、丘陵山岳地域のことである。
3:5 Based on this distinction, the modern Asian nation-state has come to categorize farming people as belonging in two groups:
3:5 この区分にもとづいて、現代のアジアの国民国家は、農民を2つの集団に属すると分類するようになった。
3:6 first, lowland people, who may be defined as the majority group or the major nationality, and second, highland people, who are normally defined as minorities or “hill tribes.”
3:7 Between these two major groups there are, of course, many cultural, institutional, and practical differences.
3:7 これら2つの主要集団の間には、もちろん多くの文化や制度上、実務上の差異がある。
3:8 Yet the problems they face within the modernizing nations of Southeast Asia have many similarities.

3:8 しかし、東南アジアの近代化しつつある諸国の中で彼らが直面している問題には、多くの共通点がある。
[53] The author points out that the populations of rural Asia can be categorized according to their living areas as
1. a major part of the emerging nation-states of Asia.
2. people who traditionally depend on nature in its diverse forms.
3. the majority in the lowlands and the minority in the highlands.
4. farmers who are separated by geographical and national boundaries.

・解答  [53]―3

4:1 These problems include, first, education and the job market.
4:1 こうした問題には、第1に教育と労働市場が含まれる。
4:2 There is a mismatch between the education in rural areas and the [37] (1. prices 2. Skills 3. Demands) of the modern labor market.
4:2 農村部の教育と近代的な労働市場の需要の間には、くいちがいがある。
4:3 Modern forms of employment require updated skills and education, and often cannot absorb workers with only a basic education.

4:4 Second, in many cases such people have lost their traditional livelihood.
4:4 第2に、多くの場合、そうした人々は従来の生計の手段がなくなっているのである。
4:5 The land or the forest on which the rural majority [38] (1. rests 2. places 3. depends) can be bought up by corporations, industries, or real estate developers, or it can be lost through the failure to understand the complicated legal requirements of private ownership.
4:5 農村の多数が依存する土地や森林は、会社や事業、不動産開発業者に買い上げられることができたり、私的所有権を設定するための複雑な法的要件を理解できなかったために明け渡されたりしうるのである。
4:6 When land or forest is cleared for development, their livelihood disappears.

4:7 As their education does not equip them to find immediate employment elsewhere, their survival is in [39] (1. jeopardy 2. need 3. consequence).
[54] The article states that rural education and the modern job market are
1. reciprocal, because rural educational qualifications determine hiring.
2. at odds, because rural education does not keep up with the employers’ needs.
3. compatible, because the labor market requires only basic education.
4. complementary, because they reinforce each other.

・解答  [54]―2
第4段第2文(There is a…)に「農村地域の教育と近代的な労働市場の需要の間には、くいちがいがある」と述べられているので、mis-matchに相当する表現を含むものが正解。1.reciprocal「相互的な」、2.at odds「争っている、くいちがっている」、3.compatible「両立して」、4.complementary「相補的な」という語い的な知識がないと、2を自信をもって選ぶのは難しいだろうが、第4段第3文(Modern forms of…)のbecause以下の理由から推測できる。

[55] What does the article mention as a possible reason that rural people lose their land?
1. They may imperfectly understand the requirements for registering private ownership.
2. They invite real-estate companies to come to their district to develop the land.
3. They sell forested land in order to make money from the timber on it.
4. They allow industries to use their land for business and manufacturing.

・解答  [55]―1
第4段後半部分の記述に関する設問である。第4段第5文(The land or…)に、「私的所有権を設定するための複雑な法的要件を理解できなかったために」と述べられているので、正解は1であることがわかる。

[56] The article states that deforestation impacts on rural people by
1. taking away one of the means of their livelihood.
2. offering income through the sale of forested land.
3. making cleared land available for further uses.
4. accelerating the process of rural development.

・解答  [56]―1
同じく第4段最後から2番目の文(When land or…)に「土地や森林が開発のために開撃されると、彼らの生計の糧は消滅する」と記述されている。

5:1 Third, modern agriculture uses chemicals to kill weeds and insect pests as well as to fertilize the soil in order to increase productivity.
5:2 In principle, it is desirable to increase productivity and the [40] (1. income 2. expense 3. consumption) that goes with it.
5:3 For this reason farmers often agree to use expensive, imported chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
5:3 それゆえに、農民は高価な輸入化学肥料や農薬を使うことに同意することが多い。
5:4 As farmers are frequently exposed to these chemicals, they are also the most numerous [41] (1. causes 2. vehicles 3. victims) of the illnesses associated with them.

5:5 Further, the average farmer cannot afford the constant expenses that are needed to maintain modern agricultural products.
5:5 さらに、平均的な農民は、近代的な農業生産を維持するために必要な費用を定期的に支払う余裕がない。
5:6 When prices on the international market are high, they may be able to recover their expenses, but when prices drop, their debts increase.
6:1 Finally, people who have lost their land to developers and have no economic resources to fall back on are normally forced to rely on occasional employment in seasonal or day labor.

6:2 More often, they must migrate to find work.
6:2 より多くの場合、彼らは仕事を得るのに渡り歩くよりほかはないのである。
6:3 When they go out to find work, they encounter new and different problems at their work destinations.

6:4 The family who remain in the village also bear a larger burden due to the [42] (1. absence 2. power 3. effort) of the adult earner.
6:5 All of these newly arising problems need new solutions and new ways of formulating them.
[57] Among the costs of producing food for export, the article does not mention
1. fertilizers, pesticides and other imported chemicals for agriculture.
2. healthcare payments for illnesses incurred from agricultural chemicals.
3. monetary losses when prices fall on the international market.
4. loss of land when it is used for other development projects.

・解答  [57]―2
第5段の記述に関する設問である。1については、第3文(For this reason…)に言及がある。2については、第4文(As farmers are…)で病にかかることは書かれているが、医療については明確に述べていない。3については、最終文(When prices on…)に「価格が下落すると、彼らの借金は膨らむ」と記述されている。4については、第4段第5・6文(The landor…)。第6段第1文にあるように、農民が農地を失う可能性がある。

[58] The article points out several consequences of labor migration for the rural household, including
1. the increase in income when one family member leaves to migrate.
2. the easing of the economic burden on the family members who remain behind.
3. the gaining of new skills and new perspectives at the new workplace.
4. the exposure to different problems at work from those at home.

・解答  [58]―4
第6段に関する出題。第3文(When they go…)に「彼らが仕事を探しに外へ出ると、仕事の行き先で新しいさまざまな問題に出くわす」とあるので、4が正解であるとわかる。

7:1 Traditional Societies did have their own forms of political and social decision­making when facing problems in the community.
7:2 Before their exposure to western-style democracy, rural people could discuss their needs and plans [43] (1. in 2. among 3. to) themselves at village meetings, in temple gatherings, or elsewhere.
7:3 In these traditional ways of discussing and governing, the position of the village head or other local leaders was an inherited position, and this system had its drawbacks in that it was feudalistic and authoritarian.

7:4 But the [44] (1. advantage 2. reason 3. idea) was that these leaders were people from the same local area and they understood the local culture and values.
7:4 だが、こうした指導者は同じ地域の出身で、彼らが地域の文化と価値観とを理解しているという利点もあった。
[59] According to the author, traditional decision­making in rural villages was not
1. designed to address problems within the community.
2. conducive to discussing the needs of villagers.
3. governed by a village head in an inherited position.
4. undertaken by persons or organizations from the outside.

・解答  [59]―4
第7段に関する出題。1に関しては第2文(Before their exposure…)にある通り。2も同じく第2文に「自分たちが必要とすることや計画について、自分たち自身の間で議論する」とある。3は第3文(In these traditioal…)に「村長など地域指導者の地位は世襲制であった」と示されている。4に述べられている事態は、第8段第1文にあるが、「近代的な統治と議会制民主主義」に関する記述であって、「伝統的な意志決定」に関する記述とはいえない。よって、正解は4である。

9:1 In fact, within traditional ways of life, there was traditional or indigenous knowledge, that is, knowledge about the natural environment, about sustainable production and consumption, and about remedies for illnesses.
9:2 With modernization, “modern” knowledge that comes from education and textbooks was given priority.
9:3 [46] (1. Such 2. They 3. So) were the uses of machinery and chemicals in work and production.
9:4 Until recently these had been seen as the sole ways of finding solutions to agricultural poverty.
9:5 Now, however, the world has begun talking about sustainable development [47] (1. as though 2. merely 3. in order) to overcome our previous tendency to overconsumption and pollution.
9:5 しかし、今や、世界は過剰消費と公害へと向かう傾向を克服するため、「持続可能な発展」のことを語り始めた。

9:6 And for us to achieve sustainability in the 21st century, we must once again put into practice traditional kinds of knowledge.
[60] According to the 9th paragraph, recent ideas on sustainable development are meant to incorporate
1. the clean­up of environmental pollution and hazardous waste.
2. the modern economic practice of consumption.
3. a respect for traditional or indigenous knowledge.
4. a way to find solutions to agricultural poverty.

・解答  [60]―3
1に関しては第9段第5文(Now, however, the…)に「過剰消費と公害に向かう傾向を克服するため」と述べられているが、具体的にclean-up「浄化」とまでは述べられてはいない。2は、過剰消費をもたらす原因であるから「持続可能な開発」とは相いれないので誤り。3は第9段最終文「私たちはもう一度、伝統的な類の知識を実行に移さなければならない」に一致する。4は、第9段第4文(Until recently these…)に「こうしたこと(=労働と生産に機械や農薬を使うこと)が農業の貧困の解決法を見出す唯一の手段だとみられていた」とあるが、かつての状況として述べられており、最近の「持続可能な開発」に関する記述ではない。よって、正解は3に決まる。




メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。 * が付いている欄は必須項目です