慶應義塾大学SFC 総合政策学部 英語 2009年 大問一 本文対訳

1:1 He has been called “the greatest leader that ever came on Gods earth,” yet he never led a group larger than twenty-seven.
1:1 彼は「神の地球にかつてやって来た最大の指導者」と呼ばれてきたが彼は27人より多い集団を率いたことは一度もなかったのだ。
1:2 He failed to reach nearly every goal he ever set, and until recently, he had been little remembered after his death.
1:2彼は自分がかつて定めた目標のほとんどを達成することはなかったし, 最近まで, その死後ほとんど回想されることもなかった。
1:3 But once you learn the story of Sir Ernest Shackleton and his remarkable Antarctic expedition of 1914-1916, you’ll come to agree with the effusive praise of those[1] ( 1. Around 2. Beyond 3. Under) his command.
1:3 しかし, ひとたびサー=アーネスト=シャクルトンと1914年から1916年にわたるその驚くべき南極探険の物語を知ると, 彼の指揮の下にあった人々の惜しみない賞賛を認めるようになるだろう。
1:4 He is a model of great leadership and, in particular, a master of guidance in crisis.
1:4彼は優れた指揮官の見本であり, とりわけ危機を乗り切る名人であった。
2:1 That’s because Shackleton failed only at the improbable; he succeeded at the unimaginable.
2:1それはシャクルトンがありそうもないことにおいてのみ失敗し, 想像もつかないことにおいて成功したからである。
2:2 “I love the fight and when things are easy, I hate It.” he once wrote to his wife, Emily.
2:2「私は闘いを好み, たやすい事態であるのは, 大嫌いだ」と, 彼は妻のエミリーあてにかつて手紙を書いた。
2:3 He [2] ( 1. fought his way toward 2. managed to reach . lost track of) the South Pole in 1902 when he was part of a three-man Farthest South team on the Discovery expedition of the renowned explorer Robert F. Scott.
2:3 彼は1902年, 有名な冒険家ロバート=F.スコットのディスカバリー号探険の3人の極南隊の一員であったとき, 闘いながら南極点を目指した。
2:4 But the men turned back only after walking their ravaged bodies to within 460 miles of the Pole in a terrifying cold experienced by only a handful of human beings at that time.
2:4 しかし, 男たちは, ぼろぼろの体で歩いて南極点から460マイル以内まで達し、当時ほんの一握りの人々しか体験したことのない恐ろしい寒さに触れたのち、初めて引き返した。
2:5 Six years later, commanding his own expedition, Shackleton was forced to turn back a[3] (1.heartfelt 2. hearty 3. heartbreaking) 97 miles short of the Pole, but only after realizing it would be certain death by starvation had his team continued.
2:5 6年後、自分自身の探険隊を指揮しながら、シャクルトンは極点まで97マイルのところで断腸の思いで引き返さざるをえなかったのだが、続ければ彼のチームは確実に餓死するだろうとわかって、初めてそうしたのだった。
2:6 He was forgiven that [4] (1. accomplishment 2. failure 3. crisis) in light of the greatness of the effort;
2:6 彼が大変な努力をしたことを鑑みれば、その失敗も許された。
2:7 he was knighted by King Edward Wall and honored as a hero throughout the world.
3:1 His greatest failure was his 1914-1916 Endurance expedition.
3:2 He lost his ship before even [5] (1. touching 2. abandoning 3. leaving) Antarctica.
3:3 But he reached a new pinnacle in leadership when he successfully led all the members of his crew to safety after an agonizing two-year fight for their lives.
3:3 しかし、彼が生き延びようとする2年間の苦閣の闘争ののち、すべての乗組員を安全地帯まで導くのに成功したとき、彼の統率力は新たな頂きへと到達したのだった。
4:1 It is a tale so amazing you’ll wonder why the Endurance saga hasn’t become a part of every school age child’s reading.
4:1 あまりに驚くべき話なので、どうしてエンデュアランス号伝説がすべて の学齢期の児童用読書の一部にならなかったのだろうと思うことだろう。
4:2 If Shackleton’s expeditions ultimately were all disappointments to him for [6] (1. coming close to 2. keeping up with 3. falling short of) their goals, he made plenty of grand achievements to his credit along the way.
4:2 たとえシャクルトンの探険が、最終的には目的を達せられなかったのだから、彼にとっては失望であったとしても、途中で彼は自らの手柄となるたくさんの偉業を成し遂げたのだった。
4:3 As a member of the Discovery team, Shackleton was among the first to attempt to reach the South Pole, or even to venture inland from the Antarctic Coast.
4:3 ディスカバリー号探険隊の一員とし て、シャクルトンは南極点を目指すこと、それどころか南極沿岸から内陸へと踏み込むことでさえ、それに挑んだ最初の人々の1人であった。
4:4 He was the first to discover vegetation on a remote Antarctic island.
4:4彼は 最初に辺鄙な南極の島に植物があることを発見した。
4:5 His Nimrod expedition located the Magnetic South Pole, invaluable for navigational charts.
4:6 He was the first to find coal in the Antarctic, altering how scientists saw the makeup and the origins of the continent.
4:7 He pioneered innovations in exploration packing, clothing, diet, transport, and equipment.
* * *
5:1 Sir Ernest set out at age forty on an independent voyage to make what he considered the last great expedition [7] ( 1. accomplished 2. left 3. devoted) on earth: an eighteen-hundredmile crossing of Antarctica on foot.
5:1 サー=アーネストは40歳のとき、彼が地上に残された最後だと考えた大冒険、南極大陸1800マイル徒歩横断をするため、独自の航海に出発した。
5:2 The expedition ship, named the Endurance after the Shackleton family motto Fortitude Vicious, By Endurance We Conquer,” set sail in August 1914 at the dawn of World War I and [8] (1. made up with 2. made its way to 3. made off with) Buenos Aires, to South Georgia Island, and eventually to the Antarctic Circle, where it plowed through one thousand miles of ice-Encrusted waters.
5:2 探険船は、シャクルトン家の銘、Fortitudine Vincimus「忍耐によって我らは克つ」にちなんで「エンデュアランス(忍耐)」と名づけられ、第一次世界大戦が幕を開けた1914年8月に出帆し、ブエノスアイレス、サウスジョージア島、そしてついに南極圏まで進み、そこから1千マイル、氷で堅く覆われた海域をかき分けるように進んだ。
5:3 Just one days sail [9] (1. from 2. beyond 3. near) its destination in Vassal Bay on the Antarctic coast, the ship got stuck like an almond in a chocolate bar” as it was later described, in the polar ice of the Weddell Sea.
5:3 南極沿岸のヴァーゼル湾の目的地まで、ほんの1日分の航海というところで、船は後の記録にある通り、「まるで板チョコの中のアーモンドのように」ウェッデル海の極地の氷の中で立ち往生した。
6:1 The men [10] (1. would have been stranded 2. could be stranded 3. were stranded) on an ice floe more than twelve hundred miles from the farthest outposts of civilization.
6:2 Whenever it seemed the situation couldn’t possibly get worse, it did.
6:2 もうこれ以上悪化しようがないと思われたときには、いつでも事態はさらに悪化するのだった。
6:3 The pack ice precariously dragged the ship north for ten months.
6:3積氷によって船は10カ月間, あてもなく北方に引きずられた。
6:4 Then, the Endurance was crushed and the men were forced to camp on the ice.
6:4 それから、エンデュアランス号は押し潰され、隊員は氷上で野営を余儀なくされた。
6:5 They watched in horror one month later as their vessel sank to the bottom of the sea.
6:5 彼らは1カ月後、自分たちの船が海底に没するのをおののきながら見つめた。
6:6 No one knew anything had happened to them.
6:6 誰も、自分の身に何事かが起こったのがわからなかった。
6:7 All they had to [11] (1. throw away 2. rely on 3. wait for) were three lifeboats salvaged from the ship.
6:8 Shackleton allowed each crew member to carry only a few items necessary for survival.
6:8 シャクルトンは乗組員それぞれに生き延びるのに不可欠なものを、ほんの僅かだけ持っていくのを認めた。
6:9 The first things [12] (1. agreed 2. exchanged 3. tossed): gold coins and a Bible; saved were personal diaries and a banjo.
6:9 最初に捨てられたものは、金貨と聖書。取っておかれたのは、個人の日記とバンジョーだった。
7:1 When the weather was its most brutal, the men endured temperatures that were so low they could hear the water freeze.
7:1 この上もない荒天時には、隊員は水が凍るのが聞こえるほどの低温に耐えた。
7:2 The bitter cold froze their garments [13] (1. sharp 2. fragile 3. solid) and burned their hands and feet.
7:2 厳しい寒さで衣類が凍りついて固まり、手や足は凍傷になった。
7:3 They slept in tents so flimsy they could see the moon through them.
7:3 彼らは月が透けて見えるほど薄いテントで眠った。
7:4 They spent nearly four months in the frigid darkness of the long polar night.
7:4 彼らは長い極地の夜の極寒の暗黒の中で4カ月近くを過ごした。
7:5 When the Antarctic summer finally brought warmer temperatures and the [14] (1.protection 2. promise 3. progress) of some relief, the men awoke every morning in cold puddles of water as their body heat melted the icy floor of their tents.
7:5 ついに南極の夏が気温の上昇をもたらし、少しは息のつける兆しが見えたとき、隊員は毎朝目が覚めてみると、体温でテントの氷床が溶けたため、冷水に浸かっていた。
7:6 They subsisted on a [15] (1. diet 2. feast 3. recipe) of mostly penguin, seal, and sometimes dog.
7:6 彼らは主にペンギン、アザラシ、時にはイヌを食料にして生き延びた。
8:1 Eventually, when the ice began shattering beneath them, the men took to their three small lifeboats.
8:1 とうとう、氷が足下で崩れ始めたとき、隊員は3隻の小型救命ボートに 乗り込んだ。
8:2 After more than four months of mind-numbing boredom, they suddenly were [16] (1. pitched into 2. thrown beyond 3. empowered by) an intense battle for survival that brought them to the limits of human capabilities.
8:2 4カ月以上のえも言われぬほどの退屈を過ごした後、突然彼らは強烈な生存競争へと放り込まれ、それによって彼らは人間の能力の限界というところにまで達することになった。
8:3 They fought the sea for nearly a week before landing.
8:3 彼らは1週間近く海と闘って やっと上陸した。
8:4 They were cold, hungry, exhausted, and so thirsty their tongues swelled in their mouths.
8:4 彼らは凍え、空腹で、疲れ果て、喉が渇いて口の中で舌 が腫れあがった。
8:5 When they finally reached Elephant Island, they found it a stinking, guano covered place ravaged by storms.
8:5 ついに彼らがエレフアント島に着いたとき、彼らが目に したのは、悪臭がする、鳥糞石で覆われた嵐で荒廃した土地であった。
8:6 Most of the crew spent the last months of their ordeal huddled under two overturned lifeboats.
8:6 乗組員のほとんどはその試練の日々の最後の数カ月を2隻の横倒しにした救命ボートの下に身を潜めて過ごしたのだった。
9:1 In the end, Shackleton took five men and sailed eight hundred miles in a lifeboat over stormy seas to reach the inhabited island of South Georgia in the remote South Atlantic.
9:1 ついに、シャクルトンは5人の部下を連れ荒れる海を救命ボートで800マイル航行し、南大西洋のはるか沖合、有人島サウスジョージアに着いた。
9:2 When [17] (1. in 2. by. for) some miracle they made their destination, they found they had to cross a nearly impassable frozen mountain range to reach civilization: a whaling station.
9:3 The whalers, who had seen so much in their own hard lives, were in awe of the invincibility of the men.
9:4 Immediately, Shackleton [18] (1. gave up 2. turned around 3. backed out) and led an effort to rescue the rest of the crew on Elephant Island.
9:5 Amazingly, every single one had survived.
* * *
10:1 According to Napoleon, a leader is a dealer in hope.”
10:2 Shackleton knew how to keep hope in plentiful supply – during the 1907–1909 Nimrod expedition to the Pole when death was nearer to the men than their waiting ship, and during the long hardship of the Endurance expedition.
10:3 When it was preposterous to think they could get out alive, he convinced his men that only a fool would say they wouldn’t.
10:4 “We were in a mess, and the Boss was the man who could get us out.
10:4 「窮地に陥ってはいたが、隊長という男は、俺たちを脱出させてくれる。
10:5 It is a measure of his leadership that this seemed almost axiomatic,” said Reginald W. James, physicist on the Endurance.
11:1 “The Boss,” as his men called him, built success on a foundation of camaraderie. Loyalty responsibility. Determination. And-[19] (1.above all 2. to say the least 3. by chance) optimism.
11:1 「隊長」と彼は部下に呼ばれていたのだが、彼は僚友意識と忠誠心、責任感、決断力、そしてとりわけ楽観の基礎の上に成功を築いたのだった。
12:1 Some sixty years after the rescue, an interviewer asked Endurance First Officer Lionel Green street, “How did you survive when so many expeditions [20] ( 1. competed 2. perished 3. elapsed)?“
12:2 The old officer, then eighty-two, answered in one word : “Shackleton.”




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